An integrated approach to improve plant protection against olive anthracnose caused by the Colletotrichum acutatum species complex.
ABSTRACT: The olive tree (Olea europaea L.) is the most important oil-producing crop of the Mediterranean basin. However, although plant protection measures are regularly applied, disease outbreaks represent an obstacle towards the further development of the sector. Therefore, there is an urge for the improvement of plant protection strategies based on information acquired by the implementation of advanced methodologies. Recently, heavy fungal infections of olive fruits have been recorded in major olive-producing areas of Greece causing devastating yield losses. Thus, initially, we have undertaken the task to identify their causal agent(s) and assess their pathogenicity and sensitivity to fungicides. The disease was identified as the olive anthracnose, and although Colletotrichum gloeosporioides and Colletotrichum acutatum species complexes are the two major causes, the obtained results confirmed that in Southern Greece the latter is the main causal agent. The obtained isolates were grouped into eight morphotypes based on their phenotypes, which differ in their sensitivities to fungicides and pathogenicity. The triazoles difenoconazole and tebuconazole were more toxic than the strobilurins being tested. Furthermore, a GC/EI/MS metabolomics model was developed for the robust chemotaxonomy of the isolates and the dissection of differences between their endo-metabolomes, which could explain the obtained phenotypes. The corresponding metabolites-biomarkers for the discrimination between morphotypes were discovered, with the most important ones being the amino acids L-tyrosine, L-phenylalanine, and L-proline, the disaccharide ?,?-trehalose, and the phytotoxic pathogenesis-related metabolite hydroxyphenylacetate. These metabolites play important roles in fungal metabolism, pathogenesis, and stress responses. The study adds critical information that could be further exploited to combat olive anthracnose through its monitoring and the design of improved, customized plant protection strategies. Also, results suggest the necessity for the comprehensive mapping of the C. acutatum species complex morphotypes in order to avoid issues such as the development of fungicide-resistant genotypes.
Project description:Anthracnose (Colletotrichum spp.) is an important disease causing major yield losses and poor oil quality in olives. The objectives were to determine the diversity and distribution pattern of Colletotrichum spp. populations prevalent in olives and their relatedness to anthracnose pathogens in other hosts, assess their pathogenic variability and host preference, and develop diagnostic tools. A total of 128 Colletotrichum spp. isolates representing all olive-growing areas in Portugal and a few isolates from other countries were characterized by molecular and phenotypic assays and compared with reference isolates. Arbitrarily primed PCR data, internal transcribed spacer of rRNA gene and beta-tubulin 2 nucleotide sequences, colony characteristics, and benomyl sensitivity showed Colletotrichum acutatum to be dominant (>97%) with limited occurrence of Colletotrichum gloeosporioides (<3%). Among C. acutatum populations, five molecular groups, A2 to A6, were identified. A2 was widely prevalent (89%), coinciding with a high incidence of anthracnose and environmental conditions suitable to disease spread. A4 was dominant in a particular region, while other C. acutatum groups and C. gloeosporioides were sporadic in their occurrence, mostly related to marginal areas of olive cultivation. C. gloeosporioides, isolated from olive fruits with symptoms indistinguishable from those of C. acutatum, showed same virulence rating as the most virulent C. acutatum isolate from group A2. C. acutatum and C. gloeosporioides isolates tested in infected strawberry fruits and strawberry and lupin plants revealed their cross-infection potential. Diagnostic tools were developed from beta-tubulin 2 sequences to enable rapid and reliable pathogen detection and differentiation of C. acutatum groups.
