Characteristics of gay and bisexual men who rarely use HIV risk reduction strategies during condomless anal intercourse: Results from the FLUX national online cohort study.
ABSTRACT: PURPOSE:To understand the characteristics of a minority of Australian gay and bisexual men (GBM) who, despite an increase in the number and availability of HIV risk reduction strategies, do not consistently use a strategy to protect themselves from HIV. METHODS:This analysis is based on data from 2,920 participants in a national, online, prospective observational cohort study. GBM who never or rarely used HIV risk reduction strategies (NRR) were compared with two groups using multivariate logistic regression: i) GBM using pre-exposure prophylaxis (PrEP) and ii) GBM frequently using risk reduction strategies (FRR) other than PrEP. RESULTS:Compared to PrEP users, NRR men were younger (p<0.0001), less socially engaged with gay men (p<0.0001) and less likely to have completed a postgraduate (p<0.05) or undergraduate degree (p<0.05). They were also less likely to have recently used amyl nitrite (p<0.05), erectile dysfunction medication (p<0.05) and cocaine (p<0.05) in the previous 6 months. Compared with FRR men, NRR men were less likely to have completed a postgraduate (p<0.0001) or undergraduate degree (p<0.05), scored higher on the sexual sensation-seeking scale (p<0.0001) and were more likely to identify as versatile (p<0.05), a bottom (p<0.05) or very much a bottom (p<0.05) during anal sex. CONCLUSIONS:NRR men were largely similar to other Australian GBM. However, our analysis suggests it may be appropriate to focus HIV prevention interventions on younger, less socially engaged and less educated GBM, as well as men who prefer receptive anal intercourse to promote the use of effective HIV risk reduction strategies.
Project description:OBJECTIVES:Pre-exposure prophylaxis (PrEP) can reduce HIV transmission risk for many gay, bisexual and other men who have sex with men. However, bacterial STI (BSTI) associated with decreasing condom use among HIV PrEP users is a growing concern. Determining the characteristics of current PrEP users at highest BSTI risk fills a critical gap in the literature. METHODS:Gay and bisexual men (GBM) in New York City on HIV PrEP for 6 or more months (n=65) were asked about chlamydia, gonorrhoea and syphilis diagnoses in the past 6?months. By design, half (51%) of the sample were club drug users. We examined the associations of length of time on PrEP, type of PrEP care provider, PrEP adherence, number of sexual partners, number of condomless anal sex acts and club drug use on self-reported BSTI using multivariable, binary logistic regressions, adjusting for age, race/ethnicity, education and income. RESULTS:Twenty-six per cent of GBM on HIV PrEP reported a diagnosis of BSTI in the past 6?months. Men who reported club drug use (adjusted OR (AOR)=6.60, p<i><</i>0.05) and more frequent condomless anal sex in the past 30 days (AOR=1.13, p<i><</i>0.05) had higher odds of reporting a BSTI. No other variables were significantly associated with self-reported BSTI in the multivariable models. CONCLUSIONS:Club drug users could be at a unique BSTI risk, perhaps because of higher risk sexual networks. Findings should be considered preliminary, but suggest the importance of ongoing BSTI screening and risk-reduction counselling for GBM on HIV PrEP.
Project description:Men who have sex with men and women (MSMW), including those who are Black, experience HIV-related disparities compared to men who have sex with men only (MSMO). Few studies have assessed the prevalence and correlates of pre-exposure prophylaxis (PrEP) awareness and use among Black MSMW. We recruited MSM???18 attending Black Gay Pride events between 2014-2017. We conducted multivariable logistic regressions to assess differences in PrEP awareness and use among HIV-negative Black MSM (n?=?2398) and within Black MSMW (n?=?419). MSMW were less likely than MSMO to report PrEP awareness (p?<?0.001). Among PrEP-aware MSM, MSMW were more likely than MSMO to report PrEP use (p?<?0.05). MSMW receiving gay community support were more likely to be PrEP-aware (p?<?0.01). MSMW reporting any past-year STI diagnoses were more likely to report PrEP use (p?<?0.01). Findings suggest that PrEP awareness campaigns tailored for Black MSMW, concomitant with STI-to-PrEP interventions, will facilitate greater PrEP uptake in this population.
Project description:Oral pre-exposure prophylaxis (PrEP) is highly effective at reducing HIV transmission risk and is CDC recommended for many gay, bisexual, and other men who have sex with men (GBM). We sought to investigate awareness of and preference for using long-acting injectable PrEP (LAI-PrEP) among GBM currently taking oral PrEP (n = 104), and identify their concerns. About half of GBM had heard of LAI-PrEP, and 30.8% specifically preferred LAI-PrEP. GBM with more concerns about the level of protection and drug half-life of LAI-PrEP had lower odds of preferring LAI-PrEP. Given that daily pill adherence is a challenge for some on PrEP, it is important to investigate the degree to which those on PrEP might consider LAI-PrEP as an alternative.
