Local adaptive evolution of two distinct clades of Beijing and T families of Mycobacterium tuberculosis in Chongqing: a Bayesian population structure and phylogenetic study.
ABSTRACT: BACKGROUND:Beijing sub-pedigree 2 (BSP2) and T sub-lineage 6 (TSL6) are two clades belonging to Beijing and T family of Mycobacterium tuberculosis (MTB), respectively, defined by Bayesian population structure analysis based on 24-loci mycobacterial interspersed repetitive unit-variable number of tandem repeats (MIRU-VNTR). Globally, over 99% of BSP2 and 89% of TSL6 isolates were distributed in Chongqing, suggesting their possible local adaptive evolution. The objective of this paper is to explore whether BSP2 and TSL6 originated by their local adaptive evolution from the specific isolates of Beijing and T families in Chongqing. METHODS:The genotyping data of 16?090 MTB isolates were collected from laboratory collection, published literatures and SITVIT database before subjected to Bayesian population structure analysis based on 24-loci MIRU-VNTR. Spacer Oligonucleotide Forest (Spoligoforest) and 24-loci MIRU-VNTR-based minimum spanning tree (MST) were used to explore their phylogenetic pathways, with Bayesian demographic analysis for exploring the recent demographic change of TSL6. RESULTS:Phylogenetic analysis suggested that BSP2 and TSL6 in Chongqing may evolve from BSP4 and TSL5, respectively, which were locally predominant in Tibet and Jiangsu, respectively. Spoligoforest showed that Beijing and T families were genetically distant, while the convergence of the MIRU-VNTR pattern of BSP2 and TSL6 was revealed by WebLogo. The demographic analysis concluded that the recent demographic change of TSL6 might take 111.25?years. CONCLUSIONS:BSP2 and TSL6 clades might originate from BSP4 and TSL5, respectively, by their local adaptive evolution in Chongqing. Our study suggests MIRU-VNTR be combined with other robust markers for a more comprehensive genotyping approach, especially for families of clades with the same MIRU-VNTR pattern.
Project description:BACKGROUND:To explore the genetic diversity and drug resistance status of MTB in Xuzhou, China. METHODS:A total of 325 clinical MTB strains were genotyped by spacer-oligonucleotide typing (spoligotyping) and mycobacterial interspersed repetitive unit variable number of tandem repeats (MIRU-VNTR). Phenotypic resistance was assessed by drug susceptibility testing (DST). RESULT:Based on the spoligotyping method, 325 MTB isolates were classified into 5 known genotypes and 12 unknown genotypes, and the largest branch comprised 268 strains belonging to the Beijing family. Based on the 15-loci VNTR typing method, 325 MTB isolates were divided into 35 clusters and 220 unique patterns. Compared to the low discriminatory power of spoligotyping genotyping (HGDI = 0.3444), 15-loci VNTR genotyping had a significantly higher discriminatory power for all strains (HGDI = 0.9980), particularly for the Beijing family strains (HGDI = 0.9892). When spoligotyping and 15-loci VNTR methods were used together, the discriminatory power increased to 0.9991. The Beijing family strain presented increased risks for developing multi-drug resistance TB (P < 0.05). CONCLUSION:The Beijing family isolates is the most prevalent strains in Xuzhou. Spoligotyping, in combination with 15-loci MIRU-VNTR, is useful for epidemiological analysis of MTB transmission in Xuzhou.
