Performance and Transcriptional Response of the Green Peach Aphid Myzus persicae to the Restriction of Dietary Amino Acids.
ABSTRACT: Free amino acids in the phloem sap are the dominant nitrogen source for aphids, but their availability is usually poor. Although some studies have explored the effect of dietary amino acid restriction on aphid performance, little is known about the molecular basis of these effects. Here, we examined the performance and transcriptome of the green peach aphid, Myzus persicae, fed a standard diet (Control diet) or a diet containing 50% of the total amino acids of the Control diet (Half diet). Aphid weight and fecundity were significantly reduced in the Half diet group. Transcriptomic analysis showed that a total of 1460 genes were differentially expressed between the groups were fed on the two diets, which many of them were associated with nutrient and energy metabolism. When feeding on the Half diet, aphids upregulated genes associated with the amino acid biosynthetic pathway (predominantly amino acid biosynthesis genes and some amino acid transporter genes) as well as the cysteine and serine protease genes. Furthermore, these aphids displayed increased expression of genes associated with glycolysis, which could generate intermediates for de novo amino acid biosynthesis. Consistent with this, elevated glucose levels were observed in aphids in the Half diet group. Additionally, the expression levels of several genes associated with hormonal signaling pathway were altered. Several genes related to juvenile hormone and insulin-like peptide (ILP) signaling were downregulated, including Krüppel homolog 1 (Kr-h1) and insulin-like peptide 5 (Ilp5), respectively. In contrast, several genes related to ecdysone signaling were upregulated including broad-complex core protein (Br-c) and shade (Shd). Despite their poor performances, M. persicae adapted to dietary restriction of amino acids, through upregulation of genes involved in amino acid biosynthesis, glycolysis, and protein degradation, as well as by altering the expression level of genes involved in hormone signaling pathways.
Project description:BACKGROUND: Myzus persicae, the green peach aphid, is a polyphagous herbivore that feeds from hundreds of species of mostly dicot crop plants. Like other phloem-feeding aphids, M. persicae rely on the endosymbiotic bacterium, Buchnera aphidicola (Buchnera Mp), for biosynthesis of essential amino acids and other nutrients that are not sufficiently abundant in their phloem sap diet. Tobacco-specialized M. persicae are typically red and somewhat distinct from other lineages of this species. To determine whether the endosymbiotic bacteria of M. persicae could play a role in tobacco adaptation, we sequenced the Buchnera Mp genomes from two tobacco-adapted and two non-tobacco M. persicae lineages. RESULTS: With a genome size of 643.5 kb and 579 predicted genes, Buchnera Mp is the largest Buchnera genome sequenced to date. No differences in gene content were found between the four sequenced Buchnera Mp strains. Compared to Buchnera APS from the well-studied pea aphid, Acyrthosiphon pisum, Buchnera Mp has 21 additional genes. These include genes encoding five enzymes required for biosynthesis of the modified nucleoside queosine, the heme pathway enzyme uroporphyrinogen III synthase, and asparaginase. Asparaginase, which is also encoded by the genome of the aphid host, may allow Buchnera Mp to synthesize essential amino acids from asparagine, a relatively abundant phloem amino acid. CONCLUSIONS: Together our results indicate that the obligate intracellular symbiont Buchnera aphidicola does not contribute to the adaptation of Myzus persicae to feeding on tobacco.
Project description:The green peach aphid, Myzus persicae Sulzer, is a notorious pest on vegetables, which often aggregates in high densities on crop leaves. In this study, we investigated whether M. persicae could suppress the resistance level of Chinese cabbage Brassica pekinensis. M. persicae performed better in terms of weight gain (~33% increase) and population growth (~110% increase) when feeding on previously infested (pre-infested) Chinese cabbage compared with those on non-infested plants. However, when given a choice, 64% of the aphids preferred to settle on non-infested leaves, while 29% of aphids chose pre-infested leaves that had a 2.9 times higher concentration of glucosinolates. Aphid feeding significantly enhanced the amino acid:sugar ratio of phloem sap and the absolute amino acid concentration in plant leaves. Aphid infestation significantly increased the expression levels of salicylic acid (SA) marker genes, while it had marginal effects on the expression of jasmonate marker genes. Exogenously applied SA or methyl jasmonate had no significant effects on M. persicae performance, although these chemicals increased glucosinolates concentration in plant leaves. M. persicae infestation increase amino acid:sugar ratio and activate plant defenses, but aphid performed better on pre-infested plants, suggesting that both nutrition and toxics should be considered in insect-plant interaction.
