Expression Levels of IL-17A, IL-17F, IL-17RA, and IL-17RC in Prostate Cancer with Taking into Account the Histological Grade according to Gleason Scale in Comparison to Benign Prostatic Hyperplasia: In Search of New Therapeutic Options.
ABSTRACT: Prostate cancer (PCa) is the second most commonly diagnosed malignant tumor and the fifth leading cause of cancer death in men in the world. The most common types of tumors are adenocarcinomas. Prostate cancer is a slow-growing cancer. The incidence increases with age. Evaluation of proinflammatory factors such as IL-17A, IL-17F, IL-17RA, and IL-17RC expression makes it possible to assess the impact of inflammatory process on progression of PCa. The aim of the study was to retrospectively assess the histological material of PCa divided into few groups using the Gleason score. Studies were carried out on archival tissue material in the form of paraffin blocks of 40 men with PCa after radical prostatectomy. The control group was composed of 10 men with benign prostatic hyperplasia (BPH). The material was obtained by the transurethral resection of the prostate (TURP). Immunohistochemistry was performed on prepared material using specific primary antibodies against IL-17A, IL-17F, IL-17RA, and IL-17RC. Expression of the antibody to be examined using light microscopy and the Remmele-Stegner score (IRS) in cancer staining was then evaluated. Expression of IL-17 RA was not shown in a group of patients with PCa and in the control group. In the group of patients with Gleason score 8 and 9 PCa, the expression of IL-17A was higher compared to that of IL-17F. In addition, in PCa with an increased grade of Gleason scale, a decrease in the expression of the study inflammatory parameters was found. The inflammatory process has an impact on PCa. A study on IL-17 may become a starting point for further research on an attempt to use, for example, immunotherapy in PCa.
Project description:The proinflammatory cytokines IL-17A and IL-17F have a high degree of sequence similarity and share many biological properties. Both have been implicated as factors contributing to the progression of inflammatory and autoimmune diseases. Moreover, reagents that neutralize IL-17A significantly ameliorate disease severity in several mouse models of human disease. IL-17A mediates its effects through interaction with its cognate receptor, the IL-17 receptor (IL-17RA). We report here that the IL-17RA-related molecule, IL-17RC is the receptor for IL-17F. Notably, both IL-17A and IL-17F bind to IL-17RC with high affinity, leading us to suggest that a soluble form of this molecule may serve as an effective therapeutic antagonist of IL-17A and IL-17F. We generated a soluble form of IL-17RC and demonstrate that it effectively blocks binding of both IL-17A and IL-17F, and that it inhibits signaling in response to these cytokines. Collectively, our work indicates that IL-17RC functions as a receptor for both IL-17A and IL-17F and that a soluble version of this protein should be an effective antagonist of IL-17A and IL-17F mediated inflammatory diseases.
Project description:IL-17A and IL-17F together with their coreceptor (IL-17RA/RC) were reported to play a significant role in the pathogenesis of spondyloarthritis. The group of axial spondyloarthritis comprises ankylosing spondylitis (AS), a rheumatic disease characterized by chronic inflammation of the joints in the spine. This study is aimed at investigating IL-17A, IL-17F, IL-17RA, and IL-17RC polymorphisms as potential biomarkers of disease susceptibility, clinical parameters, and anti-TNF treatment outcome in a cohort of Polish ankylosing spondylitis patients. In total, 328 subjects, including 138 AS patients and 190 healthy volunteers, participated in the study. Genotyping of IL-17A rs2275913 (G/A), IL-17F rs763780 (A/G), IL-17RA rs4819554 (A/G), and IL-17RC rs708567 (G/A) was performed on real-time PCR instrument using LightSNiP assays. No significant differences were revealed in genotype and allele distribution between patients and controls despite the association of the IL-17RC rs708567 AA homozygosity with the earlier onset of the disease. Moreover, some relationships between IL-17F rs763780 and IL-17RA rs4819554 polymorphisms with clinical parameters related to the disease activity and anti-TNF treatment outcome were observed. IL-17F rs763780 G allele was found to be associated with high disease activity and BASDAI after 6 months and poor response to the treatment while higher VAS values were more common among IL-17RA rs4819554 G variant carriers. In conclusion, the IL-17F rs763780 polymorphism should be considered as a promising biomarker of disease activity and anti-TNF treatment outcome. The IL-17RA rs48419554 G allele may serve as a potential marker of disease severity in Polish AS patients.