Project description:Anthracnose is a fungal disease caused by Colletotrichum species that is detrimental to numerous plant species. Anthracnose control with fungicides has both human health and environmental safety implications. Despite increasing public concerns, fungicide use will continue in the absence of viable alternatives. There have been relatively less efforts to search antagonistic bacteria from mudflats harboring microbial diversity. A total of 420 bacterial strains were isolated from mudflats near the western sea of South Korea. Five bacterial strains, LB01, LB14, HM03, HM17, and LB15, were characterized as having antifungal properties in the presence of C. acutatum and C. gloeosporioides. The three Bacillus atrophaeus strains, LB14, HM03, and HM17, produced large quantities of chitinase and protease enzymes, whereas the B. amyloliquefaciens strain LB01 produced protease and cellulase enzymes. Two important antagonistic traits, siderophore production and solubilization of insoluble phosphate, were observed in the three B. atrophaeus strains. Analyses of disease suppression revealed that LB14 was most effective for suppressing the incidence of anthracnose symptoms on pepper fruits. LB14 produced antagonistic compounds and suppressed conidial germination of C. acutatum and C. gloeosporioides. The results from the present study will provide a basis for developing a reliable alternative to fungicides for anthracnose control.
Project description:Species of Colletotrichum are considered important plant pathogens, saprobes, and endophytes on a wide range of plant hosts. Several species are well-known on citrus, either as agents of pre- or post-harvest infections, such as anthracnose, postbloom fruit drop, tear stain and stem-end rot on fruit, or as wither-tip of twigs. In this study we explored the occurrence, diversity and pathogenicity of Colletotrichum spp. associated with Citrus and allied genera in European orchards, nurseries and gardens. Surveys were carried out during 2015 and 2016 in Greece, Italy, Malta, Portugal and Spain. A total of 174 Colletotrichum strains were isolated from symptomatic leaves, fruits, petals and twigs. A multi-locus phylogeny was established based on seven genomic loci (ITS, GAPDH, ACT, CAL, CHS-1, HIS3 and TUB2), and the morphological characters of the isolates determined. Preliminary pathogenicity tests were performed on orange fruits with representative isolates. Colletotrichum strains were identified as members of three major species complexes. Colletotrichum gloeosporioides s.str. and two novel species (C. helleniense and C. hystricis) were identified in the C. gloeosporioides species complex. Colletotrichum karstii, C. novae-zelandiae and two novel species (C. catinaense and C. limonicola) in the C. boninense species complex, and C. acutatum s.str. was also isolated as member of C. acutatum species complex. Colletotrichum gloeosporioides and C. karstii were the predominant species of Colletotrichum isolated. This study represents the first report of C. acutatum on citrus in Europe, and the first detection of C. novae-zelandiae from outside New Zealand. Pathogenicity tests revealed C. gloeosporioides s.str. to be the most virulent species on fruits. The present study improves our understanding of species associated with several disease symptoms on citrus fruits and plants, and provides useful information for effective disease management.
Project description:The <i>Colletotrichum</i> spp. is a significant strawberry pathogen causing yield losses of up to 50%. The most common method to control plant diseases is through the use of chemical fungicides. The findings of plants antimicrobial activities, low toxicity, and biodegradability of essential oils (EO), make them suitable for biological protection against fungal pathogens. The aim is to evaluate the inhibition of <i>Colletotrichum acutatum</i> by thyme, sage, and peppermint EO in vitro on detached strawberry leaves and determine EO chemical composition. Our results revealed that the dominant compound of thyme was thymol 41.35%, peppermint: menthone 44.56%, sage: ?,?-thujone 34.45%, and camphor: 20.46%. Thyme EO inhibited <i>C. acutatum</i> completely above 200 ?L L<sup>-1</sup> concentration in vitro. Peppermint and sage EO reduced mycelial growth of <i>C. acutatum</i>. In addition, in vitro, results are promising for biological control. The detached strawberry leaves experiments showed that disease reduction 4 days after inoculation was 15.8% at 1000 ?L L<sup>-1</sup> of peppermint EO and 5.3% at 800 ?L L<sup>-1</sup> of thyme compared with control. Our findings could potentially help to manage <i>C. acutatum</i>; however, the detached strawberry leaves assay showed that EO efficacy was relatively low on tested concentrations and should be increased.
