TRPA1 Channel Activation Inhibits Motor Activity in the Mouse Colon.
ABSTRACT: There is a growing awareness of the role that TRP channels play in regulating sensory and motor functions in the gastrointestinal tract. In this study we used an in-vitro murine model of colonic peristaltic-like complexes (CPMCs) to evaluate the role of exogenous and endogenous TRPA1 signaling processes in regulating colonic motility. Using in-vitro recordings of intraluminal pressure to monitor the presence of CPMCs in colonic segments we performed a series of experiments on male CD1 mice (2 months of age) and found that CPMC activity was attenuated by TRPA1 agonists. Bath application of the TRPA1 antagonist HC-030031 had no effect upon basal CPMC activity whereas application of the synthetic TRPA1 agonist ASP7663 caused a reversible dose dependent decrease in CPMC frequency that was blocked by HC-030031. Cinnamaldehyde and 4-hydroxy-2-nonenal elicited long lasting decreases in CPMC frequency that were blocked by HC-030031 whereas the decreased CPMC activity invoked by AITC could not be blocked by HC-030031. Our results show that any potential mechanosensory function of TRPA1 doesn't involve contributing to distension induced colonic motor activity and that a role for TRPA1 in the colon is through regulating motility through exogenous and endogenous agonist induced inhibitory effects.
Project description:Transient receptor potential ankyrin 1 (TRPA1) is an ion channel involved in thermosensation and nociception. TRPA1 is activated by exogenous irritants and also by oxidants formed in inflammatory reactions. However, our understanding of its role in inflammation is limited. Here, we tested the hypothesis that TRPA1 is involved in acute inflammatory edema. The TRPA1 agonist allyl isothiocyanate (AITC) induced inflammatory edema when injected intraplantarly to mice, mimicking the classical response to carrageenan. Interestingly, the TRPA1 antagonist HC-030031 and the cyclo-oxygenase (COX) inhibitor ibuprofen inhibited not only AITC but also carrageenan-induced edema. TRPA1-deficient mice displayed attenuated responses to carrageenan and AITC. Furthermore, AITC enhanced COX-2 expression in HEK293 cells transfected with human TRPA1, a response that was reversed by HC-030031. This study demonstrates a hitherto unknown role of TRPA1 in carrageenan-induced inflammatory edema. The results also strongly suggest that TRPA1 contributes, in a COX-dependent manner, to the development of acute inflammation.
Project description:We demonstrate a novel dual strategy against inflammation and pain through body-wide desensitization of nociceptors via TRPA1. Attenuation of experimental colitis by capsazepine (CPZ) has long been attributed to its antagonistic action on TRPV1 and associated inhibition of neurogenic inflammation. In contrast, we found that CPZ exerts its anti-inflammatory effects via profound desensitization of TRPA1. Micromolar CPZ induced calcium influx in isolated dorsal root ganglion (DRG) neurons from wild-type (WT) but not TRPA1-deficient mice. CPZ-induced calcium transients in human TRPA1-expressing HEK293t cells were blocked by the selective TRPA1 antagonists HC 030031 and A967079 and involved three cysteine residues in the N-terminal domain. Intriguingly, both colonic enemas and drinking water with CPZ led to profound systemic hypoalgesia in WT and TRPV1(-/-) but not TRPA1(-/-) mice. These findings may guide the development of a novel class of disease-modifying drugs with anti-inflammatory and anti-nociceptive effects.
Project description:Temperature modulates the peripheral taste response of many animals, in part by activating transient receptor potential (Trp) cation channels. We hypothesized that temperature would also modulate peripheral taste responses in larval Manduca sexta. We recorded excitatory responses of the lateral and medial styloconic sensilla to chemical stimuli at 14, 22, and 30 °C. The excitatory responses to 5 chemical stimuli-a salt (KCl), 3 sugars (sucrose, glucose, and inositol) and an alkaloid (caffeine)-were unaffected by temperature. In contrast, the excitatory response to the aversive compound, aristolochic acid (AA), increased robustly with temperature. Next, we asked whether TrpA1 mediates the thermally dependent taste response to AA. To this end, we 1) identified a TrpA1 gene in M. sexta; 2) demonstrated expression of TrpA1 in the lateral and medial styloconic sensilla; 3) determined that 2 TrpA1 antagonists (HC-030031 and mecamylamine) inhibit the taste response to AA, but not caffeine; and then 4) established that the thermal dependence of the taste response to AA is blocked by HC-030031. Taken together, our results indicate that TrpA1 serves as a molecular integrator of taste and temperature in M. sexta.