Project description:Amino acids play a central role in aphid-plant interactions. They are essential components of plant primary metabolism, function as precursors for the synthesis of defense-related specialized metabolites, and are major growth-limiting nutrients for aphids. To quantify changes in the free amino acid content of pepper (Capsicum annuum L.) leaves in response to green peach aphid (Myzus persicae Sulzer) feeding, plants were infested with a low (20 aphids/plant) or a high (200 aphids/plant) aphid density in time-course experiments ranging from 3 hours to 7 days. A parallel experiment was conducted with pepper plants that had been subjected to water stress. Factor Analysis of Mixed Data revealed a significant interaction of time x density in the free amino acid response of aphid-infested leaves. At low aphid density, M. persicae did not trigger a strong response in pepper leaves. Conversely, at high density, a large increase in total free amino acid content was observed and specific amino acids peaked at different times post-infestation. Comparing aphid-infested with water-stressed plants, most of the observed differences were quantitative. In particular, proline and hydroxyproline accumulated dramatically in response to water stress, but not in response to aphid infestation. Some additional differences and commonalities between the two stress treatments are discussed.
Project description:Comparison of Arabidopsis thaliana (Arabidopsis) gene expression induced by Myzus persicae (green peach aphid) feeding, aphid saliva infiltration and abscisic acid (ABA) treatment showed a significant positive correlation. In particular, ABA-regulated genes are over-represented among genes that are induced by M.?persicae saliva infiltration into Arabidopsis leaves. This suggests that the induction of ABA-related gene expression could be an important component of the Arabidopsis-aphid interaction. Consistent with this hypothesis, M.?persicae populations induced ABA production in wild-type plants. Furthermore, aphid populations were smaller on Arabidopsis aba1-1 mutants, which cannot synthesize ABA, and showed a significant preference for wild-type plants compared with the mutant. Total free amino acids, which play an important role in aphid nutrition, were not altered in the aba1-1 mutant line, but the levels of isoleucine (Ile) and tryptophan (Trp) were differentially affected by aphids in wild-type and mutant plants. Recently, indole glucosinolates have been shown to promote aphid resistance in Arabidopsis. In this study, 4-methoxyindol-3-ylmethylglucosinolate was more abundant in the aba1-1 mutant than in wild-type Arabidopsis, suggesting that the induction of ABA signals that decrease the accumulation of defence compounds may be beneficial for aphids.
Project description:Obligate nutritional endosymbioses are arguably the most intimate of all interspecific associations. While many insect nutritional endosymbioses are well studied, a full picture of how two disparate organisms, a bacterial endosymbiont and a eukaryotic host, are integrated is still lacking. The mTOR pathway is known to integrate nutritional conditions with cell growth and survival in eukaryotes. Characterization and localization of amino acid transporters in aphids suggest the mTOR pathway as a point of integration between an aphid host and its amino acid-provisioning endosymbiont Buchnera aphidicola The mTOR pathway is unannotated in aphids and unstudied in any nutritional endosymbiosis. We annotated mTOR pathway genes in two aphid species, Acyrthosiphon pisum and Myzus persicae, using both BLASTp searches and Hidden Markov Models. Using previously collected RNAseq data we constructed new reference transcriptomes for bacteriocyte, gut, and whole insect tissue for three lines of M. persicae Annotation of the mTOR pathway identified homologs of all known invertebrate mTOR genes in both aphid species with some duplications. Differential expression analysis showed that genes specific to the amino acid-sensitive mTOR Complex 1 were more highly expressed in bacteriocytes than genes specific to the amino acid-insensitive mTOR Complex 2. Almost all mTOR genes involved in sensing amino acids showed higher expression in bacteriocytes than in whole insect tissue. When compared to gut, the putative glutamine/arginine sensing transporter ACYPI000333, an ortholog of SLC38A9, showed 6.5 times higher expression in bacteriocytes. Our results suggest that the mTOR pathway may be functionally important in mediating integration of Buchnera into aphid growth and reproduction.
