The effectiveness of quick starting oral contraception containing nomegestrol acetate and 17-? estradiol on ovulation inhibition: A randomized controlled trial.
ABSTRACT: To determine the effectiveness of quick starting combined oral contraception (COC) contain 2.5?mg nomegestrol acetate and 1.5?mg estradiol (NOMAC/E2) comparing with 0.075?mg gestodene and 0.02?mg ethinyl estradiol (GS/EE) on ovarian ovulation inhibition rate, we conducted a non-inferiority randomized controlled trial involving 69 healthy female volunteers aged 18-40 years who had normal menstrual history and were randomized at a 2:1 ratio to take one pack of COC containing either NOMAC/E2 (study group) or GS/EE (control group) starting on menstrual cycle Day7-9. The ovarian activity was assessed by using Hoogland and Skouby grading. Forty-six and 23 participants were randomized to NOMAC/E2 and GS/EE groups, respectively. Baseline characteristics were similar between groups. No significant difference was observed between the study and control groups for ovulation inhibition rate (93.4% vs. 95.6%, risk difference: -2.2%, 95% CI: -13.1, 8.8), ovarian quiescence rate (91.2% vs. 91.2%, P?=?1.000), persistent cyst rate (2.2% vs. 4.4%, P?=?1.000), and ovulation rate (6.6% vs. 4.4%, P?=?1.000). Quick starting COC during day7-9 of menstrual cycle can inhibit ovulation for more than 90%. The quick starting NOMAC/E2 is non-inferior to GS/EE for preventing ovulation and suppressing follicular growth.
Project description:The primary objective was to assess the efficacy, cycle control and tolerability of a monophasic combined oral contraceptive (COC) containing nomegestrol acetate (NOMAC) and 17β-oestradiol (E2). Effects on acne were evaluated as a secondary objective. Results were compared to those of a COC containing drospirenone (DRSP) and ethinylestradiol (EE).Women (aged 18-50 years) were randomised to receive NOMAC/E2 (2.5 mg/1.5 mg) in a 24/4-day regimen (n=1591) or DRSP/EE (3 mg/30 μg) in a 21/7-day regimen (n=535) for 13 cycles.Estimated Pearl Indices for NOMAC/E2 and DRSP/EE were 0.38 and 0.81 in women aged≤35 years and 0.31 and 0.66 for all women (18-50 years), respectively. Scheduled withdrawal bleedings were shorter and lighter among users of NOMAC/E2 and were sometimes absent altogether. Intracyclic bleeding/spotting was infrequent in both groups, and decreased over time. Type and frequency of adverse events were similar to those typically reported for COCs.These data show that NOMAC/E2 provides high contraceptive efficacy with acceptable cycle control as well as an overall adverse event profile similar to that of DRSP/EE.
Project description:Objective. To compare the efficacy of low-dose COC containing desogestrel (DSG) with drospirenone (DRSP) in the changes of premenstrual symptoms. Methods. In an open-label randomized controlled trial, 90 women with premenstrual syndrome who required COC were randomly recruited and allocated equally to receive either 6 cycles of 20 micrograms ethinyl estradiol (EE)/150 micrograms DSG (DSG group) or 20 micrograms EE/3 mg DRSP (DRSP group) in 24/4 extended regimen. Analysis of covariance and repeated analysis of variance were used to determine the difference of mean Women's Health Assessment Questionnaire (WHAQ) scores changes between groups, within group, and in premenstrual, menstrual, and postmenstrual phases. Results. Baseline characteristics and WHAQ scores were comparable. At the ends of the 3rd and the 6th cycles, mean WHAQ scores of all the 3 phases in DRSP group showed significant reduction and were significantly lower than those in DSG group. DSG group showed significant reduction in both premenstrual and menstrual phases after the 6th cycle. Adverse effects were comparable in both groups. In conclusion, low-dose COC containing either DSG or DRSP reduced premenstrual symptoms, but the latter showed greater efficacy and earlier reduction.