Project description:BACKGROUND: Safe and effective treatment for chronic inflammatory and neuropathic pain remains a key unmet medical need for many patients. The recent discovery and description of the transient receptor potential family of receptors including TRPV1 and TRPA1 has provided a number of potential new therapeutic targets for treating chronic pain. Recent reports have suggested that TRPA1 may play an important role in acute formalin and CFA induced pain. The current study was designed to further explore the therapeutic potential of pharmacological TRPA1 antagonism to treat inflammatory and neuropathic pain. RESULTS: The in vitro potencies of HC-030031 versus cinnamaldehyde or allyl isothiocyanate (AITC or Mustard oil)-induced TRPA1 activation were 4.9 +/- 0.1 and 7.5 +/- 0.2 microM respectively (IC50). These findings were similar to the previously reported IC50 of 6.2 microM against AITC activation of TRPA1 1. In the rat, oral administration of HC-030031 reduced AITC-induced nocifensive behaviors at a dose of 100 mg/kg. Moreover, oral HC-030031 (100 mg/kg) significantly reversed mechanical hypersensitivity in the more chronic models of Complete Freunds Adjuvant (CFA)-induced inflammatory pain and the spinal nerve ligation model of neuropathic pain. CONCLUSION: Using oral administration of the selective TRPA1 antagonist HC-030031, our results demonstrated that TRPA1 plays an important role in the mechanisms responsible for mechanical hypersensitivity observed in inflammatory and neuropathic pain models. These findings suggested that TRPA1 antagonism may be a suitable new approach for the development of a potent and selective therapeutic agent to treat both inflammatory and neuropathic pain.
Project description:TRPA1 is a nonselective cation channel expressed by nociceptors. Although it is widely accepted that TRPA1 serves as a broad irritancy receptor for a variety of reactive chemicals, its role in cold sensation remains controversial. Here, we demonstrate that mild cooling markedly increases agonist-evoked rat TRPA1 currents. In the absence of an agonist, even noxious cold only increases current amplitude slightly. These results suggest that TRPA1 is a key mediator of cold hypersensitivity in pathological conditions in which reactive oxygen species and proinflammatory activators of the channel are present, but likely plays a comparatively minor role in acute cold sensation. Supporting this, cold hypersensitivity can be induced in wild-type but not Trpa1(-/-) mice by subcutaneous administration of a TRPA1 agonist. Furthermore, the selective TRPA1 antagonist HC-030031 [2-(1,3-dimethyl-2,6-dioxo-1,2,3,6-tetrahydro-7H-purin-7-yl)-N-(4-isopropylphenyl)acetamide] reduces cold hypersensitivity in rodent models of inflammatory and neuropathic pain.
