The combined effects of light intensity, temperature, and water potential on wall deposition in regulating hypocotyl elongation of Brassica rapa.
ABSTRACT: Hypocotyl elongation is a critical sign of seed germination and seedling growth, and it is regulated by multi-environmental factors. Light, temperature, and water potential are the major environmental stimuli, and their regulatory mechanism on hypocotyl growth has been extensively studied at molecular level. However, the converged point in signaling process of light, temperature, and water potential on modulating hypocotyl elongation is still unclear. In the present study, we found cell wall was the co-target of the three environmental factors in regulating hypocotyl elongation by analyzing the extension kinetics of hypocotyl and the changes in hypocotyl cell wall of Brassica rapa under the combined effects of light intensity, temperature, and water potential. The three environmental factors regulated hypocotyl cell elongation both in isolation and in combination. Cell walls thickened, maintained, or thinned depending on growth conditions and developmental stages during hypocotyl elongation. Further analysis revealed that the imbalance in wall deposition and hypocotyl elongation led to dynamic changes in wall thickness. Low light repressed wall deposition by influencing the accumulation of cellulose, hemicellulose, and pectin; high temperature and high water potential had significant effects on pectin accumulation overall. It was concluded that wall deposition was tightly controlled during hypocotyl elongation, and low light, high temperature, and high water potential promoted hypocotyl elongation by repressing wall deposition, especially the deposition of pectin.
Project description:Hypocotyl elongation is an early event in plant growth and development and is sensitive to fluctuations in light, temperature, water potential and nutrients. Most research on hypocotyl elongation has focused on the regulatory mechanism of a single environment factor. However, information about combined effects of multi-environment factors remains unavailable, and overlapping sites of the environmental factors signaling pathways in the regulation of hypocotyl elongation remain unclear. To identify how cross-talks among light intensity, temperature and water potential regulate hypocotyl elongation in Brassica rapa L. ssp. chinesis, a comprehensive isobaric tag for relative and absolute quantitation-based proteomic approach was adopted. In total, 7259 proteins were quantified, and 378 differentially expressed proteins (DEPs) were responsive to all three environmental factors. The DEPs were involved in a variety of biochemical processes, including signal transduction, cytoskeletal organization, carbohydrate metabolism, cell wall organization, protein modification and transport. The DEPs did not function in isolation, but acted in a large and complex interaction network to affect hypocotyl elongation. Among the DEPs, phyB was outstanding for its significant fold change in quantity and complex interaction networks with other proteins. In addition, changes of sensitivity to environmental factors in phyB-9 suggested a key role in the regulation of hypocotyl elongation. Overall, the data presented in this study show a profile of proteins interaction network in response to light intensity, temperature and water potential and provides molecular basis of hypocotyl elongation in B. rapa.
Project description:Fast directional growth is a necessity for the young seedling; after germination, it needs to quickly penetrate the soil to begin its autotrophic life. In most dicot plants, this rapid escape is due to the anisotropic elongation of the hypocotyl, the columnar organ between the root and the shoot meristems. Anisotropic growth is common in plant organs and is canonically attributed to cell wall anisotropy produced by oriented cellulose fibers. Recently, a mechanism based on asymmetric pectin-based cell wall elasticity has been proposed. Here we present a harmonizing model for anisotropic growth control in the dark-grown Arabidopsis thaliana hypocotyl: basic anisotropic information is provided by cellulose orientation) and additive anisotropic information is provided by pectin-based elastic asymmetry in the epidermis. We quantitatively show that hypocotyl elongation is anisotropic starting at germination. We present experimental evidence for pectin biochemical differences and wall mechanics providing important growth regulation in the hypocotyl. Lastly, our in silico modelling experiments indicate an additive collaboration between pectin biochemistry and cellulose orientation in promoting anisotropic growth.
Project description:Cell elongation is mainly limited by the extensibility of the cell wall. Dicotyledonous primary (growing) cell walls contain cellulose, xyloglucan, pectin and proteins, but little is known about how each polymer class contributes to the cell wall mechanical properties that control extensibility.We present evidence that the degree of pectin methyl-esterification (DE%) limits cell growth, and that a minimum level of about 60% DE is required for normal cell elongation in Arabidopsis hypocotyls. When the average DE% falls below this level, as in two gibberellic acid (GA) mutants ga1-3 and gai, and plants expressing pectin methyl-esterase (PME1) from Aspergillus aculeatus, then hypocotyl elongation is reduced.Low average levels of pectin DE% are associated with reduced cell elongation, implicating PMEs, the enzymes that regulate DE%, in the cell elongation process and in responses to GA. At high average DE% other components of the cell wall limit GA-induced growth.