Project description:<h4>Background</h4>Tuberculosis remains a serious threat to human health as an infectious disease in China. Henan, a most populated province in China, has a high incidence of tuberculosis (TB). Though the genetic diversity of Mycobacterium tuberculosis (MTB) has been investigated in many regions, there have been only a few studies on the molecular characteristics and drug resistance phenotypes in Henan. This is the first study on the genetic profile of MTB from Henan.<h4>Methods</h4>A total of 668 MTB isolates from various areas were genotyped with spoligotyping and 26-locus MIRU-VNTR (classical 24-locus MIRU-VNTR and 2 other loci). The association between TB spoligotype signatures and drug-resistant profiles was analysed.<h4>Results</h4>Our data revealed that MTB isolates circulating in Henan had a high degree of genetic variation. The Beijing family was the most predominant genotype (83.53%,n?=?558), and the typical Beijing type(ST1) was the major sublineage (81.73%,n?=?546). In total,668 isolates were divided into 567 different types, forming 38 clusters (2-15 isolates per cluster), and 529 unique types by 26-locus MIRU-VNTR analysis. There was no correlation between the Beijing family and gender, age at diagnosis or treatment history, whereas the Beijing family was significantly associated with all four first-line drug resistance and multidrug-resistant phenotypes. For these samples, 15 of 26 MIRU-VNTR loci had high or moderate discriminatory power according to the Hunter-Gaston discriminatory index. A combination of the 10 most polymorphic loci had similar discriminatory power as the 26-locus set.<h4>Conclusion</h4>The Beijing genotype is the most prevalent family. Ten-locus MIRU-VNTR in combination with spoligotyping can efficiently classify the molecular type of MTB in Henan Province.
Project description:The Mycobacterium tuberculosis (MTB) Beijing strain is highly virulent, drug resistant, and endemic over Asia. To explore the genetic diversity of this family in several different regions of eastern Asia, 338 Beijing strains collected in Taiwan (Republic of China) were analyzed by mycobacterial interspersed repetitive unit-variable number tandem repeat (MIRU-VNTR) typing and compared with published MIRU-VNTR profiles and by the Hunter-Gaston diversity index (HGDI) of Beijing strains from Japan and South Korea. The results revealed that VNTR2163b (HGDI>0.6) and five other loci (VNTR424, VNTR4052, VNTR1955, VNTR4156 and VNTR 2996; HGDI>0.3) could be used to discriminate the Beijing strains in a given geographic region. Analysis based on the number of VNTR repeats showed three VNTRs (VNTR424, 3192, and 1955) to be phylogenetically informative loci. In addition, to determine the geographic variation of sequence types in MTB populations, we also compared sequence type (ST) data of our strains with published ST profiles of Beijing strains from Japan and Thailand. ST10, ST22, and ST19 were found to be prevalent in Taiwan (82%) and Thailand (92%). Furthermore, classification of Beijing sublineages as ancient or modern in Taiwan was found to depend on the repeat number of VNTR424. Finally, phylogenetic relationships of MTB isolates in Taiwan, South Korea, and Japan were revealed by a minimum spanning tree based on MIRU-VNTR genotyping. In this topology, the MIRU-VNTR genotypes of the respective clusters were tightly correlated to other genotypic characters. These results are consistent with the hypothesis that clonal evolution of these MTB lineages has occurred.
Project description:<h4>Background</h4>Globally, China is the second place with high burden of tuberculosis (TB). To explore the characteristics of the pathogens of Mycobacterium tuberculosis (MTB) circulating in this area is helpful for understanding and controlling the spread of the strains. Recent developments in molecular biology have allowed prompt identification and tracking specific strains of MTB spreading through the population.<h4>Methods</h4>Spacer-oligonucleotide typing (spoligotyping) and mycobacterial interspersed repetitive units variable number tandem repeat (MIRU-VNTR) were performed in combination to yield specific genetic profiles of 260 MTB strains isolated from 30 counties of Jiangsu province in China between June and July 2010. The spoligotyping results were in comparison to the world Spoligotyping Database of Institute Pasteur de Guadeloupe (SpolDB4). Drug susceptibility test (DST) was performed on all strains by proportion method on Lowenstein-Jensen (LJ) culture media.<h4>Results</h4>Based on the spoligotyping method, 246 strains displayed known patterns and 14 were absent in the database. Predominant spoligotypes belonged to the Beijing family (80.4%). By using the 24-loci VNTR typing scheme, 224 different patterns were identified, including 20 clusters and 204 unique patterns. The largest clade comprised 195 strains belonging to the Beijing family. The combination of spoligotyping and 24-loci MIRU-VNTR demonstrated maximal discriminatory power. Furthermore, we observed a significant association between Beijing family strains and drug-resistant phenotypes. The Beijing family strains presented increased risks for developing multi-drug resistant TB, with the OR (95% CI) of 11.07(1.45-84.50).<h4>Conclusions</h4>The present study demonstrated that Beijing family isolates were the most prevalent strains circulating in Jiangsu province of China. The utility of spoligotyping in combination with 24-loci MIRU-VNTR might be a useful tool for epidemiological analysis of MTB transmission.