Project description:Strawberry anthracnose, caused by Colletotrichum spp., is a major disease of cultivated strawberry. This study identifies 31 isolates of Colletotrichum spp. which cause strawberry anthracnose in Zhejiang Province and Shanghai City, China. Eleven isolates were identified as C. acutatum, 10 as C. gloeosporioides and 10 as C. fragariae based on morphological characteristics, phylogenetic and sequence analyses. Species-specific polymerase chain reaction (PCR) and enzyme digestion further confirmed the identification of the Colletotrichum spp., demonstrating that these three species are currently the causal agents of strawberry anthracnose in the studied regions. Based on analysis of rDNA internal transcribed spacers (ITS) sequences, sequences of all C. acutatum were identical, and little genetic variability was observed between C. fragariae and C. gloeosporioides. However, the conservative nature of the MvnI specific site from isolates of C. gloeosporioides was confirmed, and this site could be used to differentiate C. gloeosporioides from C. fragariae.
Project description:Fungi tolerate exposure to various abiotic stresses, including cytotoxic compounds and fungicides, via their ATP-driven efflux pumps belonging to ATP-binding cassette (ABC) transporters. To clarify the molecular basis of interaction between the fungus and various abiotic stresses including fungicides, we constructed a cDNA library from germinated conidia of Colletotrichum acutatum, a major anthracnose pathogen of pepper (Capsicum annum L.). Over 1,000 cDNA clones were sequenced, of which single clone exhibited significant nucleotide sequence homology to ABC transporter genes. We isolated three fosmid clones containing the C. acutatum ABC1 (CaABC1) gene in full-length from genomic DNA library screening. The CaABC1 gene consists of 4,059 bp transcript, predicting a 1,353-aa protein. The gene contains the typical ABC signature and Walker A and B motifs. The 5'-flanking region contains a CAAT motif, a TATA box, and a Kozak region. Phylogenetic and structural analysis suggested that the CaABC1 is a typical ABC transporter gene highly conserved in various fungal species, as well as in Chromista, Metazoans, and Viridiplantae. We also found that CaABC1 was up-regulated during conidiation and a minimal medium condition. Moreover, CaABC1 was induced in iprobenfos, kresoxim-methyl, thiophanate-methyl, and hygromycin B. These results demonstrate that CaABC1 is necessary for conidiation, abiotic stress, and various fungicide resistances. These results will provide the basis for further study on the function of ABC transporter genes in C. acutatum.
Project description:The filamentous Ascomycota Colletotrichum gloeosporioides sensu lato is a fungus that has been reported worldwide as a causal agent of anthracnose disease in avocado and other crops. In Mexico, this species affects fruits from an early stage of development in the orchard until the post-harvest stage. Although fungicides are continuously applied to control Colletotrichum species, pericarp cankers and soft rot mesocarp in fruits are still frequently observed. Considering the lack of a precise description of the causative agent, the aim of the current study was to determine the pathogens involved in this symptomatology. Twenty-four isolates were consistently obtained from the pericarp of avocado fruits cv. "Hass" collected in the central avocado-producing area of Mexico. Morphological features such as colony growth, conidia size, and mycelial appressorium were assessed. Bayesian multilocus phylogenetic analyses were performed using amplified sequences of the internal transcribed spacer region of the nuclear ribosomal DNA; actin, chitin synthase, glyceraldehyde-3-phosphate dehydrogenase partial genes; and APn2-Mat1-2 intergenic spacer and mating type Mat1-2 partial gene from the nine selected isolates. In addition, fruits were inoculated with a conidial suspension and reproducible symptoms confirmed the presence of Colletotrichum fructicola in this area. This pathogenic species can now be added to those previously reported in the country, such as C. acutatum, C. boninense, C. godetiae, C. gloeosporioides, and C. karstii. Disease management programs to reduce the incidence of anthracnose should include C. fructicola to determine its response to fungicides that are routinely applied, considering that the appearance of new species is affecting the commercial quality of the fruits and shifting the original population structure.