Project description:The green peach aphid, Myzus persicae (Sulzer), is a world-wide insect pest capable of infesting more than 40 plant families, including many crop species. However, despite the significant damage inflicted by M. persicae in agricultural systems through direct feeding damage and by its ability to transmit plant viruses, limited genomic information is available for this species.Sequencing of 16 M. persicae cDNA libraries generated 26,669 expressed sequence tags (ESTs). Aphids for library construction were raised on Arabidopsis thaliana, Nicotiana benthamiana, Brassica oleracea, B. napus, and Physalis floridana (with and without Potato leafroll virus infection). The M. persicae cDNA libraries include ones made from sexual and asexual whole aphids, guts, heads, and salivary glands. In silico comparison of cDNA libraries identified aphid genes with tissue-specific expression patterns, and gene expression that is induced by feeding on Nicotiana benthamiana. Furthermore, 2423 genes that are novel to science and potentially aphid-specific were identified. Comparison of cDNA data from three aphid lineages identified single nucleotide polymorphisms that can be used as genetic markers and, in some cases, may represent functional differences in the protein products. In particular, non-conservative amino acid substitutions in a highly expressed gut protease may be of adaptive significance for M. persicae feeding on different host plants. The Agilent eArray platform was used to design an M. persicae oligonucleotide microarray representing over 10,000 unique genes.New genomic resources have been developed for M. persicae, an agriculturally important insect pest. These include previously unknown sequence data, a collection of expressed genes, molecular markers, and a DNA microarray that can be used to study aphid gene expression. These resources will help elucidate the adaptations that allow M. persicae to develop compatible interactions with its host plants, complementing ongoing work illuminating plant molecular responses to phloem-feeding insects.
Project description:Induction of ethylene biosynthesis by aphids increases the susceptibility of several plant species to aphids. Recent studies have indicated that some MYB transcription factors regulate the phloem-based defense against aphid infestation by modulating ethylene (ET) signaling. Arabidopsis MYB102 has previously been shown to be induced by wound signaling and regulate defense response against chewing insects. However, it remains unclear whether ArabidopsisMYB102 takes part in the defense response of plants to aphids. Here, we investigated the function of MYB102 in the response of Arabidopsis to aphid infestation. ArabidopsisMYB102 was primarily expressed in vascular tissues, and its transcription was remarkably induced by green peach aphids (GPA; Myzus persicae). The results of RNA-Sequencing revealed that overexpression of MYB102 in Arabidopsis promoted ET biosynthesis by upregulation of some 1-aminocyclopropane-1-carboxylate synthase (ACS) genes, which are rate-limiting enzymes of the ET-synthetic pathway. Enhanced ET levels led to reduced Arabidopsis resistance to GPA. Furthermore, dominant suppression of MYB102 inhibited aphid-induced increase of ET levels in Arabidopsis. In agreement with a negative regulatory role for ET in aphid defense responses, the MYB102-overexpressing lines were more susceptible to GPA than wild-type (WT) plants. Overexpression of MYB102 in Arabidopsis obviously repressed aphid-induced callose deposition. Conversely, overexpression of MYB102 failed to increase aphid susceptibility in both the ET-insensitive mutants and plants treated with inhibitors of ET signaling pathways, demonstrating that the ET was critical for promoting aphid performance conferred by overexpression of MYB102. Collectively, our findings indicate that the Arabidopsis MYB102 increases host susceptibility to GPA through the ET-dependent signaling pathways.