Project description:<h4>Background</h4>Mycobacterial interspersed repetitive units - variable number of tandem repeats (MIRU-VNTR) genotyping is a powerful tool for unraveling clonally complex Mycobacterium tuberculosis (MTB) strains and detection of transmission patterns. Using MIRU-VNTR, MTB genotypes and their transmission patterns among patients with new and active pulmonary tuberculosis (PTB) in Kawempe municipality in Kampala, Uganda was determined.<h4>Results</h4>MIRU-VNTR genotyping was performed by PCR-amplification of 15 MTB-MIRU loci from 113 cultured specimens from 113 PTB patients (one culture sample per patient). To determine lineages, the genotypes were entered into the MIRU-VNTRplus database [http://www.miru-vntrplus.org/] as numerical codes corresponding to the number of alleles at each locus. Ten different lineages were obtained: Uganda II (40% of specimens), Uganda I (14%), LAM (6%), Delhi/CAS (3%), Haarlem (3%), Beijing (3%), Cameroon (3%), EAI (2%), TUR (2%) and S (1%). Uganda I and Uganda II were the most predominant genotypes. Genotypes for 29 isolates (26%) did not match any strain in the database and were considered unique. There was high diversity of MIRU-VNTR genotypes, with a total of 94 distinct patterns. Thirty four isolates grouped into 15 distinct clusters each with two to four isolates. Eight households had similar MTB strains for both index and contact cases, indicating possible transmission.<h4>Conclusion</h4>MIRU-VNTR genotyping revealed high MTB strain diversity with low clustering in Kawempe municipality. The technique has a high discriminatory power for genotyping MTB strains in Uganda.
Project description:BACKGROUND:Tuberculosis (TB) caused an estimated 1.4 million deaths and 10.4 million new cases globally in 2015. TB rates in the United States continue to steadily decline, yet rates in the State of Hawaii are perennially among the highest in the nation due to a continuous influx of immigrants from the Western Pacific and Asia. TB in Hawaii is composed of a unique distribution of genetic lineages, with the Beijing and Manila families of Mycobacterium tuberculosis (Mtb) comprising over two-thirds of TB cases. Standard fingerprinting methods (spoligotyping plus 24-loci Mycobacterial Interspersed Repetitive Units-Variable Number Tandem Repeats [MIRU-VNTR] fingerprinting) perform poorly when used to identify actual transmission clusters composed of isolates from these two families. Those typing methods typically group isolates from these families into large clusters of non-linked isolates with identical fingerprints. Next-generation whole-genome sequencing (WGS) provides a new tool for molecular epidemiology that can resolve clusters of isolates with identical spoligotyping and MIRU-VNTR fingerprints. METHODS:We performed WGS and SNP analysis and evaluated epidemiological data to investigate 19 apparent TB transmission clusters in Hawaii from 2003 to 2017 in order to assess WGS' ability to resolve putative Mtb clusters from the Beijing and Manila families. This project additionally investigated MIRU-VNTR allele prevalence to determine why standard Mtb fingerprinting fails to usefully distinguish actual transmission clusters from these two Mtb families. RESULTS:WGS excluded transmission events in seven of these putative clusters, confirmed transmission in eight, and identified both transmission-linked and non-linked isolates in four. For epidemiologically identified clusters, while the sensitivity of MIRU-VNTR fingerprinting for identifying actual transmission clusters was found to be 100%, its specificity was only 28.6% relative to WGS. We identified that the Beijing and Manila families' significantly lower Shannon evenness of MIRU-VNTR allele distributions than lineage 4 was the cause of standard fingerprinting's poor performance when identifying transmission in Beijing and Manila family clusters. CONCLUSIONS:This study demonstrated that WGS is necessary for epidemiological investigation of TB in Hawaii and the Pacific.
