Synthesis of a copper-supported triplet nitrene complex pertinent to copper-catalyzed amination.
ABSTRACT: Terminal copper-nitrenoid complexes have inspired interest in their fundamental bonding structures as well as their putative intermediacy in catalytic nitrene-transfer reactions. Here, we report that aryl azides react with a copper(I) dinitrogen complex bearing a sterically encumbered dipyrrin ligand to produce terminal copper nitrene complexes with near-linear, short copper-nitrenoid bonds [1.745(2) to 1.759(2) angstroms]. X-ray absorption spectroscopy and quantum chemistry calculations reveal a predominantly triplet nitrene adduct bound to copper(I), as opposed to copper(II) or copper(III) assignments, indicating the absence of a copper-nitrogen multiple-bond character. Employing electron-deficient aryl azides renders the copper nitrene species competent for alkane amination and alkene aziridination, lending further credence to the intermediacy of this species in proposed nitrene-transfer mechanisms.
Project description:In the field of cobalt(II) porphyrin-catalyzed metallo-radical reactions, organic azides have emerged as successful nitrene transfer reagents. In the pursuit of employing ortho-YH substituted (Y = O, NH) aryl azides in Co(II) porphyrin-catalyzed nitrene transfer reactions, unexpected hydrogen atom transfer (HAT) from the OH or NH? group in the ortho-position to the nitrene moiety of the key radical-intermediate was observed. This leads to formation of reactive ortho-iminoquinonoid (Y = O) and phenylene diimine (Y = NH) species. These intermediates convert to subsequent products in non-catalyzed reactions, as is typical for these free organic compounds. As such, the observed reactions prevent the anticipated cobalt-mediated catalytic radical-type coupling of the nitrene radical intermediates to alkynes or alkenes. Nonetheless, the observed reactions provide valuable insights into the reactivity of transition metal nitrene-radical intermediates, and give access to ortho-iminoquinonoid and phenylene diimine intermediates from ortho-YH substituted aryl azides in a catalytic manner. The latter can be employed as intermediates in one-pot catalytic transformations. From the ortho-hydroxy aryl azide substrates both phenoxizinones and benzoxazines could be synthesized in high yields. From the ortho-amino aryl azide substrates azabenzene compounds were obtained as the main products. Computational studies support these observations, and reveal that HAT from the neighboring OH and NH? moiety to the nitrene radical moiety has a low energy barrier.
Project description:High-valent terminal copper-nitrene species have been postulated as key intermediates in copper-catalyzed aziridination and amination reactions. The high reactivity of these intermediates has prevented their characterization for decades, thereby making the mechanisms ambiguous. Very recently, the Lewis acid adduct of a copper-nitrene intermediate was trapped at -90?°C and shown to be active in various oxidation reactions. Herein, we describe for the first time the synthesis and spectroscopic characterization of a terminal copper(II)-nitrene radical species that is stable at room temperature in the absence of any Lewis acid. The azide derivative of a triazamacrocyclic ligand that had previously been utilized in the stabilization of aryl-CuIII intermediates was employed as an ancillary ligand in the study. The terminal copper(II)-nitrene radical species is able to transfer a nitrene moiety to phosphines and abstract a hydrogen atom from weak C-H bonds, leading to the formation of oxidized products in modest yields.
Project description:Formal [5 + 1] cycloadditions between aryl-substituted vinylcyclopropanes and nitrenoid precursors are reported. The method, which employs Rh2(esp)2 as a catalyst, leads to the highly regioselective formation of substituted tetrahydropyridines. Preliminary mechanistic studies support a stepwise, polar mechanism enabled by the previously observed Lewis acidity of Rh-nitrenoids. Overall, this work expands the application of nitrene-transfer cycloaddition, a relatively underexplored approach to heterocycle synthesis, to the formation of six-membered rings.
Project description:The behavior of the Lewis-acid adducts of two copper-nitrene [Cu(NR)](+) complexes in nitrene-transfer and H-atom abstraction reactions have been demonstrated to depend on the nature of the nitrene substituents. Two-state reactivity, in which a singlet ground state and a nearby triplet excited-state both contribute, provides a useful model for interpreting reactivity trends of the two compounds.
Project description:Dicopper complexes templated by dinucleating, pacman dipyrrin ligand scaffolds (Mesdmx, tBudmx: dimethylxanthine-bridged, cofacial bis-dipyrrin) were synthesized by deprotonation/metalation with mesitylcopper (CuMes; Mes: mesityl) or by transmetalation with cuprous precursors from the corresponding deprotonated ligand. Neutral imide complexes (Rdmx)Cu2(?2-NAr) (R: Mes, tBu; Ar: 4-MeOC6H4, 3,5-(F3C)2C6H3) were synthesized by treatment of the corresponding dicuprous complexes with aryl azides. While one-electron reduction of (Mesdmx)Cu2(?2-N(C6H4OMe)) with potassium graphite initiates an intramolecular, benzylic C-H amination at room temperature, chemical reduction of (tBudmx)Cu2(?2-NAr) leads to isolable [(tBudmx)Cu2(?2-NAr)]- product salts. The electronic structures of the thermally robust [(tBudmx)Cu2(?2-NAr)]0/- complexes were assessed by variable-temperature electron paramagnetic resonance spectroscopy, X-ray absorption spectroscopy (Cu L2,3/K-edge, N K-edge), optical spectroscopy, and DFT/CASSCF calculations. These data indicate that the formally Class IIIA mixed valence complexes of the type [(Rdmx)Cu2(?2-NAr)]- feature significant NAr-localized spin following reduction from electronic population of the [Cu2(?2-NAr)] ?* manifold, contrasting previous methods for engendering iminyl character through chemical oxidation. The reactivity of the isolable imido and iminyl complexes are examined for prototypical radical-promoted reactivity (e.g., nitrene transfer and H-atom abstraction), where the divergent reactivity is rationalized by the relative degree of N-radical character afforded from different aryl substituents.
