Behavioural plasticity of Anopheles coluzzii and Anopheles arabiensis undermines LLIN community protective effect in a Sudanese-savannah village in Burkina Faso.
ABSTRACT: BACKGROUND:Despite the overall major impact of long-lasting insecticide treated nets (LLINs) in eliciting individual and collective protection to malaria infections, some sub-Saharan countries, including Burkina Faso, still carry a disproportionately high share of the global malaria burden. This study aims to analyse the possible entomological bases of LLIN limited impact, focusing on a LLIN-protected village in the Plateau Central region of Burkina Faso. METHODS:Human landing catches (HLCs) were carried out in 2015 for 12 nights both indoors and outdoors at different time windows during the highest biting activity phase for Anopheles gambiae (s.l.). Collected specimens were morphologically and molecularly identified and processed for Plasmodium detection and L1014F insecticide-resistance allele genotyping. RESULTS:Almost 2000 unfed An. gambiae (s.l.) (54% Anopheles coluzzii and 44% Anopheles arabiensis) females landing on human volunteers were collected, corresponding to a median number of 23.5 females/person/hour. No significant differences were observed in median numbers of mosquitoes collected indoors and outdoors, nor between sporozoite rates in An. coluzzii (6.1%) and An. arabiensis (5.5%). The estimated median hourly entomological inoculation rate (EIR) on volunteers was 1.4 infective bites/person/hour. Results do not show evidence of the biting peak during night hours typical for An. gambiae (s.l.) in the absence of bednet protection. The frequency of the L1014F resistant allele (n?=?285) was 66% in An. coluzzii and 38% in An. arabiensis. CONCLUSIONS:The observed biting rate and sporozoite rates are in line with the literature data available for An. gambiae (s.l.) in the same geographical area before LLIN implementation and highlight high levels of malaria transmission in the study village. Homogeneous biting rate throughout the night and lack of preference for indoor-biting activity, suggest the capacity of both An. coluzzii and An. arabiensis to adjust their host-seeking behaviour to bite humans despite bednet protection, accounting for the maintenance of high rates of mosquito infectivity and malaria transmission. These results, despite being limited to a local situation in Burkina Faso, represent a paradigmatic example of how high densities and behavioural plasticity in the vector populations may contribute to explaining the limited impact of LLINs on malaria transmission in holo-endemic Sudanese savannah areas in West Africa.
Project description:BACKGROUND:A three-year longitudinal study was conducted in four sentinel sites from different ecological settings in Burkina Faso, between 2008 and 2010 to identify longitudinal changes in insecticide resistance within Anopheles gambiae complex species based on larval collection. During this study, adult mosquitoes were also collected indoor and outdoor using several methods of collection. The present study reports the diversity of malaria vectors and the 1014F-genotype from this adult collection and investigates the association between this 1014F-genotype and sporozoite rate. METHODS:Adult mosquitoes were collected from July to August (corresponding to the start of rainy season) and October to November (corresponding to the end of rainy season) over 3 years (2008-2010) at four sites across the country, using pyrethrum spray catches (PSC), exit traps and pit shelters. Anopheles gambiae complex mosquitoes were identified to species and genotyped for the L1014F kdr mutation by PCR using genomic DNA. The circumsporozoite antigen of Plasmodium falciparum was detected in mosquitoes using sandwich ELISA. RESULTS:Overall 9212 anopheline mosquitoes were collected during the study period. Of those, 6767 mosquitoes were identified as Anopheles gambiae sensu lato (s.l.). Anopheles arabiensis, Anopheles coluzzii, Anopheles gambiae and or Anopheles funestus were incriminated as vectors of P. falciparum in the study area with an average sporozoite rate of 5%, (95% CI 4.14-5.99%). The kdr1014F-genotype frequencies were 11.44% (95% CI 2.5-39.85%), 19.2% (95% CI 4.53-53.73%) and 89.9 (95% CI 63.14-97.45%), respectively for An. arabiensis, An. coluzzii and An. gambiae. The proportion of the 1014F-genotype varied between sporozoite-infected and uninfected An. gambiae s.l. group. There was no significant difference in the 1014F-genotype frequency between infected and uninfected mosquitoes. CONCLUSION:The current study shows the diversity of malaria vectors and significant interaction between species composition and kdr1014F-genotype in An. gambiae complex mosquitoes from Burkina Faso. In this study, no associations were found between the 1014F-genotype and P. falciparum infection in the major malaria vector An. gambiae s.l.