Project description:OBJECTIVE:Elevated ovarian hormone levels are associated with increased risk for binge eating (BE) and emotional eating (EE) during the midluteal phase of the menstrual cycle. However, past studies have not examined whether pronounced hormonal changes that precede the midluteal phase (i.e., the dramatic decrease in estradiol and increase in progesterone during/after ovulation) also influence midluteal increases in binge-related symptoms. Past theories and studies of phenotypes strongly related to BE (e.g., depression) suggest that these pronounced hormonal changes may also contribute. This study examined this possibility in 375 female twins (aged 15-25?years) from the Michigan State University Twin Registry. METHODS:Daily ratings of EE (assessed with the Dutch Eating Behavior Questionnaire) and daily saliva samples of estradiol and progesterone were collected for 45 consecutive days. RESULTS:No significant associations were found between pronounced changes in estradiol or progesterone across ovulation and changes in EE scores in the midluteal phase. Results remained unchanged after controlling for body mass index and negative affect and examining participants with clinical BE episodes or more extreme hormonal fluctuations. DISCUSSION:In aggregate, the current findings and past data suggest that hormone levels are more significant predictors of EE than pronounced hormonal changes across the menstrual cycle.
Project description:Ovulation has long been regarded as a process resembling an inflammatory response. Recent studies indicate that genes associated with innate immune responses were also expressed during the ovulation process. Because the innate immune genes are induced in cumulus cell oocyte complexes (COCs) later than the inflammation-associated genes, we hypothesize that COC expansion is dependent on specific sequential changes in cumulus cells. Because IL-6 is a potent mediator of immune responses, we sought to determine what factors regulate the induction of Il6 mRNA in COCs and what impact IL-6 alone would have on COC expansion. We found that the levels of Il6 mRNA increased dramatically during COC expansion, both in vivo and in vitro. Moreover, IL-6, together with its soluble receptor (IL-6SR), could bypass the need for either amphiregulin and/or prostaglandin E2 to induce the expansion of COCs. This ability of IL-6/IL-6SR to induce COC expansion was blocked by the inhibitors to p38MAPK, MAPK kinase 1/2, and Janus kinase. More importantly, when COCs were in vitro maturated in the presence of IL-6, they had a significantly higher embryo transfer rate than the ones without IL-6 and comparable with in vivo matured oocytes. IL-6/IL-6SR activated multiple signaling pathways (Janus kinase/signal transducer and activator of transcription, ERK1/2, p38MAPK, and AKT) and progressively induced genes known to impact COC expansion, genes related to inflammation and immune responses, and some transcription factors. Collectively, these data indicate that IL-6 alone can act as a potent autocrine regulator of ovarian cumulus cell function, COC expansion, and oocyte competence.
Project description:Natural estrogens such as estradiol (E(2)) or its valerate ester (E(2)V) offer an alternative to ethinyl estradiol (EE). E(2)-containing combined oral contraceptives (COCs) have demonstrated sufficient ovulation inhibition and acceptable contraceptive efficacy. However, earlier formulations were generally associated with unacceptable bleeding profiles. Two E(2)V-containing preparations have been approved to date for contraceptive use: E(2)V/cyproterone acetate (CPA) (Femilar(®); only approved in Finland and only in women >40 years or women aged 35-40 years in whom a COC containing EE is not appropriate) and E(2)V/dienogest (DNG; Qlaira(®)/Natazia(®)). The objective of the current review is to provide an overview of the development of COCs containing natural estrogen, highlighting past issues and challenges faced by earlier formulations, as well as the current status and future directions. The majority of information to date pertains to the development of E(2)V/DNG.