Project description:To fully characterize the Co(III)-'nitrene radical' species that are proposed as intermediates in nitrene transfer reactions mediated by cobalt(II) porphyrins, different combinations of cobalt(II) complexes of porphyrins and nitrene transfer reagents were combined, and the generated species were studied using EPR, UV-vis, IR, VCD, UHR-ESI-MS, and XANES/XAFS measurements. Reactions of cobalt(II) porphyrins 1(P1) (P1 = meso-tetraphenylporphyrin (TPP)) and 1(P2) (P2 = 3,5-Di(t)Bu-ChenPhyrin) with organic azides 2(Ns) (NsN3), 2(Ts) (TsN3), and 2(Troc) (TrocN3) led to the formation of mono-nitrene species 3(P1)(Ns), 3(P2)(Ts), and 3(P2)(Troc), respectively, which are best described as [Co(III)(por)(NR?(•-))] nitrene radicals (imidyl radicals) resulting from single electron transfer from the cobalt(II) porphyrin to the 'nitrene' moiety (Ns: R? = -SO2-p-C6H5NO2; Ts: R? = -SO2C6H6; Troc: R? = -C(O)OCH2CCl3). Remarkably, the reaction of 1(P1) with N-nosyl iminoiodane (PhI?NNs) 4(Ns) led to the formation of a bis-nitrene species 5(P1)(Ns). This species is best described as a triple-radical complex [(por(•-))Co(III)(NR?(•-))2] containing three ligand-centered unpaired electrons: two nitrene radicals (NR?(•-)) and one oxidized porphyrin radical (por(•-)). Thus, the formation of the second nitrene radical involves another intramolecular one-electron transfer to the "nitrene" moiety, but now from the porphyrin ring instead of the metal center. Interestingly, this bis-nitrene species is observed only on reacting 4(Ns) with 1(P1). Reaction of the more bulky 1(P2) with 4(Ns) results again in formation of mainly mono-nitrene species 3(P2)(Ns) according to EPR and ESI-MS spectroscopic studies. The mono- and bis-nitrene species were initially expected to be five- and six-coordinate species, respectively, but XANES data revealed that both mono- and bis-nitrene species are six-coordinate O(h) species. The nature of the sixth ligand bound to cobalt(III) in the mono-nitrene case remains elusive, but some plausible candidates are NH3, NH2(-), NsNH(-), and OH(-); NsNH(-) being the most plausible. Conversion of mono-nitrene species 3(P1)(Ns) into bis-nitrene species 5(P1)(Ns) upon reaction with 4(Ns) was demonstrated. Solutions containing 3(P1)(Ns) and 5(P1)(Ns) proved to be still active in catalytic aziridination of styrene, consistent with their proposed key involvement in nitrene transfer reactions mediated by cobalt(II) porphyrins.
Project description:Catalytic oxidative nitrene transfer from azides with the early transition metals is rare, and has not been observed without the support of redox noninnocent spectator ligands. Here, we report the formal [2+2+1] coupling of azides and alkynes via TiII/TiIV redox catalysis from simple Ti halide imido precatalysts. These reactions yield polysubstituted N-alkyl pyrroles, including N-benzyl protected pyrroles and rare examples of very electron rich pentaalkyl pyrroles. Mechanistic analysis reveals that [2+2+1] reactions with bulky azides have different mechanistic features from previously-reported reactions using azobenzene as a nitrene source.
Project description:Simple Ti imido halide complexes such as [Br<sub>2</sub>Ti(N <sup><i>t</i></sup> Bu)py<sub>2</sub>]<sub>2</sub> are competent catalysts for the synthesis of unsymmetrical carbodiimides via Ti-catalyzed nitrene transfer from diazenes or azides to isocyanides. Both alkyl and aryl isocyanides are compatible with the reaction conditions, although product inhibition with sterically unencumbered substrates sometimes limits the yield when diazenes are employed as the oxidant. The reaction mechanism has been investigated both experimentally and computationally, wherein a key feature is that the product release is triggered by electron transfer from an <i>η</i> <sup>2</sup>-carbodiimide to a Ti-bound azobenzene. This ligand-to-ligand redox buffering obviates the need for high-energy formally Ti<sup>II</sup> intermediates and provides further evidence that substrate and product "redox noninnocence" can promote unusual Ti redox catalytic transformations.
Project description:Although azides have been widely used in nitrene transfer reactions, in situ generation of N-H imines from azides for downstream transformations has rarely been explored. We report copper-mediated formation of N-unsubstituted aliphatic imines from easily available aliphatic azides using a customized phenanthroline-based ligand (L1*). Through trapping in situ-generated N-H imines, multisubstituted pyridines or indoles were readily synthesized. 13C-labeled azide was used as part of an isotope labeling study, which suggests that the construction of pyridine derivatives involves a three-component dehydrogenative condensation. The construction of 2,3,5-triaryl pyridines using this method provided evidence supporting a proposed pathway involving both imine formation and abnormal Chichibabin pyridine synthesis. The generation of N-unsubstituted imine intermediates was also confirmed by formation of indole derivatives from alkyl azides.
Project description:Rhodium(II) dicarboxylate complexes were discovered to catalyze the intramolecular amination of unactivated primary, secondary, or tertiary aliphatic C-H bonds using aryl azides as the N-atom precursor. While a strong electron-withdrawing group on the nitrogen atom is typically required to achieve this reaction, we found that both electron-rich and electron-poor aryl azides are efficient sources for the metal nitrene reactive intermediate.