Project description:Despite the effectiveness of mass distribution of long-lasting insecticidal nets (LLINs) in reducing malaria transmission in Africa, in hyperendemic areas such as Burkina Faso the burden of malaria remains high. We here report the results of a 4-month survey on the feeding habits and Plasmodium infection in malaria vectors from a village in Burkina Faso one year following a national LLIN distribution programme. Low values of human blood index (HBI) observed in the major malaria vectors in the area (Anopheles coluzzii: N?=?263, 20.1%; An. arabiensis: 5.8%, N?=?103) are consistent with the hypothesis that LLINs reduced the availability of human hosts to mosquitoes. A regression meta-analysis of data from a systematic review of published studies reporting HBI and sporozoite rates (SR) for An. gambiae complex revealed that the observed SR values (An. coluzzii: 7.6%, N?=?503; An. arabiensis: 5.3%, N?=?225) are out of the ranges expected based on the low HBI observed. We hypothesize that a small fraction of inhabitants unprotected by bednets acts as a "core group" repeatedly exposed to mosquito bites, representing the major Plasmodium reservoir for the vectors, able to maintain a high risk of transmission even in a village protected by LLINs.
Project description:BACKGROUND AND METHODS: A longitudinal Anopheles gambiae s.l. insecticide-resistance monitoring programme was established in four sentinel sites in Burkina Faso. For three years, between 2008 and 2010, WHO diagnostic dose assays were used to measure the prevalence of resistance to all the major classes of insecticides at the beginning and end of the malaria transmission season. Species identification and genotyping for target site mutations was also performed and the sporozoite rate in adults determined. RESULTS: At the onset of the study, resistance to DDT and pyrethroids was already prevalent in An. gambiae s.l. from the south-west of the country but mosquitoes from the two sites in central Burkina Faso were largely susceptible. Within three years, DDT and permethrin resistance was established in all four sites. Carbamate and organophosphate resistance remains relatively rare and largely confined to the south-western areas although a small number of bendiocarb survivors were found in all sites by the final round of monitoring. The ace-1R target site resistance allele was present in all localities and its frequency exceeded 20% in 2010 in two of the sites. The frequency of the 1014F kdr mutation increased throughout the three years and by 2010, the frequency of 1014F in all sites combined was 0.02 in Anopheles arabiensis, 0.56 in An. gambiae M form and 0.96 in An. gambiae S form. This frequency did not differ significantly between the sites. The 1014S kdr allele was only found in An. arabiensis but its frequency increased significantly throughout the study (P?=?0.0003) and in 2010 the 1014S allele frequency was 0.08 in An. arabiensis. Maximum sporozoite rates (12%) were observed in Soumousso in 2009 and the difference between sites is significant for each year. CONCLUSION: Pyrethroid and DDT resistance is now established in An. gambiae s.l. throughout Burkina Faso. Results from diagnostic dose assays are highly variable within and between rounds of testing, and hence it is important that resistance monitoring is carried out on more than one occasion before decisions on insecticide procurement for vector control are made. The presence of 1014S in An. gambiae s.l., in addition to 1014F, is not unexpected given the recent report of 1014S in Benin but highlights the importance of monitoring for both mutations throughout the continent. Future research must now focus on the impact that this resistance is having on malaria control in Burkina Faso.
Project description:BACKGROUND: The operational impact of insecticide resistance on the effectiveness of long-lasting insecticide nets (LLINs) and indoor residual spraying (IRS) is poorly understood. One factor which may prolong the effectiveness of these tools in the field is the increase in insecticide susceptibility with mosquito age. In this study, LLINs and IRS were tested against young (three to five days) and old (17-19 days) pyrethroid resistant Anopheles gambiae s.l. from Burkina Faso. METHODS: Blood-fed adult Anopheles gambiae s.l. were collected from south-west Burkina Faso and identified to species/form level. Cohorts of the F1 progeny of An. gambiae s.s. S-forms were exposed to deltamethrin (0.05%) at three to five or 17-19 days post-emergence and tested for the frequency of the resistance allele 1014F. Isofemale lines of the M, S- form of An. gambiae s.s. and Anopheles arabiensis were exposed in WHO cone tests to either a) LLINs deployed in households for two years or (b) bendiocarb sprayed walls. RESULTS: Mortality rates in response to deltamethrin (0.05%) increased from levels indicative of strong resistance in three to five day old F1 mosquitoes, to near full susceptibility in the 17-19 day old cohort. On exposure to LLINs sampled from the field, the mortality rate in isofemale lines was higher in older mosquitoes than young (OR = 5.28, CI 95% = 2.81-9.92), although the mortality estimates were affected by the LLIN tested. In general, the LLINs sampled from the field performed poorly in WHO cone bioassays using either laboratory susceptible or field caught mosquito populations. Finally, there was a clear relationship between mortality and age on exposure to bendiocarb-sprayed walls, with older mosquitoes again proving more susceptible (OR = 3.39, CI 95% = 2.35-4.90). CONCLUSIONS: Age is a key factor determining the susceptibility of mosquitoes to insecticides, not only in laboratory studies, but in response to field-based vector control interventions. This has important implications for understanding the epidemiological impact of resistance. If mosquitoes old enough to transmit malaria are still being suppressed with available insecticides, is resistance potentially having less of an impact than often assumed? However, the poor performance of LLINs used in this study in Burkina Faso, is a cause for concern and requires urgent investigation.
