Changes in benzoxazinoid contents and the expression of the associated genes in rye (Secale cereale L.) due to brown rust and the inoculation procedure.
ABSTRACT: Benzoxazinoids (BXs) are secondary metabolites with diverse functions, but are primarily involved in protecting plants, mainly from the family Poaceae, against insects and fungal pathogens. Rye is a cereal crop that is highly resistant to biotic stresses. However, its susceptibility to brown rust caused by Puccinia recondita f. sp. secalis (Prs) is still a major problem affecting its commercial production. Additionally, the genetic and metabolic factors related to this disease remain poorly characterized. In this study, we investigated whether and to what extent the brown rust infection and the inoculation procedure affect the contents of specific BXs (HBOA, GDIBOA, DIBOA, GDIMBOA, DIMBOA, and MBOA) and the expression of genes related to BX (ScBx1-5, ScIgl, and Scglu). We revealed that treatments with water and a urediniospore suspension usually downregulate gene expression levels. Moreover, HBOA and DIBOA contents decreased, whereas the contents of the remaining metabolites increased. Specifically, the MBOA content increased more after the mock treatment than after the Prs treatment, whereas the increase in GDIBOA and GDIMBOA levels was usually due to the Prs infection, especially at two of the most critical time-points, 17 and 24 h post-treatment. Therefore, GDIBOA and GDIMBOA are glucosides that are important components of rye defence responses to brown rust. Furthermore, along with MBOA, they protect rye against the stress associated with the inoculation procedure used in this study.
Project description:Hydroxamates (HX) are major secondary metabolites synthesized by rye and are responsible for some of the unique properties of this cereal, including good tolerance of biotic and abiotic stresses and allelopathy. Recently, five genes encoding enzymes taking part in HX biosynthesis have been sequenced and characterized, which was the starting point to undertake the present study. Association analysis of the content of six HX-HBOA (2-hydroxy-1,4-benzoxazin-3-one), GDIBOA (2,4-dihydroxy-1,4-benzoxazin-3(4H)-one glucoside), DIBOA (2,4-dihydroxy-1,4-benzoxazin-3(4H)-one), GDIMBOA (2,4-dihydroxy-7-methoxy-1,4-benzoxazin-3(4H)-one glucoside), DIMBOA (2,4-dihydroxy-7-methoxy-1,4-benzoxazin-3(4H)-one) and MBOA (6-methoxy-benzoxazolin-2(3H)-one) in the above-ground parts of plants and roots was performed on a population consisting of 102 and 121 diverse inbred lines, in 2013 and 2014, respectively. Altogether, 48 single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) were found to be associated with the content of at least one HX: 20 SNPs were associated with HX synthesized in the above-ground parts of rye plants (AG-SNP), and 28 were associated with HX synthesized in the roots (R-SNP). The highest number of SNPs was present in genes ScBx1 (9) and ScBx5 (11). The majority of SNPs were affected by environmental factors, except for two: ScBx4_1702 associated with GDIBOA and MBOA contents, and ScBx5_1105 associated with HBOA content in roots.
Project description:Plant disease can be effectively suppressed in intercropping systems. Our previous study demonstrated that neighboring maize plants can restrict the spread of soil-borne pathogens of pepper plants by secreting defense compounds into the soil. However, whether maize plant can receive benefits from its neighboring pepper plants in an intercropping system is little attention. We examined the effects of maize roots treated with elicitors from the pepper pathogen Phytophthora capsici and pepper root exudates on the synthesis of 1,4-benzoxazine-3-ones (BXs), the expression of defense-related genes in maize, and their ability to alleviate the severity of southern corn leaf blight (SCLB) caused by Bipolaris maydis. We found that SCLB was significantly reduced after the above treatments. The contents of 1,4-benzoxazine-3-ones (BXs: DIBOA, DIMBOA, and MBOA) and the expression levels of BX synthesis and defense genes in maize roots and shoots were up-regulated. DIMBOA and MBOA effectively inhibited the mycelium growth of Bipolaris maydis at physiological concentrations in maize shoots. Further studies suggested that the defense related pathways or genes in maize roots and shoots were activated by elicitors from the P. capsici or pepper root exudates. In conclusion, maize increased the levels of BXs and defense gene expression both in roots and shoots after being triggered by root exudates and pathogen from neighboring pepper plants, eventually enhancing its resistance.