Project description:<h4>Background</h4>Despite the large number of drug-resistant tuberculosis (TB) cases in China, few studies have comprehensively analyzed the drug resistance-associated gene mutations and genotypes in relation to the clinical characteristics of M. tuberculosis (Mtb) isolates.<h4>Methodology/principal findings</h4>We thus analyzed the phenotypic and genotypic drug resistance profiles of 115 Mtb clinical isolates recovered from a tuberculosis referral hospital in Beijing, China. We also performed genotyping by 28 loci MIRU-VNTR analysis. Socio-demographic and clinical data were retrieved from medical records and analyzed. In total, 78 types of mutations (including 42 previously reported and 36 newly identified ones) were identified in 115 Mtb clinical isolates. There was significant correlation between phenotypic and genotypic drug resistance rates for first-line anti-TB drugs (P<0.001). Genotyping revealed 101 MIRU-VNTR types, with 20 isolates (17.4%) being clustered and 95 isolates (82.6%) having unique genotypes. Higher proportion of re-treatment cases was observed among patients with clustered isolates than those with unique MIRU-VNTR genotypes (75.0% vs. 41.1%). Moreover, clinical epidemiological links were identified among patients infected by Mtb strains belonging to the same clusters, suggesting a potential of transmission among patients.<h4>Conclusions/significance</h4>Our study provided information on novel potential drug resistance-associated mutations in Mtb. In addition, the genotyping data from our study suggested that enforcement of the implementation of genotyping in diagnostic routines would provide important information for better monitor and control of TB transmission.
Project description:Tuberculosis (TB) is one of the major public health concerns in Assam, a remote state located in the northeastern (NE) region of India. The present study was undertaken to explore the circulating genotypes of Mycobacterium tuberculosis complex (MTBC) in this region. A total of 189 MTBC strains were collected from smear positive pulmonary tuberculosis cases from different designated microscopy centres (DMC) from various localities of Assam. All MTBC isolates were cultured on Lowenstein-Jensen (LJ) media and subsequently genotyped using spoligotyping and 24-loci mycobacterial interspersed repetitive units-variable number of tandem repeats (MIRU-VNTR) typing. Spoligotyping of MTBC isolates revealed 89 distinct spoligo patterns. The most dominant MTBC strain belonged to Beijing lineage and was represented by 35.45% (n = 67) of total isolates, followed by MTBC strains belonging to Central Asian-Delhi (CAS/Delhi) lineage and East African Indian (EAI5) lineage. In addition, in the present study 43 unknown spoligo patterns were detected. The discriminatory power of spoligotyping was found to be 0.8637 based on Hunter Gaston Discriminatory Index (HGDI). On the other hand, 24-loci MIRU-VNTR typing revealed that out of total 189 MTBC isolates from Assam 185 (97.9%) isolates had unique MIRU-VNTR profiles and 4 isolates grouped into 2 clusters. Phylogenetic analysis of 67 Beijing isolates based on 24-loci MIRU-VNTR typing revealed that Beijing isolates from Assam represent two major groups, each comprising of several subgroups. Neighbour-Joining (NJ) phylogenetic tree analysis based on combined spoligotyping and 24-loci MIRU-VNTR data of 78 Non-Beijing isolates was carried out for strain lineage identification as implemented by MIRU-VNTRplus database. The important lineages of MTBC identified were CAS/CAS1_Delhi (41.02%, n = 78) and East-African-Indian (EAI, 33.33%). Interestingly, phylogenetic analysis of orphan (23.28%) MTBC spoligotypes revealed that majority of these orphan isolates from Assam represent two new sub-clades Assam/EAI and Assam/CAS. The prevalence of multidrug resistance (MDR) in Beijing and Non-Beijing strains was found to be 10.44% and 9.01% respectively. In conclusion, the present study has shown the predominance of Beijing isolates in Assam which is a matter of great concern because Beijing strains are considered to be ecologically more fit enabling wider dissemination of M. tuberculosis. Other interesting finding of the present study is the discovery of two new clades of MTBC isolates circulating in Assam. More elaborate longitudinal studies are required to be undertaken in this region to understand the transmission dynamics of MTBC.