Project description:<h4>Background</h4>In Canada, gay, bisexual and other men who have sex with men (GBM) are disproportionately affected by HIV. Our objective was to describe access to HIV pre-exposure prophylaxis (PrEP) and identify factors associated with not using PrEP among self-reported HIV-negative or HIV-unknown GBM.<h4>Methods</h4>This was a cross-sectional analysis of the Engage study cohort. Between 2017 and 2019, sexually active GBM aged 16 years or more in Montréal, Toronto and Vancouver were recruited via respondent-driven sampling (RDS). Participation included testing for HIV and sexually transmitted and blood-borne infections, and completion of a questionnaire. We examined PrEP access using a health care services model and fit RDS-adjusted logistic regressions to determine correlates of not using PrEP among those for whom PrEP was clinically recommended and who were aware of the intervention.<h4>Results</h4>A total of 2449 GBM were recruited, of whom 2008 were HIV-negative or HIV-unknown; 1159 (511 in Montréal, 247 in Toronto and 401 in Vancouver) met clinical recommendations for PrEP. Of the 1159, 1100 were aware of PrEP (RDS-adjusted proportion: Montréal 84.6%, Toronto 94.2%, Vancouver 92.7%), 678 had felt the need for PrEP in the previous 6 months (RDS-adjusted proportion: Montréal 39.2%, Toronto 56.1%, Vancouver 49.0%), 406 had tried to access PrEP in the previous 6 months (RDS-adjusted proportion: Montréal 20.6%, Toronto 33.2%, Vancouver 29.6%) and 319 had used PrEP in the previous 6 months (RDS-adjusted proportion: Montréal 14.5%, Toronto 21.6%, Vancouver 21.8%). Not using PrEP was associated with several factors, including not feeling at high enough risk, viewing PrEP as not completely effective, not having a primary care provider and lacking medication insurance.<h4>Interpretation</h4>Although half of GBM met clinical recommendations for PrEP, less than a quarter of them reported use. Despite high levels of awareness, a programmatic response that addresses PrEP-related perceptions and health care system barriers is needed to scale up PrEP access among GBM in Canada.
Project description:This study examined HIV testing and use, familiarity, and attitudes toward pre-exposure prophylaxis (PrEP) among HIV-negative gay and bisexual men in the United States. A national probability sample (N = 470) of three age cohorts (18-25, 34-41, and 52-59 years) completed a survey between March, 2016 and March, 2017. Most men did not meet CDC recommendations for HIV testing, and 25.2% of men in the younger cohort had never tested. Only 4.1% used PrEP across cohorts. Visiting an LGBT clinic and searching for LGBT resources online were associated with PrEP use. Men in the middle cohort were more familiar with PrEP (79%) than men in the younger (52%) and older (57%) cohorts. Bisexual and non-urban men were less familiar with PrEP. Attitudes were positive among most men (68.4%) familiar with PrEP. Findings suggest that most men potentially at risk for HIV do not meet CDC guidelines for testing, and PrEP use continues to be minimal. Efforts to educate gay and bisexual men about HIV risk and prevention need to be reinvigorated and expanded to include non-gay-identified and non-urban men.
Project description:Pre-exposure prophylaxis (PrEP) became publicly available in Quebec for gay, bisexual and other men who have sex with men (GBM) in 2013. We used baseline data from Engage, a cohort of GBM recruited by respondent-driven sampling, to examine patterns of combination HIV prevention use among Montreal GBM since PrEP became available. Latent class analysis, stratified by HIV status, was used to categorize GBM by self-reported use of biomedical and behavioural prevention strategies. Correlates of resulting classes were identified using multinomial logistic regression. Among HIV-negative/unknown GBM (n?=?968), we identified four classes: low use of prevention (32%), condoms (40%), seroadaptive behaviour (21%), and biomedical (including PrEP; 7%). Those using prevention (condoms, seroadaptive behaviour, and biomedical) had a higher number of anal sex partners and were more likely to report a recent sexually transmitted infection diagnosis. GBM using biomedical prevention also had a higher level of formal education. Among GBM living with HIV (n?=?200), we identified three classes: mainly antiretroviral treatment (ART) with viral suppression (53%), ART with viral suppression and condoms (19%), and ART with viral suppression and seroadaptive behaviour (18%). Again, the number of anal sex partners was higher among those using condoms and seroadaptive behaviours. Our findings show antiretroviral-based prevention, either alone or in combination with other strategies, is clearly a component of the HIV prevention landscape for GBM in Montreal. Nevertheless, PrEP uptake remains low, and there is a need to promote its availability more widely.
Project description:We sought to determine preferences for oral versus long-acting injectable (LAI) PrEP among gay and bisexual men (GBM). We surveyed a national U.S. sample of 1071 GBM about forms of PrEP. LAI PrEP was found to be acceptable among 43.2 % of men when injected monthly compared with 53.6 % of men when injected every 3 months. When asked to choose between forms of PrEP, 46.0 % preferred LAI, 14.3 % oral, 21.7 % whichever was most effective, 10.1 % had no preference, and 7.8 % would not take PrEP. There were no differences in PrEP preferences by race/ethnicity, income, region of residence, or relationship status. Those unwilling to take PrEP were significantly older than those who preferred LAI PrEP and those who would take either. Those who preferred the most effective form were younger, had less education, and reported more recent club drug use. Those who reported condomless anal sex and those who thought they were good PrEP candidates were more willing to take PrEP. Long-term health and side effects were of the greatest concern for both LAI and oral PrEP. The availability of LAI PrEP has the potential to increase uptake among GBM. The results of ongoing clinical trials of LAI PrEP will need to demonstrate similar or greater efficacy as daily Truvada for uptake to be maximized.
