Melt rheology and extrudate swell properties of talc filled polyethylene compounds.
ABSTRACT: An experimental study of high-density polyethylene (HDPE) composites filled with talc (0-15 wt.%) was carried out to investigate the rheological properties. The apparent melt viscosity, melt density, and die-swell ratio (B) of the composites were measured at constant shear stress and constant shear rate by using a melt flow indexer and capillary rheometer. The experimental conditions were set to a temperature range from 190 to 220 °C for both apparatuses whereas a load range from 5 to 12.16 kg was selected for melt flow indexer and shear rate range from 1 to 10000 s-1 for capillary rheometer. The initial study showed that the talc particulates did not influence the melt viscosity compared with the neat HDPE but decreased the elasticity of the polymer system. The HDPE/talc systems obeyed power-law model in shear stress-shear rate variations and were shear thinning, meanwhile, the die-swell increased with an increased wall shear rate and shear stress. The melt density of the composites increased linearly with an increase of the filler weight fraction and decreased with the increase of the testing temperature. The talc-HDPE composites showed compressible in the molten state.
Project description:This paper investigates the rheological, mechanical and electrical properties of a Ethylene-Vinyl Acetate (EVA) polymer filled with 1, 3 and 5 wt.% multi-walled carbon nanotubes (MWCNTs). The melt flow and pressure-volume-Temperature (<i>pvT</i>) behaviors of the EVA/MWCNT composites were investigated using a high-pressure capillary rheometer, while the electro-mechanical response was investigated on injection-molded samples. Rheological experiments showed that the melt shear viscosity of the EVA/MWCNT composite is dependent on nanotube loading and, at high shear rates, the viscosity showed temperature-dependent shear thinning behavior with a flow index <i>n</i> < 0.35. The specific volume of the EVA/MWCNT composite decreased with increasing pressure and MWCNT wt.%. The transition temperature, corresponding to the <i>pvT</i> crystallization, increased linearly with increasing pressure, i.e., about 20 to 30 °C when cooling under pressure. The elastic modulus, tensile strength and stress at break increased with increasing MWCNT wt.%, whereas the strain at break decreased, suggesting the formation of MWCNT secondary agglomerates. The electrical conductivity of the EVA/MWCNT composite increased with increasing MWCNT wt.% and melt temperature, reaching ~10<sup>-</sup><sup>2</sup> S/m for the composite containing 5 wt.% MWCNTs. Using the statistical percolation theory, the percolation threshold was estimated at 0.9 wt.% and the critical exponent at 4.95.
Project description:Hybrid basalt fiber (BF) and Talc filled high density polyethylene (HDPE) and co-extruded wood-plastic composites (WPCs) with different BF/Talc/HDPE composition levels in the shell were prepared and their mechanical, morphological and thermal properties were characterized. Incorporating BFs into the HDPE-Talc composite substantially enhanced the thermal expansion property, flexural, tensile and dynamic modulus without causing a significant decrease in the tensile and impact strength of the composites. Strain energy estimation suggested positive and better interfacial interactions of HDPE with BFs than that with talc. The co-extruded structure design improved the mechanical properties of WPC due to the protective shell layer. The composite flexural and impact strength properties increased, and the thermal expansion decreased as BF content increased in the hybrid BF/Talc filled shells. The cone calorimetry data demonstrated that flame resistance of co-extruded WPCs was improved with the use of combined fillers in the shell layer, especially with increased loading of BFs. The combined shell filler system with BFs and Talc could offer a balance between cost and performance for co-extruded WPCs.
Project description:Poly(lactic acid) (PLA) filaments have been the most used in fused deposition modeling (FDM) 3D printing. The filaments, based on PLA, are continuing to be developed to overcome brittleness, low heat resistance, and obtain superior mechanical performance in 3D printing. From our previous study, the binary blend composites from PLA and poly(butylene adipate-co-terephthalate) (PBAT) with nano talc (PLA/PBAT/nano talc) at 70/30/10 showed an improvement in toughness and printability in FDM 3D printing. Nevertheless, interlayer adhesion, anisotropic characteristics, and heat resistance have been promoted for further application in FDM 3D printing. In this study, binary and ternary blend composites from PLA/PBAT and poly(butylene succinate) (PBS) with nano talc were prepared at a ratio of PLA 70 wt. % and blending with PBAT or PBS at 30 wt. % and nano talc at 10 wt. %. The materials were compounded via a twin-screw extruder and applied to the filament using a capillary rheometer. PLA/PBAT/PBS/nano talc blend composites were printed using FDM 3D printing. Thermal analysis, viscosity, interlayer adhesion, mechanical properties, and dimensional accuracy of binary and ternary blend composite 3D prints were investigated. The incorporation of of PBS-enhanced crystallinity of the blend composite 3D prints resulted in an improvement to mechanical properties, heat resistance, and anisotropic characteristics. Flexibility of the blend composites was obtained by presentation of PBAT. It should be noted that the core-shell morphology of the ternary blend influenced the reduction of volume shrinkage, which obtained good surface roughness and dimensional accuracy in the ternary blend composite 3D printing.
