Modulation of KDM1A with vafidemstat rescues memory deficit and behavioral alterations.
ABSTRACT: Transcription disequilibria are characteristic of many neurodegenerative diseases. The activity-evoked transcription of immediate early genes (IEGs), important for neuronal plasticity, memory and behavior, is altered in CNS diseases and governed by epigenetic modulation. KDM1A, a histone 3 lysine 4 demethylase that forms part of transcription regulation complexes, has been implicated in the control of IEG transcription. Here we report the development of vafidemstat (ORY-2001), a brain penetrant inhibitor of KDM1A and MAOB. ORY-2001 efficiently inhibits brain KDM1A at doses suitable for long term treatment, and corrects memory deficit as assessed in the novel object recognition testing in the Senescence Accelerated Mouse Prone 8 (SAMP8) model for accelerated aging and Alzheimer's disease. Comparison with a selective KDM1A or MAOB inhibitor reveals that KDM1A inhibition is key for efficacy. ORY-2001 further corrects behavior alterations including aggression and social interaction deficits in SAMP8 mice and social avoidance in the rat rearing isolation model. ORY-2001 increases the responsiveness of IEGs, induces genes required for cognitive function and reduces a neuroinflammatory signature in SAMP8 mice. Multiple genes modulated by ORY-2001 are differentially expressed in Late Onset Alzheimer's Disease. Most strikingly, the amplifier of inflammation S100A9 is highly expressed in LOAD and in the hippocampus of SAMP8 mice, and down-regulated by ORY-2001. ORY-2001 is currently in multiple Phase IIa studies.
Project description:Histone demethylase LSD1 plays key roles during carcinogenesis, targeting LSD1 is becoming an emerging option for the treatment of cancers. Numerous LSD1 inhibitors have been reported to date, some of them such as TCP, ORY-1001, GSK-2879552, IMG-7289, INCB059872, CC-90011, and ORY-2001 currently undergo clinical assessment for cancer therapy, particularly for small lung cancer cells (SCLC) and acute myeloid leukemia (AML). This review is to provide a comprehensive overview of LSD1 inhibitors in clinical trials including molecular mechanistic studies, clinical efficacy, adverse drug reactions, and PD/PK studies and offer prospects in this field.
Project description:ORY-1001, an inhibitor of covalent lysine (K)-specific demethylase 1A (KDM1A), has been used as a therapy for the treatment of acute leukemia. However, the underlying mechanisms of anticancer are still not fully elucidated. Here, we report that KDM1A is highly expressed in lung cancers, where it appears to drive aggressive growth. Furthermore, lung cancer patients with higher KDM1A levels have worse survival outcomes than patients with lower KDM1A levels. Interestingly, ORY-1001significantly inhibited the cell proliferation, colony formation, cell cycle, and induced apoptosis, by regulating the Warburg effect through controlling Hexokinases 2 (HK2) expression. In summary, these results indicate that ORY-1001 could inhibit the growth of lung cancer cells via regulating the Warburg effect by controlling HK2.
Project description:Screening of cellular activity for inhibitors of histone lysine modifiers is most frequently performed indirectly by analyzing changes in the total levels of histone marks targeted by lysine methylases/demethylases. However, inhibition of histone lysine modifiers often leads to local rather than total changes in histone marks. Also, because histone modifications can be modulated by more than one cellular enzyme, it is not always clear whether changes in histone marks are a direct or indirect consequence of the inhibitor treatment applied. Direct assessment of target occupation can provide a useful tool to quantify the fraction of an epigenetic modifier that is bound to a pharmacological inhibitor (target engagement). Here, we developed and used a novel chemoprobe-based immunoassay to quantify target engagement in cells. Quantification of the fraction of free KDM1A was made possible, in an immune-based assay, by coupling a biotinylated chemoprobe to a warhead capable of selectively and irreversibly binding to the free active form of KDM1A. The results obtained confirmed that this approach is able to determine the degree of target engagement in a dose-dependent manner. Furthermore, the assay can be also used on tissue extracts to analyze the in vivo pharmacokinetics and pharmacodynamics relationship of KDM1A inhibitors, as has been exemplified with ORY-1001 (iadademstat), a potent and irreversible inhibitor of KDM1A. The principle of this assay may be applied to other targets, and the KDM1A probe may be employed in chemoproteomic analyses.