Project description:OBJECTIVES:Studies have shown a shortening of the menstrual cycle following light exposure in women with abnormally long menstrual cycles or with winter depression, suggesting that artificial light can influence reproductive hormones and ovulation. The study was designed to investigate this possibility. DESIGN:Placebo-controlled, crossover, counterbalanced order. SETTING:Medical centres and participants' homes in Novosibirsk (55 degrees N), Russia. PARTICIPANTS:Twenty-two women, aged 19-37 years, with baseline menstrual cycle length 28.1-37.8 d and no clinically evident endocrine abnormalities completed the study. The study lasted for two menstrual cycles separated by at least one off-protocol cycle. INTERVENTIONS:During one experimental cycle, bright light was administered at home for 1 wk with a light box emitting white light at 4,300 lux at 41 cm for 45 min shortly after awakening. During the other experimental cycle, dim light was <100 lux at 41 cm with a one-tube fluorescent source. OUTCOME MEASURES:Blood samples and ultrasound scans were obtained in the afternoon before and after the week of light exposure, on day approximately 7 and 14 after menstruation onset. Further ultrasound scans after day 14 documented ovulation. Serum was assayed for thyroid-stimulating hormone (TSH), prolactin (PRL), luteinizing hormone (LH), follicle-stimulating hormone (FSH), and estradiol (E2). RESULTS:Concentrations of PRL, LH, and FSH were significantly increased with bright versus dim light exposure, as was follicle size (ANOVA, intervention x day, p = 0.0043, 0.014, 0.049, and 0.042, respectively). The number of ovulatory cycles increased after exposure to bright compared to dim light (12 versus 6 cycles, Wilcoxon tied p = 0.034). CONCLUSIONS:Morning exposure to bright light in the follicular phase of the menstrual cycle stimulates the secretion of hypophyseal reproductive hormones, promotes ovary follicle growth, and increases ovulation rates in women with slightly lengthened menstrual cycles. This might be a promising method to overcome infertility.
Project description:The bovine cumulus-oocyte complex (COC) is capable of converting cortisone, an inert glucocorticoid to active cortisol. This mechanism is mediated by 11?-hydroxysteroid oxidoreductase type 1 (HSD11B1), whose expression dramatically increases in the mature COC. In this study, we investigate the time course expression of HSD11B1 and the enzyme activity in the bovine COC undergoing maturation and fertilization in relation to key events taking place in the COC. Bovine COCs were subjected to in vitro maturation (IVM) and fertilization (IVF). The activities of HSD11B1 and HSD11B2, which mediates the opposite reaction, were measured using a radiometric conversion assay. In parallel studies, cumulus expansion, P4 production and the expression of genes associated with ovulation were measured. The reductive activity of HSD11B1 increased in the latter half of IVM and remained high during IVF, whereas the oxidative activity of HSD11B2 remained unchanged over both periods. Consequently, the net glucocorticoid metabolism in the bovine COC shifted from inactivation to activation around the time of ovulation and fertilization. The increase in HSD11B1 expression lagged behind that of P4 increase and cumulus expansion but ahead of the expressions of genes responsible for PGE2 synthesis. The reductive activity of HSD11B1 was well correlated with the cumulus expansion rate. This outcome indicates that the ability of the cumulus to activate glucocorticoids is related to its ability to synthesize hyaluronan. These results also indicate that the activation of HSD11B1 is an integral part of the sequential events taking place at the ovulation and fertilization in the bovine COC.
Project description:Transdermal delivery of contraceptives offers several advantages over combined oral contraceptives (COCs), including effective absorption and the provision of relatively constant serum concentrations. Ethinyl estradiol (EE) and the progestin gestodene are well-absorbed through the skin and, therefore, well-suited for use in a transdermal contraceptive patch.The objective of this study was to investigate the impact of a once-weekly transparent, transdermal patch delivering low doses of EE and gestodene equivalent to a COC containing 0.02 mg EE and 0.06 mg gestodene on hemostasis parameters compared with a monophasic COC containing 0.03 mg EE and 0.15 mg levonorgestrel.In this single-center, open-label, randomized, crossover study, 30 women (aged 18-35 years) received three cycles of each treatment, separated by a two-cycle washout period. The primary outcome measure was the absolute change from baseline in prothrombin fragments 1 + 2 and D-dimer.For both treatments, prothrombin fragments 1 + 2 remained stable during the first treatment period, and increased only slightly in the second period (mean absolute change 0.025 and 0.028 nmol/L in the novel Bayer patch and COC groups, respectively). Increases in D-dimer were observed in both periods (mean absolute change 107.0 ± 147.2 ng/L for the novel Bayer patch and 113.7 ± 159.0 ng/L for the COC). There were no statistically significant treatment differences in prothrombin 1 + 2 or D-dimer (p = 0.667 and p = 0.884, respectively) and no statistically significant treatment sequence or period effects.A COC containing 0.03 mg EE and 0.15 mg levonorgestrel and the novel Bayer patch have comparable influence on hemostatic endpoints. Both treatments were well-tolerated by subjects.