Project description:The effect of individual and combined talc and glass fibers (GFs) on mechanical and thermal expansion performance of the filled high density polyethylene (HDPE) composites was studied. Several published models were adapted to fit the measured tensile modulus and strength of various composite systems. It was shown that the use of silane-modified GFs had a much larger effect in improving mechanical properties and in reducing linear coefficient of thermal expansion (LCTE) values of filled composites, compared with the use of un-modified talc particles due to enhanced bonding to the matrix, larger aspect ratio, and fiber alignment for GFs. Mechanical properties and LCTE values of composites with combined talc and GF fillers varied with talc and GF ratio at a given total filler loading level. The use of a larger portion of GFs in the mix can lead to better composite performance, while the use of talc can help lower the composite costs and increase its recyclability. The use of 30 wt % combined filler seems necessary to control LCTE values of filled HDPE in the data value range generally reported for commercial wood plastic composites. Tensile modulus for talc-filled composite can be predicted with rule of mixture, while a PPA-based model can be used to predict the modulus and strength of GF-filled composites.
Project description:The dynamic viscosity (η) of the molten system (NaF-KF)eut-NdF3 containing NdF3 in an amount from 0 to 15 mol.% was studied by rotational viscometry using a high-temperature rheometer, FRS 1600. Viscosity measurements were carried out in the temperature range from liquidus to 1153 K. The measurement procedure was tested on the (LiF-NaF-KF)eut melt. The choice of the parameter shear rate was carried out according to the viscosity and flow curves. Viscosity does not depend on shear rate, and therefore the investigated melts behave like Newtonian fluids, in the range of 9–19 s−1. The experimentally obtained viscosity values for (NaF-KF)eut-NdF3 melts in a wide temperature range are described by an exponential equation. In the coordinates ln(η) = f(1/T), they are straight lines; however, their temperature coefficients are noticeably different, which indicates significant impacts of composition and temperature.
Project description:Generally, to produce film-type thermoplastic composites with good mechanical properties, high-performance reinforcement films are used. In this case, films used as a matrix are difficult to impregnate into tow due to their high melt viscosity and high molecular weight. To solve the problem, in this paper, three polypropylene (PP) films with different melt viscosities were used separately to produce film-type thermoplastic composites. A film with a low melt viscosity was stacked so that tow was impregnated first and a film with a higher melt viscosity was then stacked to produce the composite. Four different composites were produced by regulating the pressure rising time. The thickness, density, fiber volume fraction (Vf), and void content (Vc) were analyzed to identify the physical properties and compare them in terms of film stacking types. The thermal properties were identified by using differential scanning calorimetry (DSC) and dynamical mechanical thermal analysis (DMTA). The tensile property, flexural property, interlaminar shear strength (ILSS), and scanning electron microscopy (SEM) were performed to identify the mechanical properties. For the films with low molecular weight, impregnation could be completed fast but showed low strength. Additionally, the films with high molecular weight completed impregnation slowly but showed high strength. Therefore, appropriate films should be used considering the forming process time and their mechanical properties to produce film-type composites.
Project description:In this work, composites of high density polyethylene (HDPE) with chitosan were prepared by melt compounding in a laboratory internal mixer. Maleic anhydride grafted HDPE (PE-g-MA) in a concentration up to 25 phr was used as a compatibilizer to enhance the dispersing effect of chitosan in the HDPE matrix. The degree of crystallinity was investigated by X-ray diffraction (XRD) and the thermal properties were analyzed by differential scanning calorimetry (DSC) and thermogravimetry (TG). The morphology was investigated by optical microscopy (OM) and scanning electron microscopy (SEM). The integrity of composites was evaluated by mechanical properties and antibacterial properties were assessed against Escherichia coli (DH5a). Neither crystallinity nor HDPE's melting parameters changed upon addition of chitosan and PE-g-MA. Chitosan aggregates were observed, which were dispersed upon addition of PE-g-MA, which also provided improved mechanical performance. Chitosan significantly improved the bacteriostatic effect of HDPE compounds preventing bacteria to colonize thus reducing the number of viable colony-forming units (CFU). This study revealed that HDPE/chitosan composites could be obtained by melt compounding, at lower cost and additionally having antibacterial properties, which might provide a new formulation option for developing antimicrobial film for food packaging.