Project description:KDM1A-mediated H3K4 demethylation is a well-established mechanism underlying transcriptional gene repression, but its role in gene activation is less clear. Here, we report a critical function and mechanism of action of KDM1A in glucocorticoid receptor (GR)-mediated gene transcription. Biochemical purification of the nuclear GR complex revealed KDM1A as an integral component. In cell-free assays, GR modulates KDM1A-catalyzed H3K4 progressive demethylation by limiting the loss of H3K4me1. Similarly, in cells, KDM1A binds to most GR binding sites in the genome, where it removes preprogrammed H3K4me2 but leaves H3K4me1 untouched. Blocking KDM1A catalytic activity prevents H3K4me2 removal, severely impairs GR binding to chromatin, and dysregulates GR-targeted genes. Taken together, these data suggest KDM1A-mediated H3K4me2 demethylation at GRBSs promotes GR binding and plays an important role in glucocorticoid-induced gene transcription, broadening the mechanisms that contribute to nuclear receptor-mediated gene activation.
Project description:Emerging evidence has shown that GSK3? plays oncogenic roles in multiple tumour types; however, the underlying mechanisms remain largely unknown. Here, we show that nuclear GSK3? is responsible for the accumulation of the histone demethylase KDM1A and critically regulates histone H3K4 methylation during tumorigenesis. GSK3? phosphorylates KDM1A Ser683 upon priming phosphorylation of KDM1A Ser687 by CK1?. Phosphorylation of KDM1A induces its binding with and deubiquitylation by USP22, leading to KDM1A stabilization. GSK3?- and USP22-dependent KDM1A stabilization is required for the demethylation of histone H3K4, thereby repressing BMP2, CDKN1A and GATA6 transcription, which results in cancer stem cell self-renewal and glioblastoma tumorigenesis. In human glioblastoma specimens, KDM1A levels are correlated with nuclear GSK3? and USP22 levels. Furthermore, a GSK3 inhibitor, tideglusib, sensitizes tumour xenografts to chemotherapy in mice via KDM1A downregulation and improves survival. Our findings demonstrate that nuclear GSK3?- and USP22-mediated KDM1A stabilization is essential for glioblastoma tumorigenesis.
Project description:A target with therapeutic potential, lysine-specific demethylase 1A (KDM1A) is a regulator of gene expression whose tower domain is a protein-protein interaction motif. This domain facilitates the interaction of KDM1A with coregulators and multiprotein complexes that direct its activity to nucleosomes. We describe the design and characterization of a chimeric 'towerless' KDM1A, termed n?150 KDM1A?Tower KDM1B chimera (chKDM1A?Tower), which incorporates a region from the paralog lysine-specific demethylase 1B (KDM1B). This chimera copurifies with FAD and displays demethylase activity, but fails to bind the partner protein corepressor of the RE1-silencing transcription factor (CoREST). We conclude that KDM1A catalysis can be decoupled from tower-dependent interactions, lending chKDM1A?Tower useful for dissecting molecular contributions to KDM1A function.
Project description:Epigenetic regulation plays an important role in tumor metastasis. KDM1A is a histone demethylase specific for H3K4me2/me1 demethylation, and has been found to be overexpressed in many cancers, including non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC). However, the role of KDM1A in lung cancer remains unclear. Here, we show that KDM1A promotes cancer metastasis in NSCLC cells by repressing TIMP3 (tissue inhibitor of metalloproteinase 3) expression. Consistently with this, overexpression of TIMP3 inhibited MMP2 expression and JNK phosphorylation, both of which are known to be important for cell invasion and migration. Importantly, knockdown of TIMP3 in KDM1A-deficient cells rescued the metastatic capability of NSCLC cells. These findings were also confirmed by pharmacological inhibition assays. We further demonstrate that KDM1A removes H3K4me2 at the promoter of TIMP3, thus repressing the transcription of TIMP3. Finally, high expression of KDM1A and low expression of TIMP3 significantly correlate with a poor prognosis in NSCLC patients. This study establishes a mechanism by which KDM1A promotes cancer metastasis in NSCLC cells, and we suggest that KDM1A may be a potential therapeutic target for NSCLC treatment.