Project description:To determine the relative bioavailability of ethinyl estradiol (EE) and gestodene (GSD) after application of a novel transdermal contraceptive patch vs. a standard combined oral contraceptive (COC) pill (study 1), and to evaluate the pharmacokinetics (PK) of EE after application of the EE/GSD patch compared with an EE/norelgestromin (NGMN) patch (study 2).Participants were healthy, nonobese women aged 18 - 45 years (study 1) or 18 - 35 years (study 2). Compositions of study treatments were as follows: 0.55 mg EE/2.1 mg GSD (EE/GSD patch); 0.02 mg EE/0.075 mg GSD (standard COC); 0.6 mg EE/6 mg NGMN (EE/NGMN patch).In study 1, which consisted of 3 treatment periods (each followed by 7 patch- or pill-free days), treatments were administered in one of two randomized orders: either P-M-E (EE/GSD patch (P) every 7 days for 28 days → COC (M) once-daily for 21 days → two 7-day patch-wearing periods followed by one 10-day patch-wearing phase (E)), or the same treatments administered in sequence M-P-E. For study 2, participants received either the EE/GSD patch or EE/NGMN patch for seven treatment cycles (one patch per week for 3 weeks followed by a 7-day patch-free interval).In study 1, average daily exposure to EE was similar for treatments P and M; the mean daily area under the concentration-time curve (AUC) ratio of treatment P vs. treatment M for EE was 1.06 (90% confidence interval (CI): 0.964 - 1.16), indicating average daily delivery similar to oral administration of 0.019 - 0.023 mg EE. For unbound GSD, average daily exposure was lower for treatment P vs. treatment M. The mean AUC ratio of treatment P vs. treatment M for unbound GSD was 0.820 (90% CI: 0.760 - 0.885), indicating average daily delivery from the patch of 0.057 - 0.066 mg GSD. Prolonged patch wearing did not result in a distinct decline in GSD and EE serum concentrations. In study 2, AUC at steady state (AUC0-168,ss), average steady-state serum concentration, and maximum steady-state serum concentration for EE was 2.0 - 2.7-fold higher for the EE/NGMN patch vs. the EE/GSD patch. The EE/GSD patch was well tolerated in both studies.Based on the 90% CI of the AUC ratio of oral treatment vs. patch application for unbound GSD and EE, the daily doses of GSD and EE released from the EE/GSD patch over the 7-day application period provided the same systemic exposure as those recorded after daily oral administration of a COC containing 0.02 mg EE and 0.06 mg GSD. The EE/GSD patch showed reduced EE exposure compared with the EE/NGMN patch. Together with its good tolerability, these properties support the EE/GSD patch as an effective and well-tolerated alternative to available transdermal and oral contraceptives.
Project description:OBJECTIVE:To compare previously used algorithms to identify anovulatory menstrual cycles in women self-reporting regular menses. DESIGN:Prospective cohort study. SETTING:Western New York. PATIENT(S):Two hundred fifty-nine healthy, regularly menstruating women followed for one (n=9) or two (n=250) menstrual cycles (2005-2007). INTERVENTION(S):None. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURE(S):Prevalence of sporadic anovulatory cycles identified using 11 previously defined algorithms that use E2, P, and LH concentrations. RESULT(S):Algorithms based on serum LH, E2, and P levels detected a prevalence of anovulation across the study period of 5.5%-12.8% (concordant classification for 91.7%-97.4% of cycles). The prevalence of anovulatory cycles varied from 3.4% to 18.6% using algorithms based on urinary LH alone or with the primary E2 metabolite, estrone-3-glucuronide, levels. CONCLUSION(S):The prevalence of anovulatory cycles among healthy women varied by algorithm. Mid-cycle LH surge urine-based algorithms used in over-the-counter fertility monitors tended to classify a higher proportion of anovulatory cycles compared with luteal-phase P serum-based algorithms. Our study demonstrates that algorithms based on the LH surge, or in conjunction with estrone-3-glucuronide, potentially estimate a higher percentage of anovulatory episodes. Addition of measurements of postovulatory serum P or urine pregnanediol may aid in detecting ovulation.