Project description:The first step of the benzoxazinoid (BX) synthesis pathway is catalyzed by an enzyme with indole-3-glycerol phosphate lyase activity encoded by 3 genes, Bx1, TSA and Igl. A gene highly homologous to maize and wheat Bx1 has been identified in rye. The goal of the study was to analyze the gene and to experimentally verify its role in the rye BX biosynthesis pathway as a rye ortholog of the Bx1 gene. Expression of the gene showed peak values 3 days after imbibition (dai) and at 21 dai it was undetectable. Changes of the BX content in leaves were highly correlated with the expression pattern until 21 dai. In plants older than 21 dai despite the undetectable expression of the analyzed gene there was still low accumulation of BXs. Function of the gene was verified by correlating its native expression and virus-induced silencing with BX accumulation. Barley stripe mosaic virus (BSMV)-based vectors were used to induce transcriptional (TGS) and posttranscriptional (PTGS) silencing of the analyzed gene. Both strategies (PTGS and TGS) significantly reduced the transcript level of the analyzed gene, and this was highly correlated with lowered BX content. Inoculation with virus-based vectors specifically induced expression of the analyzed gene, indicating up-regulation by biotic stressors. This is the first report of using the BSMV-based system for functional analysis of rye gene. The findings prove that the analyzed gene is a rye ortholog of the Bx1 gene. Its expression is developmentally regulated and is strongly induced by biotic stress. Stable accumulation of BXs in plants older than 21 dai associated with undetectable expression of ScBx1 indicates that the function of the ScBx1 in the BX biosynthesis is redundant with another gene. We anticipate that the unknown gene is a putative ortholog of the Igl, which still remains to be identified in rye.
Project description:Benzoxazinoids (BX) are major secondary metabolites of gramineous plants that play an important role in disease resistance and allelopathy. They also have many other unique properties including anti-bacterial and anti-fungal activity, and the ability to reduce alfa-amylase activity. The biosynthesis and modification of BX are controlled by the genes Bx1 ÷ Bx10, GT and glu, and the majority of these Bx genes have been mapped in maize, wheat and rye. However, the genetic basis of BX biosynthesis remains largely uncharacterized apart from some data from maize and wheat. The aim of this study was to isolate, sequence and characterize five genes (ScBx1, ScBx2, ScBx3, ScBx4 and ScBx5) encoding enzymes involved in the synthesis of DIBOA, an important defense compound of rye. Using a modified 3D procedure of BAC library screening, seven BAC clones containing all of the ScBx genes were isolated and sequenced. Bioinformatic analyses of the resulting contigs were used to examine the structure and other features of these genes, including their promoters, introns and 3'UTRs. Comparative analysis showed that the ScBx genes are similar to those of other Poaceae species, especially to the TaBx genes. The polymorphisms present both in the coding sequences and non-coding regions of ScBx in relation to other Bx genes are predicted to have an impact on the expression, structure and properties of the encoded proteins.
Project description:Two genes, Bx1 and Igl, both encoding indole-3-glycerol phosphate lyase (IGL), are believed to control the conversion of indole-3-glycerol phosphate (IGP) to indole. The first of these has generally been supposed to be regulated developmentally, being expressed at early stages of plant development with the indole being used in the benzoxazinoid (BX) biosynthesis pathway. In contrast, it has been proposed that the second one is regulated by stresses and that the associated free indole is secreted as a volatile. However, our previous results contradicted this. In the present study, we show that the ScIgl gene takes over the role of ScBx1 at later developmental stages, between the 42nd and 70th days after germination. In the majority of plants with silenced ScBx1 expression, ScIgl was either expressed at a significantly higher level than ScBx1 or it was the only gene with detectable expression. Therefore, we postulate that the synthesis of indole used in BX biosynthesis in rye is controlled by both ScBx1 and ScIgl, which are both regulated developmentally and by stresses. In silico and in vivo analyses of the promoter sequences further confirmed our hypothesis that the roles and modes of regulation of the ScBx1 and ScIgl genes are similar.
Project description:Mapping population of recombinant inbred lines (RILs) representing 541 × Ot1-3 cross exhibited wide variations of benzoxazinoid (BX) content in leaves and roots, brown rust resistance, ?-amylase activity in the grain, and resistance to preharvest sprouting. QTL mapping of major BX species using a DArT-based map revealed a complex genetic architecture underlying the production of these main secondary metabolites engaged in stress and allelopathy responses. The synthesis of BX in leaves and roots was found to be regulated by different QTL. The QTL for the BX content, rust resistance, ?-amylase activity, and preharvest sprouting partially overlapped; this points to their common genetic regulation by a definite subset of genes. Only one QTL for BX located on chromosome 7R coincided with the loci of the ScBx genes, which were mapped as two clusters on chromosomes 5RS (Bx3-Bx5) and 7R (Bx1-Bx2). The QTL common for several BX species, rust resistance, preharvest sprouting, and ?-amylase activity are interesting objects for further exploration aimed at developing common markers for these important agronomic traits.