Project description:Elevated expression of the Zinc finger E-box binding homeobox transcription factor-2 (ZEB2) is correlated with poor prognosis and patient outcome in a variety of human cancer subtypes. Using a conditional gain-of-function mouse model, we recently demonstrated that ZEB2 is an oncogenic driver of immature T-cell acute lymphoblastic leukemia (T-ALL), a heterogenic subgroup of human leukemia characterized by a high incidence of remission failure or hematological relapse after conventional chemotherapy. Here, we identified the lysine-specific demethylase KDM1A as a novel interaction partner of ZEB2 and demonstrated that mouse and human T-ALLs with increased ZEB2 levels critically depend on KDM1A activity for survival. Therefore, targeting the ZEB2 protein complex through direct disruption of the ZEB2-KDM1A interaction or pharmacological inhibition of the KDM1A demethylase activity itself could serve as a novel therapeutic strategy for this aggressive subtype of human leukemia and possibly other ZEB2-driven malignancies.
Project description:Lysine-specific demethylase 1A (KDM1A/LSD1) is a FAD-dependent enzyme that catalyzes the oxidative demethylation of histone H3K4me1/2 and H3K9me1/2 repressing and activating transcription, respectively. Although the active site is expanded compared to that of members of the greater amine oxidase superfamily, it is too sterically restricted to encompass the minimal 21-mer peptide substrate footprint. The remainder of the substrate/product is therefore expected to extend along the surface of KDM1A. We show that full-length histone H3, which lacks any posttranslational modifications, is a tight-binding, competitive inhibitor of KDM1A demethylation activity with a Ki of 18.9 ± 1.2 nM, a value that is approximately 100-fold higher than that of the 21-mer peptide product. The relative H3 affinity is independent of preincubation time, suggesting that H3 rapidly reaches equilibrium with KDM1A. Jump dilution experiments confirmed the increased binding affinity of full-length H3 was at least partially due to a slow off rate (koff) of 1.2 × 10(-3) s(-1), corresponding to a half-life (t1/2) of 9.63 min, and a residence time (?) of 13.9 min. Independent affinity capture surface plasmon resonance experiments confirmed the tight-binding nature of the H3/KDM1A interaction, revealing a Kd of 9.02 ± 2.3 nM, a kon of (9.3 ± 1.5) × 10(4) M(-1) s(-1), and a koff of (8.4 ± 0.3) × 10(-4) s(-1). Additionally, no other core histones exhibited inhibition of KDM1A demethylation activity, which is consistent with H3 being the preferred histone substrate of KDM1A versus H2A, H2B, and H4. Together, these data suggest that KDM1A likely contains a histone H3 secondary specificity element on the enzyme surface that contributes significantly to its recognition of substrates and products.
Project description:Somatic cell nuclear transfer has established that the oocyte contains maternal factors with epigenetic reprogramming capacity. Yet the identity and function of these maternal factors during the gamete to embryo transition remains poorly understood. In C. elegans, LSD1/KDM1A enables this transition by removing H3K4me2 and preventing the transgenerational inheritance of transcription patterns. Here we show that loss of maternal LSD1/KDM1A in mice results in embryonic arrest at the 1-2 cell stage, with arrested embryos failing to undergo the maternal-to-zygotic transition. This suggests that LSD1/KDM1A maternal reprogramming is conserved. Moreover, partial loss of maternal LSD1/KDM1A results in striking phenotypes weeks after fertilization; including perinatal lethality and abnormal behavior in surviving adults. These maternal effect hypomorphic phenotypes are associated with alterations in DNA methylation and expression at imprinted genes. These results establish a novel mammalian paradigm where defects in early epigenetic reprogramming can lead to defects that manifest later in development.