Project description:Hypocotyls are a commonly used model to study primary growth in plants, since post-germinative hypocotyls increase in size by cell elongation rather than cell division. Flax hypocotyls produce phloem fibres in bundles one to two cell layers thick, parallel to the protoxylem poles of the stele. Cell wall deposition within these cells occurs rapidly at a well-defined stage of development. The aim was to identify transcripts associated with distinct stages of hypocotyl and phloem fibre development.Stages of flax hypocotyl development were defined by analysing hypocotyl length in relation to fibre secondary wall deposition. Selected stages of development were used in microarray analyses to identify transcripts involved in the transition from elongation to secondary cell wall deposition in fibres. Expression of specific genes was confirmed by qRT-PCR and by enzymatic assays.Genes enriched in the elongation phase included transcripts related to cell-wall modification or primary-wall deposition. Transcripts specifically enriched at the transition between elongation and secondary wall deposition included beta-galactosidase and arabinogalactan proteins. Later stages of wall development showed an increase in secondary metabolism-related transcripts, chitinases and glycosyl hydrolases including KORRIGAN. Microarray analysis also identified groups of transcription factors enriched at one or more stages of fibre development. Subsequent analysis of a differentially expressed beta-galactosidase confirmed that the post-elongation increase in beta-galactosidase enzyme activity was localized to phloem fibres.Transcripts were identified associated with specific stages of hypocotyl development, in which phloem fibre cells were undergoing thickening of secondary walls. Temporal and spatial regulation of beta-galactosidase activity suggests a role for this enzyme in remodelling of flax bast fibre cell walls during secondary cell wall deposition.
Project description:Hypocotyl cell elongation has been studied as a model to understand how cellular expansion contributes to plant organ growth. Hypocotyl elongation is affected by multiple environmental factors, including light quantity and light quality. Red light inhibits hypocotyl growth via the phytochrome signaling pathways. Proteins of the flavin-binding KELCH repeat F-box 1 / LOV KELCH protein 2 / ZEITLUPE family are positive regulators of hypocotyl elongation under red light in Arabidopsis. These proteins were suggested to reduce phytochrome-mediated inhibition of hypocotyl elongation. Here, we show that ZEITLUPE also functions as a positive regulator in warmth-induced hypocotyl elongation under light in Arabidopsis.
Project description:The plant primary cell wall is comprised of pectin, cellulose and hemicelluloses, whose dynamic interactions play essential roles in plant cell elongation. Through a chemical genetics screening, we identified a small molecule, named cell wall modulator (CWM), which disrupted cell growth and deformed cell shape in etiolated <i>Arabidopsis</i> hypocotyl. A pectin defective mutant <i>qua2</i>, identified from screening an <i>Arabidopsis</i> EMS mutant library, showed a reduced sensitivity to CWM treatment. On the other hand, pectinase treatment suppressed the CWM induced phenotype. Furthermore, cellulose content was decreased in response to CWM treatment, while the cellulose synthesis mutants <i>ixr1</i> and <i>ixr2</i> were hypersensitive to CWM. Together, the study identified a small molecule CWM that induced a modification of the cell wall in elongating cells, likely through interfering with pectin modification. This molecule may be used as a tool to study cell wall remodeling during plant growth.