Project description:IL-17A and IL-17F are prominent members of the IL-17 family of cytokines that regulates both innate and adaptive immunity. IL-17A has been implicated in chronic inflammatory and autoimmune diseases, and anti-IL-17A antibodies have shown remarkable clinical efficacy in psoriasis and psoriatic arthritis patients. IL-17A and IL-17F are homodimeric cytokines that can also form the IL-17A/F heterodimer whose precise role in health and disease remains elusive. All three cytokines signal through the assembly of a ternary complex with the IL-17RA and IL-17RC receptors. Here we report the X-ray analysis of the human IL-17A/F heterodimer that reveals a two-faced cytokine closely mimicking IL-17A as well as IL-17F. We also present the crystal structure of its complex with the IL-17RA receptor. Unexpectedly in view of the much higher affinity of this receptor toward IL-17A, we find that IL-17RA is bound to the "F-face" of the heterodimer in the crystal. Using site-directed mutagenesis, we then demonstrate that IL-17RA can also bind to the "A-face" of IL-17A/F with similar affinity. Further, we show that IL-17RC does not discriminate between the two faces of the cytokine heterodimer either, thus enabling the formation of two topologically-distinct heterotrimeric complexes with potentially different signaling properties.
Project description:Antibodies targeting IL-17A or its receptor, IL-17RA, are approved to treat psoriasis and are being evaluated for other autoimmune conditions. Conversely, IL-17 signaling is critical for immunity to opportunistic mucosal infections caused by the commensal fungus Candida albicans, as mice and humans lacking the IL-17R experience chronic mucosal candidiasis. IL-17A, IL-17F, and IL-17AF bind the IL-17RA-IL-17RC heterodimeric complex and deliver qualitatively similar signals through the adaptor Act1. Here, we used a mouse model of acute oropharyngeal candidiasis to assess the impact of blocking IL-17 family cytokines compared with specific IL-17 cytokine gene knockout mice. Anti-IL-17A antibodies, which neutralize IL-17A and IL-17AF, caused elevated oral fungal loads, whereas anti-IL-17AF and anti-IL-17F antibodies did not. Notably, there was a cooperative effect of blocking IL-17A, IL-17AF, and IL-17F together. Termination of anti-IL-17A treatment was associated with rapid C. albicans clearance. IL-17F-deficient mice were fully resistant to oropharyngeal candidiasis, consistent with antibody blockade. However, IL-17A-deficient mice had lower fungal burdens than anti-IL-17A-treated mice. Act1-deficient mice were much more susceptible to oropharyngeal candidiasis than anti-IL-17A antibody-treated mice, yet anti-IL-17A and anti-IL-17RA treatment caused equivalent susceptibilities. Based on microarray analyses of the oral mucosa during infection, only a limited number of genes were associated with oropharyngeal candidiasis susceptibility. In sum, we conclude that IL-17A is the main cytokine mediator of immunity in murine oropharyngeal candidiasis, but a cooperative relationship among IL-17A, IL-17AF, and IL-17F exists in vivo. Susceptibility displays the following hierarchy: IL-17RA- or Act1-deficiency > anti-IL-17A + anti-IL-17F antibodies > anti-IL-17A or anti-IL-17RA antibodies > IL-17A deficiency.
Project description:Chronic mucocutaneous candidiasis (CMC) is characterized by recurrent or persistent infections of the skin, nail, oral, and genital mucosae with Candida species, mainly C. albicans. Autosomal-recessive (AR) IL-17RA and ACT1 deficiencies and autosomal-dominant IL-17F deficiency, each reported in a single kindred, underlie CMC in otherwise healthy patients. We report three patients from unrelated kindreds, aged 8, 12, and 37 yr with isolated CMC, who display AR IL-17RC deficiency. The patients are homozygous for different nonsense alleles that prevent the expression of IL-17RC on the cell surface. The defect is complete, abolishing cellular responses to IL-17A and IL-17F homo- and heterodimers. However, in contrast to what is observed for the IL-17RA- and ACT1-deficient patients tested, the response to IL-17E (IL-25) is maintained in these IL-17RC-deficient patients. These experiments of nature indicate that human IL-17RC is essential for mucocutaneous immunity to C. albicans but is otherwise largely redundant.
Project description:The interleukin (IL)-17 cytokine family members IL-17A and IL-17F mediate inflammatory activities via the IL-17 receptor (IL-17R) complex, comprised of the IL-17RA and IL-17RC subunits. Proper regulation of the IL-17 signaling axis results in effective host defense against extracellular pathogens, while aberrant signaling can drive autoimmune pathology. Elucidating the molecular mechanisms underlying IL-17 signal transduction can yield an enhanced understanding of inflammatory immune processes and also create an avenue for therapeutic intervention in the treatment of IL-17-dependent diseases. To date, the fundamental signaling mechanisms used by the IL-17R complex are still incompletely defined. While current structure-function studies have primarily focused on the IL-17RA subunit, recent research indicates that the IL-17RC subunit plays a key role in modulating IL-17 responses. This review will examine what is known regarding IL-17RC function and provide a framework for future work on this subunit and its impact on human health.