Project description:<h4>Background</h4>The control of tuberculosis in densely populated cities is complicated by close human-to-human contacts and potential transmission of pathogens from multiple sources. We conducted a molecular epidemiologic analysis of 356 Mycobacterium tuberculosis (MTB) isolates from patients presenting pulmonary tuberculosis in metropolitan Taipei. Classical antibiogram studies and genetic characterization, using mycobacterial interspersed repetitive-unit-variable-number tandem-repeat (MIRU-VNTR) typing and spoligotyping, were applied after culture.<h4>Methods</h4>A total of 356 isolates were genotyped by standard spoligotyping and the strains were compared with in the international spoligotyping database (SpolDB4). All isolates were also categorized using the 15 loci MIRU-VNTR typing method and combin with NTF locus and RD deletion analyses.<h4>Results</h4>Of 356 isolates spoligotyped, 290 (81.4%) displayed known spoligotypes and 66 were not identified in the database. Major spoligotypes found were Beijing lineages (52.5%), followed by Haarlem lineages (13.5%) and EAI plus EAI-like lineages (11%). When MIRU-VNTR was employed, 140 patterns were identified, including 36 clusters by 252 isolates and 104 unique patterns, and the largest cluster comprised 95 isolates from the Beijing family. The combination of spoligotyping and MIRU-VNTR revealed that 236 (67%) of the 356 isolates were clustered in 43 genotypes. Strains of the Beijing family was more likely to be of modern strain and a higher percentage of multiple drug resistance than other families combined (P = 0.08). Patients infected with Beijing strains were younger than those with other strains (mean 58.7 vs. 64.2, p = 0.02). Moreover, 85.3% of infected persons younger than 25 years had Beijing modern strain, suggesting a possible recent spread in the young population by this family of TB strain in Taipei.<h4>Conclusion</h4>Our data on MTB genotype in Taipei suggest that MTB infection has not been optimally controlled. Control efforts should be reinforced in view of the high prevalence of the Beijing strain in young population and association with drug resistance.
Project description:<h4>Background</h4>China is a country with high burden of tuberculosis (TB), especially drug-resistant TB (DR-TB), which is still a serious health problem in Yunnan Province. Mycobacterium tuberculosis (MTB) is the pathogenic microorganism of TB. The epidemiological characteristics of MTB strains in local areas need to be described.<h4>Methods</h4>A total of 430 clinical MTB isolates were collected from Yunnan Province and genotyped through the method of 24-locus mycobacterial interspersed repetitive unit-variable number tandem DNA repeats (MIRU-VNTR).<h4>Results</h4>The genotypes of the 24 loci showed abundantly genetic diversity, and allelic diversity index (h) of these loci varied from 0.012 to 0.817. Among the 430 strains, 30 clusters and 370 unique genotypes were identified. Beijing family was the predominant lineage (70.47%) in Yunnan MTB strains, and the other lineages contained T family (5.81%), MANU2 (0.70%), LAM (3.26%), CAS (0.23%), New-1 (8.37%), and some unknown clades (11.16%). A total of 74 TB strains were identified as drug resistance through drug susceptibility testing (DST), including 38 multidrug-resistant TB (MDR-TB) and 36 single-drug-resistant TB (SDR-TB). The frequency of MDR-TB strains was significantly higher in Beijing family (10.89%) than that in non-Beijing family (3.94%, P = 0.032).<h4>Conclusions</h4>Although MTB strains showed high genetic diversity in Yunnan, China, the Beijing family was still the dominant strain. A high frequency of MDR-TB strains was recorded in the Beijing family.