Project description:BACKGROUND:Insecticide resistance in Anopheles coluzzii mosquitoes has become widespread throughout West Africa including in Burkina Faso. The insecticide resistance allele (kdr or L1014F) is a prime indicator that is highly correlated with phenotypic resistance in West Africa. Studies from Benin, Ghana and Mali have suggested that the source of the L1014F is introgression of the 2L divergence island via interspecific hybridization with Anopheles gambiae. The goal of this study was to characterize local mosquito populations in the Nouna Department, Burkina Faso with respect to: (i) the extent of introgression between An. coluzzii and An. gambiae, (ii) the frequency of the L1014F mutation and (iii) Plasmodium infection rates. METHODS:A total of 95 mosquitoes were collected from ten sites surrounding Nouna town in Kossi Province, Burkina Faso in 2012. The species composition, the extent of introgression in An. coluzzii mosquitoes and their Plasmodium infection rates were identified with a modified version of the "Divergence Island SNP" (DIS) genotyping assay. RESULTS:The mosquito collection contained 70.5% An. coluzzii, 89.3% of which carried a 3 Mb genomic region on the 2L chromosome with L1014F insecticide resistance mutation that was introgressed from An. gambiae. In addition, 22.4% in the introgressed An. coluzzii specimens were infected with Plasmodium falciparum, whereas none of the non-introgressed ("pure") An. coluzzii were infected. CONCLUSION:This paper is the first report providing divergence island SNP genotypes for natural population of Burkina Faso and corresponding Plasmodium infection rates. These observations warrant further study and could have a major impact on future malaria control strategies in Burkina Faso.
Project description:BACKGROUND:Measuring human exposure to mosquito bites is a crucial component of vector-borne disease surveillance. For malaria vectors, the human landing catch (HLC) remains the gold standard for direct estimation of exposure. This method, however, is controversial since participants risk exposure to potentially infected mosquito bites. Recently an exposure-free mosquito electrocuting trap (MET) was developed to provide a safer alternative to the HLC. Early prototypes of the MET performed well in Tanzania but have yet to be tested in West Africa, where malaria vector species composition, ecology and behaviour are different. The performance of the MET relative to HLC for characterizing mosquito vector population dynamics and biting behaviour in Burkina Faso was evaluated. METHODS:A longitudinal study was initiated within 12 villages in Burkina Faso in October 2016. Host-seeking mosquitoes were sampled monthly using HLC and MET collections over 14 months. Collections were made at 4 households on each night, with METs deployed inside and outside at 2 houses, and HLC inside and outside at another two. Malaria vector abundance, species composition, sporozoite rate and location of biting (indoor versus outdoor) were recorded. RESULTS:In total, 41,800 mosquitoes were collected over 324 sampling nights, with the major malaria vector being Anopheles gambiae sensu lato (s.l.) complex. Overall the MET caught fewer An. gambiae s.l. than the HLC (mean predicted number of 0.78 versus 1.82 indoors, and 1.05 versus 2.04 outdoors). However, MET collections gave a consistent representation of seasonal dynamics in vector populations, species composition, biting behaviour (location and time) and malaria infection rates relative to HLC. As the relative performance of the MET was somewhat higher in outdoor versus indoor settings, this trapping method slightly underestimated the proportion of bites preventable by LLINs compared to the HLC (MET?=?82.08%; HLC?=?87.19%). CONCLUSIONS:The MET collected proportionately fewer mosquitoes than the HLC. However, estimates of An. gambiae s.l. density in METs were highly correlated with HLC. Thus, although less sensitive, the MET is a safer alternative than the HLC. Its use is recommended particularly for sampling vectors in outdoor environments where it is most sensitive.