Project description:IL-17 mediates essential inflammatory responses in host defense and autoimmunity. The IL-17A-IL-17F signaling complex is composed of IL-17RA and IL-17RC, both of which are necessary for signal transduction. To date, the specific contribution of IL-17RC to downstream signaling remains poorly understood. To define the regions within the IL-17RC cytoplasmic tail required for signal transduction, we assayed signaling by a panel of IL-17RC deletion mutants. These findings reveal that IL-17RC inducibly associates with a specific glycosylated IL-17RA isoform, in a manner independent of the IL-17RC cytoplasmic tail. Using expression of the IL-17 target genes IL-6 and 24p3/lipocalin-2 as a readout, functional reconstitution of signaling in IL-17RC(-/-) fibroblasts required the SEF/IL-17R signaling domain (SEFIR), a conserved motif common to IL-17R family members. Unexpectedly, the IL-17RC SEFIR alone was not sufficient to reconstitute IL-17-dependent signaling. Rather, an additional sequence downstream of the SEFIR was also necessary. We further found that IL-17RC interacts directly with the adaptor/E3 ubiquitin ligase Act1, and that the functional IL-17RC isoforms containing the extended SEFIR region interact specifically with a phosphorylated isoform of Act1. Finally, we show that IL-17RC is required for in vivo IL-17-dependent responses during oral mucosal infections caused by the human commensal fungus Candida albicans. These results indicate that IL-17RC is vital for IL-17-dependent signaling both in vitro and in vivo. Insight into the mechanisms by which IL-17RC signals helps shed light on IL-17-dependent inflammatory responses and may ultimately provide an avenue for therapeutic intervention in IL-17-mediated diseases.
Project description:G-CSF, its receptor, and IL-17 receptor A (IL-17RA) are all required to maintain baseline neutrophil counts in mice. In this study, we tested whether IL-17F could compensate and maintain baseline neutrophil counts in the absence of IL-17A. Unlike the reduced neutrophil counts found in IL-17RA-deficient mice, neutrophil counts were mildly increased in IL-17A-deficient (Il17a(-/-)) animals. There was no evidence for infection or altered neutrophil function. Plasma G-CSF and IL-17F levels were elevated in Il17a(-/-) compared with wild-type mice. IL-17F was mainly produced in the spleen and mesenteric lymph nodes, but IL-23 was unaltered in Il17a(-/-) mice. Instead, Il17a(-/-) splenocytes differentiated with IL-6, TGF-beta, and IL-23 ex vivo produced significantly more IL-17F in response to IL-23 than wild-type cells. Adding rIL-17A to Il17a(-/-) splenocyte cultures reduced IL-17F mRNA and protein secretion. These effects were also observed in wild-type but not IL-17RA-deficient cells. We conclude that IL-17A mediated suppression of IL-17F production and secretion requires IL-17RA and is relevant to maintain the normal set point of blood neutrophil counts in vivo.
Project description:IL-17 cytokine family, though still young since discovery, has recently emerged as critical players in immunity and inflammatory diseases. The prototype cytokine, IL-17A, plays essential roles in promoting inflammation and host defense. IL-17RA, a member of the IL-17 receptor family, forms a complex with another member, IL-17RC, to mediate effective signaling for IL-17A as well as IL-17F, which is most similar to IL-17A, via Act1 and TRAF6 factors. On the other hand, IL-17RA appears to interact with IL-17RB to regulate signaling by another cytokine IL-25. IL-25, the most distant from IL-17A in the IL-17 family, is involved in allergic disease and defense against helminthic parasites. In this review, we discuss recent advancements on signaling mechanisms and biological functions of IL-17A, IL-17F and IL-25, which will shed light on the remaining IL-17 family cytokines and help understand and treat inflammatory diseases.
Project description:<h4>Background</h4>Idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis is a devastating as yet untreatable disease. We demonstrated recently the predominant role of the NLRP3 inflammasome activation and IL-1? expression in the establishment of pulmonary inflammation and fibrosis in mice.<h4>Methods</h4>The contribution of IL-23 or IL-17 in pulmonary inflammation and fibrosis was assessed using the bleomycin model in deficient mice.<h4>Results</h4>We show that bleomycin or IL-1?-induced lung injury leads to increased expression of early IL-23p19, and IL-17A or IL-17F expression. Early IL-23p19 and IL-17A, but not IL-17F, and IL-17RA signaling are required for inflammatory response to BLM as shown with gene deficient mice or mice treated with neutralizing antibodies. Using FACS analysis, we show a very early IL-17A and IL-17F expression by ROR?t(+) ?? T cells and to a lesser extent by CD4??(+) T cells, but not by iNKT cells, 24 hrs after BLM administration. Moreover, IL-23p19 and IL-17A expressions or IL-17RA signaling are necessary to pulmonary TGF-?1 production, collagen deposition and evolution to fibrosis.<h4>Conclusions</h4>Our findings demonstrate the existence of an early IL-1?-IL-23-IL-17A axis leading to pulmonary inflammation and fibrosis and identify innate IL-23 and IL-17A as interesting drug targets for IL-1? driven lung pathology.