Project description:Rye is a crop with relatively high resistance to biotic and abiotic stresses. However, the resistance to brown rust (Puccinia recondita f. sp. secalis) and pre-harvest sprouting are still not satisfactory. High ?-amylase activity is also among the main disadvantages of this species. Therefore, effective tools, e.g. molecular markers, allowing precise and environmentally independent selection of favourable alleles are desirable. In the present study, two kinds of association mapping-genome-wide association mapping (GWAM) based on sequences of DArTSeq markers and candidate gene association mapping (CGAM) based on sequences of ScBx genes-were chosen for development of molecular markers fulfilling these criteria. The analysed population consisted of 149 diverse inbred lines (DILs). Altogether, 67 and 11 single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) identified in, respectively, GWAM and CGAM, were significantly associated with the investigated traits: 2 SNPs with resistance to brown rust, 71 SNPs with resistance to pre-harvest sprouting and 5 SNPs with ?-amylase activity in the grain. Fifteen SNPs were stable across all environments. The highest number (13) of environmentally stable SNPs was associated with pre-harvest sprouting resistance. The test employing the Kompetitive Allele Specific PCR method proved the versatility of four markers identified in both GWAM and CGAM.
Project description:Rye stem rust caused by Puccinia graminis f. sp. secalis can be found in all European rye growing regions. When the summers are warm and dry, the disease can cause severe yield losses over large areas. To date only little research was done in Europe to trigger resistance breeding. To our knowledge, all varieties currently registered in Germany are susceptible. In this study, three biparental populations of inbred lines and one testcross population developed for mapping resistance were investigated. Over 2 years, 68-70 genotypes per population were tested, each in three locations. Combining the phenotypic data with genotyping results of a custom 10k Infinium iSelect single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) array, we identified both quantitatively inherited adult plant resistance and monogenic all-stage resistance. A single resistance gene, tentatively named Pgs1, located at the distal end of chromosome 7R, could be identified in two independently developed populations. With high probability, it is closely linked to a nucleotide-binding leucine-rich repeat (NB-LRR) resistance gene homolog. A marker for a competitive allele-specific polymerase chain reaction (KASP) genotyping assay was designed that could explain 73 and 97% of the genetic variance in each of both populations, respectively. Additional investigation of naturally occurring rye leaf rust (caused by Puccinia recondita ROEBERGE) revealed a gene complex on chromosome 7R. The gene Pgs1 and further identified quantitative trait loci (QTL) have high potential to be used for breeding stem rust resistant rye.
Project description:Secale cereale L. has been used worldwide as a source of genes for agronomic and resistance improvement. In this study, a stable wheat-rye substitution line and 3 primary 1RS.1BL translocation lines were selected from the progeny of the crossing of the Chinese local rye Aigan variety and wheat cultivar Mianyang11. The substitution and translocation lines were identified by molecular cytogenetic analysis. PCR results, fluorescence in situ hybridization and acid polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis indicated that there were a pair of 1R chromosomes in the substitution line which have been named RS1200-3, and a pair of 1RS.1BL translocation chromosomes in the other 3 translocation lines, which have been named RT1163-4, RT1217-1, and RT1249. When inoculated with stripe rust isolates, these 4 lines expressed high resistance to several Puccinia striiformis f. sp Tritici pathotypes that are virulent on Yr9. Moreover, the different response pattern of resistance among them suggested that the diversity of resistance genes for wheat stripe rust exists in the rye. These 4 lines also showed better agronomic performances than their wheat parent. The GS indices also showed the genetic diversity of the 1RS which derived from same rye variety. The present study indicates that rye cultivars may carry untapped variations that could potentially be used for wheat improvement.
Project description:Benzoxazinoid (Bx) metabolites produced by wheat and other members of the Poaceae have activity against Fusarium sp. that cause cereal diseases including Fusarium head blight (FHB) on wheat and barley. Certain Bx metabolites can be detoxified by Fusarium sp. with the arylamine N-acetyltransferase NAT1. Investigation of this pathway may reveal strategies for increasing FHB resistance, such as selection for higher levels of Bx metabolites within existing germplasm and/or engineering fungal susceptibility via host induced silencing of NAT1. We assessed the reactions of fifteen wheat cultivars or breeding lines adapted to the Northwestern United States to infection with F. graminearum ?nat1 mutants that should be sensitive to Bx metabolites. Significant differences were noted in disease severity and deoxynivalenol (DON) among the cultivars 21 d after inoculation with either mutant or wildtype (PH1) strains. Mutant vs. wildtype strains did not result in significant variation for infection severity (as measured by % infected florets), but inoculation with ?nat1 mutants vs. wildtype resulted in significantly lower DON concentrations in mature kernels (p < 0.0001). Of the cultivars tested, HRS3419 was the most resistant cultivar to PH1 (severity = 62%, DON = 45 ppm) and ?nat1 mutants (severity = 61%, DON = 30 ppm). The cultivar most susceptible to infection was Kelse with PH1 (severity = 100%, DON = 292 ppm) and ?nat1 mutants (severity = 100%, DON = 158 ppm). We hypothesized that sub-lethal Bx metabolite levels may suppress DON production in F. graminearum ?nat1 mutants. In vitro assays of Bx metabolites BOA, MBOA, and DIMBOA at 30 ?M did not affect growth, but did reduce DON production by ?nat1 and PH1. Although the levels of Bx metabolites are likely too low in the wheat cultivars we tested to suppress FHB, higher levels of Bx metabolites may contribute towards reductions in DON and FHB.