Project description:BACKGROUND:In Australia, pre-exposure prophylaxis (PrEP) is targeted to individuals at high risk for HIV infection. We describe the HIV risk profile and characteristics of PRELUDE participants, and evaluate the population validity of the sample in representing high-risk gay and bisexual men (GBM) eligible for PrEP. METHODS:PRELUDE is an on-going, open-label, single-arm observational study. Participants were identified in clinics and screened for eligibility using a paper-based risk assessment tool which followed the New South Wales (NSW) PrEP guidelines. Selection was validated using an independent online behavioural survey, completed by study participants upon enrolment. Demographic information was analysed using descriptive statistics, and kappa tests were used to determine agreement between reporting of high-risk practices in the risk assessment and behavioural survey. RESULTS:During 2014-15, 471 individuals were targeted for enrolment; 341 were assessed for PrEP eligibility and 313 were enrolled. Of these, 303 (97%) identified as GBM. Overall, 85% of GBM met at least one high-risk criterion; 68% reported receptive intercourse with an HIV-positive or unknown status casual male partner, and 37% reported methamphetamine use in the three months preceding enrolment. The remaining 15% were enrolled based on medium-risk behaviours, or at the clinicians' discretion. We found an 82% total agreement between self-reported high-risk behaviour and clinicians' categorisation of GBM as being at high risk for HIV based on PrEP eligibility criteria. CONCLUSIONS:Behavioural eligibility criteria used by clinicians successfully identified individuals at high risk for HIV infection. This targeted approach ensures that the greatest public health and HIV prevention benefits can be derived in a setting without universal access to PrEP.
Project description:OBJECTIVES:In British Columbia, Canada, syphilis is at record-high rates, with over 80% of cases in 2017 seen in gay, bisexual and other men who have sex with men (GBM). The syphilis epidemic is of particular concern for those living with HIV, since syphilis may lead to more serious complications in this population. We sought to explore syphilis-related knowledge and attitudes around biomedical prevention options for syphilis, with the goal of informing effective strategies to prevent syphilis. DESIGN:We conducted a qualitative study consisting of in-depth, individual interviews from December 2016 to June 2017. Our interviews focused on participants' knowledge about syphilis and perceptions regarding syphilis pre-exposure prophylaxis (PrEP). Interviews were analysed using Grounded Theory. PARTICIPANTS:Twenty-five GBM were interviewed (64% white; median age: 43 years), including men living with HIV and/or with a history of syphilis. SETTING:Vancouver, British Columbia. RESULTS:Five interrelated themes emerged. First, GBM were aware of the local syphilis epidemic. Second, syphilis-related knowledge differed according to syphilis and HIV serostatus. Third, competing ideas emerged regarding men's concerns about syphilis. While our participants expressed concern about getting syphilis, they also described the importance of sexual pleasure. Fourth, many participants said that syphilis was not perceived to be alarming; preventing HIV infection remained a primary concern for many. Finally, while syphilis PrEP was appealing to those living with HIV or a prior syphilis diagnosis, others were concerned about antibiotic resistance, cost and side effects. CONCLUSIONS:Our participants organised their safer sex strategies around HIV, not syphilis. Although syphilis-related knowledge was relatively high among GBM living with HIV and those with a prior syphilis diagnosis, this knowledge did not appear to be related with safer sexual practices, such as increased condom use. This work highlights the importance of examining other potential prevention solutions, such as syphilis PrEP.
Project description:To investigate the awareness of, and willingness to use, HIV Pre-Exposure Prophylaxis (PrEP), and willingness to take part in a PrEP study among gay and bisexual men in Scotland.Cross-sectional survey of 17 gay commercial venues in Glasgow and Edinburgh in May 2011 (N = 1515, 65.2% response rate); 1393 are included in the analyses.Just under one-third of participants had heard of PrEP (n = 434; 31.2%), with awareness associated with being aged older than 35 years, talking to UAI partners about HIV, and with having had an HIV or STI test in the previous 12 months. Around half were willing to take part in a PrEP study (n = 695; 49.9%) or to take PrEP on a daily basis (n = 756; 54.3%). In multivariate analysis, willingness to take PrEP was associated with lower levels of education, regular gay scene attendance, 'high-risk' unprotected anal intercourse (UAI) and testing for HIV or STI in the previous 12 months. Reasons for not wanting to participate in a PrEP study or take PrEP included perceptions of low personal risk of HIV and concerns with using medication as an HIV prevention method.There is a willingness to engage in new forms of HIV prevention and research amongst a significant number of gay and bisexual men in Scotland. Future biomedical HIV interventions need to consider the links between sexual risk behaviour, testing, and potential PrEP use.