Project description:(E)-?-farnesene (E?F) is the major component of the alarm pheromone of many aphid species, but where E?F is synthesized in aphids is only partly understood. There are at least three most possible sources for the alarm pheromone: host plants, aphid obligate endosymbiont and aphids themselves. Here we eliminated the possibility of host plants and the obligate endosymbiont Buchnera aphidicola as the sources for E?F released by aphids. We excluded the possible effects of host plants on E?F biosynthesis by rearing aphids on non-plant diets. Both the diet-reared aphids, including the cotton aphid Aphis gossypii and the green peach aphid Myzus persicae, could still release E?F based on solid-phase micro-extraction combined with gas chromatography-mass spectrometer analysis. Meanwhile, we treated host aphids with antibiotics to fully eliminate Buchnera bacteria. Though the treatment seriously affected the development and fecundity of host aphids, the treated aphids could still release E?F, and there was no significant difference in the E?F concentration as per the aphid weight under different rearing conditions. Taken together, our experimental results suggest that host plants and obligate endosymbionts are not the sources for E?F released by aphids, indicating that it is most probably the aphid itself synthesizes the alarm pheromone.
Project description:Little is known about how drought stress influences plant secondary metabolite accumulation and how this affects plant defense against different aphids. We therefore cultivated Arabidopsis thaliana (L.) plants under well-watered, drought, and water-logged conditions. Two aphid species were selected for this study: the generalist Myzus persicae (Sulzer) and the crucifer specialist Brevicoryne brassicae (L.). Metabolite concentrations in the phloem sap, which influence aphid growth, changed particularly under drought stress. Levels of sucrose and several amino acids, such as glutamic acid, proline, isoleucine, and lysine increased, while concentrations of 4-methoxyindol-3-ylmethyl glucosinolate decreased. M. persicae population growth was highest on plants under drought stress conditions. However, B. brassicae did not profit from improved phloem sap quality under drought stress and performed equally in all water treatments. Water stress and aphids generally had an opposite effect on the accumulation of secondary metabolites in the plant rosettes. Drought stress and water-logging led to increased aliphatic glucosinolate and flavonoid levels. Conversely, aphid feeding, especially of M. persicae, reduced levels of flavonoids and glucosinolates in the plants. Correspondingly, transcript levels of aliphatic biosynthetic genes decreased after feeding of both aphid species. Contrary to M. persicae, drought stress did not promote population growth of B. brassicae on these plants. The specialist aphid induced expression of CYP79B2, CYP79B3, and PAD3 with corresponding accumulation of indolyl glucosinolates and camalexin. This was distinct from M. persicae, which did not elicit similarly strong camalexin accumulation, which led to the hypothesis of a specific defense adaptations against the specialist aphid.
Project description:Aphids are sap-feeding insects that colonize a broad range of plant species and often cause feeding damage and transmit plant pathogens, including bacteria, viruses, and viroids. These insects feed from the plant vascular tissue, predominantly the phloem. However, it remains largely unknown how aphids, and other sap-feeding insects, establish intimate long-term interactions with plants. To identify aphid virulence factors, we took advantage of the ability of the green peach aphid Myzus persicae to colonize divergent plant species. We found that a M. persicae clone of near-identical females established stable colonies on nine plant species of five representative plant eudicot and monocot families that span the angiosperm phylogeny. Members of the novel aphid gene family Ya are differentially expressed in aphids on the nine plant species and are coregulated and organized as tandem repeats in aphid genomes. Aphids translocate Ya transcripts into plants, and some transcripts migrate to distal leaves within several plant species. RNAi-mediated knockdown of Ya genes reduces M. persicae fecundity, and M. persicae produces more progeny on transgenic plants that heterologously produce one of the systemically migrating Ya transcripts as a long noncoding (lnc) RNA. Taken together, our findings show that beyond a range of pathogens, M. persicae aphids translocate their own transcripts into plants, including a Ya lncRNA that migrates to distal locations within plants, promotes aphid fecundity, and is a member of a previously undescribed host-responsive aphid gene family that operate as virulence factors.