Project description:The environmental and endogenous signals, light, temperature, brassinosteroid (BR), and gibberellin (GA), regulate cell elongation largely by controlling the expression of the PRE family helix-Loop-helix (HLH) factors, which promote cell elongation by interacting antagonistically with another HLH factor, IBH1. But the molecular mechanism by which PREs and IBH1 regulate gene expression has remained unknown. Here we show that IBH1 interacts with and inhibits a DNA-binding bHLH protein HBI1. Overexpression of HBI1 increased hypocotyl and petiole elongation, whereas dominant inactivation of HBI1 and its homologs caused a dwarf phenotype, indicating that HBI1 is a positive regulator of cell elongation. In vitro and in vivo experiments showed that HBI1 directly bound to the promoters and activated two EXPANSIN genes encoding cell wall-loosening enzymes; HBI1's DNA-binding and transcriptional activities were inhibited by IBH1, but the inhibitory effects of IBH1 were abolished by PRE1. The results indicate that PREs activate the DNA-binding bHLH factor HBI1 by sequestering its inhibitor IBH1. Altering each of the three factors affected plant sensitivities to BR, GA, temperature, and light. Our study demonstrates that PREs, IBH1 and HBI1 form a chain of antagonistic switches that controls cell elongation downstream of multiple external and endogenous signals. Compare the transcriptome of IBH1 and PRE1
Project description:In plants, cell adhesion relies on balancing the integrity of the pectin-rich middle lamella with wall loosening during tissue expansion. Mutation of <i>QUASIMODO2</i> (<i>QUA2</i>), a pectin methyltransferase, causes defective hypocotyl elongation and cell adhesion in <i>Arabidopsis thaliana</i> hypocotyls<i>.</i> However, the molecular function of QUA2 in cell adhesion is obscured by complex genetic and environmental interactions. To dissect the role of QUA2 in cell adhesion, we investigated a <i>qua2</i> loss-of-function mutant and a suppressor mutant with restored cell adhesion, <i>qua2 esmeralda1</i>, using a combination of imaging and biochemical techniques. We found that <i>qua2</i> hypocotyls have reductions in middle lamellae integrity, pectin methyl-esterase (PME) activity, pectin content and molecular mass, and immunodetected Ca<sup>2+</sup>-crosslinking at cell corners, but increased methyl-esterification and polygalacturonase (PG) activity, with <i>qua2 esmd1</i> having wild type-like or intermediate phenotypes. Our findings suggest that excessive pectin degradation prevents pectin accumulation and the formation of a sufficiently Ca<sup>2+</sup>-crosslinked network to maintain cell adhesion in <i>qua2</i> mutants. We propose that PME and PG activities balance tissue-level expansion and cell separation. Together, these data provide insight into the cause of cell adhesion defects in <i>qua2</i> mutants and highlight the importance of harmonizing pectin modification and degradation during plant growth and development.
Project description:In Arabidopsis, the seedling hypocotyl has emerged as an exemplar model system to study light and temperature control of cell expansion. Light sensitivity of this organ is epitomized in the fluence rate response where suppression of hypocotyl elongation increases incrementally with light intensity. This finely calibrated response is controlled by the photoreceptor, phytochrome B, through the deactivation and proteolytic destruction of phytochrome-interacting factors (PIFs). Here we show that this classical light response is strictly temperature dependent: a shift in temperature induces a dramatic reversal of response from inhibition to promotion of hypocotyl elongation by light. Applying an integrated experimental and mathematical modelling approach, we show how light and temperature coaction in the circuitry drives a molecular switch in PIF activity and control of cell expansion. This work provides a paradigm to understand the importance of signal convergence in evoking different or non-intuitive alterations in molecular signalling.
Project description:Plant cell walls are dynamic structures involved in all aspects of plant growth, environmental interactions and defense responses, and are the most abundant renewable source of carbon-containing polymers on the planet. To balance rigidity and extensibility, the composition and integrity of cell wall components need to be tightly regulated, for example during cell elongation.We show that mutations in the MED25/PFT1 and MED8 subunits of the Mediator transcription complex suppressed the sugar-hypersensitive hypocotyl elongation phenotype of the hsr8-1 mutant, which has cell wall defects due to arabinose deficiency that do not permit normal cell elongation. This suppression occurred independently of light and jasmonic acid (JA) signaling. Gene expression analyses revealed that the expression of genes induced in hsr8-1 that encode enzymes and proteins that are involved in cell expansion and cell wall strengthening is reduced in the pft1-2 mutant line, and the expression of genes encoding transcription factors involved in reducing hypocotyl cell elongation, genes encoding cell wall associated enzymes and proteins is up-regulated in pft1-2. PFT1 was also required for the expression of several glucose-induced genes, including those encoding cell wall components and enzymes, regulatory and enzymatic components of anthocyanin biosynthesis, and flavonoid and glucosinolate biosynthetic pathways.These results establish that MED25 and MED8 subunits of the Mediator transcriptional complex are required for the transcriptional regulation of genes involved in cell elongation and cell wall composition in response to defective cell walls and in sugar- responsive gene expression.