Project description:INTRODUCTION:In gout, monosodium urate (MSU) crystals deposit intra-articularly and cause painful arthritis. In the present study we tested the hypothesis that Transient Receptor Poten-tial Ankyrin 1 (TRPA1), an ion channel mediating nociceptive signals and neurogenic in-flammation, is involved in MSU crystal-induced responses in gout by utilizing three experi-mental murine models. METHODS:The effects of selective pharmacological inhibition (by HC-030031) and genetic depletion of TRPA1 were studied in MSU crystal-induced inflammation and pain by using 1) spontaneous weight-bearing test to assess MSU crystal-induced joint pain, 2) subcutaneous air-pouch model resembling joint inflammation to measure MSU crystal-induced cytokine production and inflammatory cell accumulation, and 3) MSU crystal-induced paw edema to assess acute vascular inflammatory responses and swelling. RESULTS:Intra-articularly injected MSU crystals provoked spontaneous weight shift off from the affected limb in wild type but not in TRPA1 knock-out mice referring alleviated joint pain in TRPA1 deficient animals. MSU crystal-induced inflammatory cell infiltration and accumulation of cytokines MCP-1, IL-6, IL-1beta, MPO, MIP-1alpha and MIP-2 into subcu-taneous air-pouch (resembling joint cavity) was attenuated in TRPA1 deficient mice and in mice treated with the selective TRPA1 inhibitor HC-030031 as compared to control animals. Further, HC-030031 treated and TRPA1 deficient mice developed tempered inflammatory edema when MSU crystals were injected into the paw. CONCLUSIONS:TRPA1 mediates MSU crystal-induced inflammation and pain in experimental models supporting the role of TRPA1 as a potential mediator and a drug target in gout flare.
Project description:Little is known about the pharmacological activity of Monarda fistulosa L. essential oils. To address this issue, we isolated essential oils from the flowers and leaves of M. fistulosa and analyzed their chemical composition. We also analyzed the pharmacological effects of M. fistulosa essential oils on transient receptor potential (TRP) channel activity, as these channels are known targets of various essential oil constituents. Flower (MEOFl) and leaf (MEOLv) essential oils were comprised mainly of monoterpenes (43.1% and 21.1%) and oxygenated monoterpenes (54.8% and 77.7%), respectively, with a high abundance of monoterpene hydrocarbons, including p-cymene, ?-terpinene, ?-terpinene, and ?-thujene. Major oxygenated monoterpenes of MEOFl and MEOLv included carvacrol and thymol. Both MEOFl and MEOLv stimulated a transient increase in intracellular free Ca2+ concentration ([Ca2+]i) in TRPA1 but not in TRPV1 or TRPV4-transfected cells, with MEOLv being much more effective than MEOFl. Furthermore, the pure monoterpenes carvacrol, thymol, and ?-myrcene activated TRPA1 but not the TRPV1 or TRPV4 channels, suggesting that these compounds represented the TRPA1-activating components of M. fistulosa essential oils. The transient increase in [Ca2+]i induced by MEOFl/MEOLv, carvacrol, ?-myrcene, and thymol in TRPA1-transfected cells was blocked by a selective TRPA1 antagonist, HC-030031. Although carvacrol and thymol have been reported previously to activate the TRPA1 channels, this is the first report to show that ?-myrcene is also a TRPA1 channel agonist. Finally, molecular modeling studies showed a substantial similarity between the docking poses of carvacrol, thymol, and ?-myrcene in the binding site of human TRPA1. Thus, our results provide a cellular and molecular basis to explain at least part of the therapeutic properties of these essential oils, laying the foundation for prospective pharmacological studies involving TRP ion channels.
Project description:The activation of capsaicin-sensitive lung vagal (CSLV) afferents can elicit airway reflexes. Hypersensitivity of these afferents is known to contribute to the airway hypersensitivity during airway inflammation. Hydrogen sulfide (H2S) has been suggested as a potential therapeutic agent for airway hypersensitivity diseases, such as asthma, because of its relaxing effect on airway smooth muscle and anti-inflammatory effect. However, it is still unknown whether H2S affects airway reflexes. Our previous study demonstrated that exogenous application of H2S sensitized CSLV afferents and enhanced Ca2+ transients in CSLV neurons. The present study aimed to determine whether the H2S-induced sensitization leads to functional changes in airway reflexes and elevates the electrical excitability of the CSLV neurons. Our results showed that, first and foremost, in anesthetized, spontaneously breathing rats, the inhalation of aerosolized sodium hydrosulfide (NaHS, a donor of H2S; 5 mg/mL, 3 min) caused an enhancement in apneic response evoked by several stimulants of the CSLV afferents. This enhancement effect was found 5 min after NaHS inhalation and returned to control 30 min later. However, NaHS no longer enhanced the apneic response after perineural capsaicin treatment on both cervical vagi that blocked the conduction of CSLV fibers. Furthermore, the enhancing effect of NaHS on apneic response was totally abolished by pretreatment with intravenous HC-030031 (a TRPA1 antagonist; 8 mg/kg), whereas the potentiating effect was not affected by the pretreatment with the vehicle of HC-030031. We also found that intracerebroventricular infusion pretreated with HC-030031 failed to alter the potentiating effect of NaHS on the apneic response. Besides, the cough reflex elicited by capsaicin aerosol was enhanced by inhalation of NaHS in conscious guinea pigs. Nevertheless, this effect was entirely eliminated by pretreatment with HC-030031, not by its vehicle. Last but not least, voltage-clamp electrophysiological analysis of isolated rat CSLV neurons showed a similar pattern of potentiating effects of NaHS on capsaicin-induced inward current, and the involvement of TRPA1 receptors was also distinctly shown. In conclusion, these results suggest that H2S non-specifically enhances the airway reflex responses, at least in part, through action on the TRPA1 receptors expressed on the CSLV afferents. Therefore, H2S should be used with caution when applying for therapeutic purposes in airway hypersensitivity diseases.