Project description:In this study, the presence and variability of Colletotrichum spp. was evaluated by comparing fungal isolates obtained from olive trees under long-time phytosanitary treatments with trees without any phytosanitary treatments (treated and untreated, respectively). Olive fruits of trees of the highly susceptible 'Galega vulgar' cultivar growing in the Alentejo region were used as samples. From the 210 olive trees sampled (half from treated and half from untreated orchards), 125 (59.5%) presented Colletotrichum spp., with a significant lower number of infected trees in treated (39) when compared to untreated orchards (86). The alignment and analysis of beta-tubulin (tub2), glyceraldehyde-3-phosphate dehydrogenase (GAPDH), actin (ACT), chitin synthase (CHS-1) and histone H3 (HIS-3) gene sequences allowed the identification of all 125 isolates as belonging to the C. acutatum complex. The vast majority of the isolates (124) were identified as C. nymphaeae and one isolate, from an untreated tree, was identified as C. godetiae. Isolates were divided into five different groups: Group A: 39 isolates from treated trees matched in 100% with C. nymphaeae sequences from the database; Group B: 76 isolates from untreated trees matched in 100% with C. nymphaeae sequences from the database; Group C: one isolate from untreated trees presenting a single nucleotidic difference in the HIS-3 sequence; Group D: eight isolates from untreated trees presenting differences in two nucleotides in the tub2 sequences that changed the protein structure, together with differences in two specific nucleotides of the GAPDH sequences; Group E: one isolate, from untreated olive trees, matched 100% with C. godetiae sequences from the database in all genes. Considering the similarities of the sampled areas, our results show that the long-time application of fungicides may have caused a reduction in the number of olive trees infected with Colletotrichum spp. but an increase in the number of fruits positive to Colletotrichum spp. within each tree, which may suggest different degrees of virulence of Colletotrichum isolates from trees growing different management regimes. It is imperative that the fungicides described as causing resistance are applied at appropriate times and intervals, since their efficiency decreases when applied incorrectly and new and more virulent species may arise.
Project description:A metagenomic approach based on the use of genus specific primers was developed and utilized to characterize Colletotrichum species associated with the olive phyllosphere and carposphere. Selected markers enabled the specific amplification of almost the entire ITS1-5.8S-ITS2 region of the rDNA and its use as barcode gene. The analysis of different olive samples (green and senescent leaves, floral residues, symptomatic and asymptomatic fruits, and litter leaves and mummies) in three different phenological phases (June, October and December) enabled the detection of 12 genotypes associated with 4 phylotypes identified as C. godetiae, C. acutatum s.s., C. gloeosporioides s.s. and C. kahawae. Another three genotypes were not identified at the level of species but were associated with the species complexes of C. acutatum, C. gloeosporioides and C. boninense sensu lato. Colletotrichum godetiae and C. acutatum s.s. were by far the most abundant while C. gloeosporioides s.s. was detected in a limited number of samples whereas ther phylotypes were rarely found. The high incidence of C. acutatum s.s. represents a novelty for Italy and more generally for the Mediterranean basin since it had been previously reported only in Portugal. As regards to the phenological phase, Colletotrichum species were found in a few samples in June and were diffused on all assessed samples in December. According to data new infections on olive tissues mainly occur in the late fall. Furthermore, Colletotrichum species seem to have a saprophytic behavior on floral olive residues. The method developed in the present study proved to be valuable and its future application may contribute to the study of cycle and aetiology of diseases caused by Colletotrichum species in many different pathosystems.
Project description:Anthracnose caused by Colletotrichum is one of the most severe diseases of Hevea brasiliensis. However, research on the diversity and geographical distribution of Colletotrichum remains limited in China. In this study, we investigated the phylogenetic diversity of Colletotrichum isolates associated with symptomatic tissues of H.brasiliensis from four provinces of China (Hainan, Guangdong, Guangxi, and Yunnan). Based on multi-locus phylogenetic analyses and phenotypic characteristics, five species were distinguished, including two known species (C. fructicola, C. siamense), one novel species of C. gloeosporioides species complex (C. ledongense), and two novel species of C. acutatum species complex (C. bannanense and C. australisinense). Of these, C. siamense and C. australisinense have been recognized as major causative agents of anthracnose of H. brasiliensis.