Project description:OBJECTIVE:The aim of this study was to develop bioactive and osseointegrable polyetheretherketone (PEEK)-based composite filaments melt-blended with novel amorphous magnesium phosphate (AMP) particles for 3D printing of dental and orthopedic implants. MATERIALS AND METHODS:A series of materials and biological analyses of AMP-PEEK were performed. Thermal stability, thermogravimetric and differential scanning calorimetry curves of as-synthesized AMP were measured. Complex viscosity, elastic modulus and viscous modulus were determined using a rotational rheometer. In vitro bioactivity was analyzed using SBF immersion method. SEM, EDS and XRD were used to study the apatite-forming ability of the AMP-PEEK filaments. Mouse pre-osteoblasts (MC3T3-E1) were cultured and analyzed for cell viability, proliferation and gene expression. For in vivo analyses, bare PEEK was used as the control and 15AMP-PEEK was chosen based on its in vitro cell-related results. After 4 or 12 weeks, animals were euthanized, and the femurs were collected for micro-computed tomography (μ-CT) and histology. RESULTS:The collected findings confirmed the homogeneous dispersion of AMP particles within the PEEK matrix with no phase degradation. Rheological studies demonstrated that AMP-PEEK composites are good candidates for 3D printing by exhibiting high zero-shear and low infinite-shear viscosities. In vitro results revealed enhanced bioactivity and superior pre-osteoblast cell function in the case of AMP-PEEK composites as compared to bare PEEK. In vivo analyses further corroborated the enhanced osseointegration capacity for AMP-PEEK implants. SIGNIFICANCE:Collectively, the present investigation demonstrated that AMP-PEEK composite filaments can serve as feedstock for 3D printing of orthopedic and dental implants due to enhanced bioactivity and osseointegration capacity.
Project description:One challenge in biofabrication is to fabricate a matrix that is soft enough to elicit optimal cell behavior while possessing the strength required to withstand the mechanical load that the matrix is subjected to once implanted in the body. Here, melt electrowriting (MEW) is used to direct-write poly(?-caprolactone) fibers "out-of-plane" by design. These out-of-plane fibers are specifically intended to stabilize an existing structure and subsequently improve the shear modulus of hydrogel-fiber composites. The stabilizing fibers (diameter = 13.3 ± 0.3 µm) are sinusoidally direct-written over an existing MEW wall-like structure (330 µm height). The printed constructs are embedded in different hydrogels (5, 10, and 15 wt% polyacrylamide; 65% poly(2-hydroxyethyl methacrylate) (pHEMA)) and a frequency sweep test (0.05-500 rad s-1 , 0.01% strain, n = 5) is performed to measure the complex shear modulus. For the rheological measurements, stabilizing fibers are deposited with a radial-architecture prior to embedding to correspond to the direction of the stabilizing fibers with the loading of the rheometer. Stabilizing fibers increase the complex shear modulus irrespective of the percentage of gel or crosslinking density. The capacity of MEW to produce well-defined out-of-plane fibers and the ability to increase the shear properties of fiber-reinforced hydrogel composites are highlighted.
Project description:Investigations related to polymer/metal composites are often limited to the analysis of the electrical and thermal conductivity of the materials. The presented study aims to analyze the impact of aluminum (Al) filler content (from 1 to 20 wt%) on the rarely investigated properties of composites based on the high-density polyethylene (HDPE) matrix. The crystalline structure, rheological (melt flow index and oscillatory rheometry), thermal (differential scanning calorimetry), as well as static (tensile tests, hardness, rebound resilience) and dynamic (dynamical mechanical analysis) mechanical properties of composites were investigated. The incorporation of 1 and 2 wt% of aluminum filler resulted in small enhancements of mechanical properties, while loadings of 5 and 10 wt% provided materials with a similar performance to neat HDPE. Such results were supported by the lack of disturbances in the rheological behavior of composites. The presented results indicate that a significant content of aluminum filler may be introduced into the HDPE matrix without additional pre-treatment and does not cause the deterioration of composites' performance, which should be considered beneficial when engineering PE/metal composites.