Project description:Pain is a harmful sensation that arises from noxious stimuli. Transient receptor potential ankyrin 1 (TRPA1) is one target for studying pain mechanisms. TRPA1 is activated by various stimuli such as noxious cold, pungent natural products and environmental irritants. Since TRPA1 is an attractive target for pain therapy, a few TRPA1 antagonists have been developed and some function as analgesic agents. The responses of TRPA1 to agonists and antagonists vary among species and these species differences have been utilized to identify the structural basis of activation and inhibition mechanisms. The TRPA1 antagonist HC-030031 (HC) failed to inhibit frog TRPA1 (fTRPA1) and zebrafish TRPA1 activity induced by cinnamaldehyde (CA), but did inhibit human TRPA1 (hTRPA1) in a heterologous expression system. Chimeric studies between fTRPA1 and hTRPA1, as well as analyses using point mutants, revealed that a single amino acid residue (N855 in hTRPA1) significantly contributes to the inhibitory action of HC. Moreover, the N855 residue and the C-terminus region exhibited synergistic effects on the inhibition by HC. Molecular dynamics simulation suggested that HC stably binds to hTRPA1-N855. These findings provide novel insights into the structure-function relationship of TRPA1 and could lead to the development of more effective analgesics targeted to TRPA1.
Project description:Oxidation products of the naturally occurring phospholipid 1-palmitoyl-2-arachidonoyl-sn-glycerol-3-phosphatidylcholine (PAPC), which are known as OxPAPC, accumulate in atherosclerotic lesions and at other sites of inflammation in conditions such as septic inflammation and acute lung injury to exert pro- or anti-inflammatory effects. It is currently unknown whether OxPAPC also contributes to inflammatory pain and peripheral neuronal excitability in these conditions. Here, we observed that OxPAPC dose-dependently and selectively activated human TRPA1 nociceptive ion channels expressed in HEK293 cells in vitro, without any effect on other TRP channels, including TRPV1, TRPV4 and TRPM8. OxPAPC agonist activity was dependent on essential cysteine and lysine residues within the N-terminus of the TRPA1 channel protein. OxPAPC activated calcium influx into a subset of mouse sensory neurons which were also sensitive to the TRPA1 agonist mustard oil. Neuronal OxPAPC responses were largely abolished in neurons isolated from TRPA1-deficient mice. Intraplantar injection of OxPAPC into the mouse hind paw induced acute pain and persistent mechanical hyperalgesia and this effect was attenuated by the TRPA1 inhibitor, HC-030031. More importantly, we found levels of OxPAPC to be significantly increased in inflamed tissue in a mouse model of chronic inflammatory pain, identified by the binding of an OxPAPC-specific antibody. These findings suggest that TRPA1 is a molecular target for OxPAPC and OxPAPC may contribute to chronic inflammatory pain through TRPA1 activation. Targeting against OxPAPC and TRPA1 signaling pathway may be promising in inflammatory pain treatment.