Project description:BACKGROUND:Effective malaria control relies on evidence-based interventions. Anopheline behaviour and Plasmodium infections were investigated in North Cameroon, following long-lasting insecticidal net (LLIN) distribution in 2010. METHODS:During four consecutive years from 2011 to 2014, adult mosquitoes were collected indoors, outdoors and in exit traps across 38 locations in the Garoua, Pitoa and Mayo-Oulo health districts. Anophelines were morphologically and molecularly identified, then analysed for blood meal origins and Plasmodium falciparum circumsporozoite protein (Pf-CSP). Blood from children under 5 years-old using LLINs was examined for Plasmodium infections. RESULTS:Overall, 9376 anophelines belonging to 14 species/sibling species were recorded. Anopheles gambiae (s.l.) [An. arabiensis (73.3%), An. coluzzii (17.6%) and An. gambiae (s.s.) (9.1%)] was predominant (72%), followed by An. funestus (s.l.) (20.5%) and An. rufipes (6.5%). The recorded blood meals were mainly from humans (28%), cattle (15.6%) and sheep (11.6%) or mixed (45%). Pf-CSP rates were higher indoors (3.2-5.4%) versus outdoors (0.8-2.0%), and increased yearly (χ2 < 18, df = 10, P < 0.03). Malaria prevalence in children under 5 years-old, in households using LLINs was 30% (924/3088). CONCLUSIONS:The present study revealed the variability of malaria vector resting and feeding behaviour, and the persistence of Plasmodium infections regardless the use of LLINs. Supplementary interventions to LLINs are therefore needed to sustain malaria prevention in North Cameroon.
Project description:In the city of Bobo-Dioulasso in Burkina Faso, Anopheles arabiensis has superseded Anopheles gambiae s.s. as the major malaria vector and the larvae are found in highly polluted habitats normally considered unsuitable for Anopheles mosquitoes. Here we show that An. gambiae s.l. adults emerging from a highly polluted site in the city centre (Dioulassoba) have a high prevalence of DDT resistance (percentage mortality after exposure to diagnostic dose=65.8% in the dry season and 70.4% in the rainy season, respectively). An investigation into the mechanisms responsible found an unexpectedly high frequency of the 1014S kdr mutation (allele frequency=0.4), which is found at very low frequencies in An. arabiensis in the surrounding rural areas, and an increase in transcript levels of several detoxification genes, notably from the glutathione transferase and cytochrome P450 gene families. A number of ABC transporter genes were also expressed at elevated levels in the DDT resistant An. arabiensis. Unplanned urbanisation provides numerous breeding grounds for mosquitoes. The finding that Anopheles mosquitoes adapted to these urban breeding sites have a high prevalence of insecticide resistance has important implications for our understanding of the selective forces responsible for the rapid spread of insecticide resistant populations of malaria vectors in Africa.
Project description:BACKGROUND:Vector control activities, namely long-lasting insecticidal nets (LLIN) and indoor residual spraying (IRS), have contributed significantly to the decreasing malaria burden observed in The Gambia since 2008. Nevertheless, insecticide resistance may threaten such success; it is important to regularly assess the susceptibility of local malaria vectors to available insecticides. METHODS:In the transmission seasons of 2016 and 2017, Anopheles gambiae (s.l.) larvae were sampled in or around the nine vector surveillance sentinel sites of the Gambia National Malaria Control Programme (GNMCP) and in a few additional sampling points. Using WHO susceptibility bioassays, female adult mosquitoes were exposed to insecticide-impregnated papers. Molecular identification of sibling species and insecticide resistance molecular markers was done on a subset of 2000 female mosquitoes. RESULTS:A total of 4666 wild-caught female adult mosquitoes were exposed to either permethrin (n = 665), deltamethrin (n = 744), DDT (n = 1021), bendiocarb (n = 990) or pirimiphos-methyl (n = 630) insecticide-impregnated papers and control papers (n = 616). Among the 2000 anophelines, 1511 (80.7%) were Anopheles arabiensis, 204 (10.9%) Anopheles coluzzii, 75 (4%) Anopheles gambiae (s.s.), and 83 (4.4%) An. gambiae (s.s.) and An. coluzzii hybrids. There was a significant variation in the composition and species distribution by regions and year, P = 0.009. Deltamethrin, permethrin and DDT resistance was found in An. arabiensis, especially in the coastal region, and was mediated by Vgsc-1014F/S mutations (odds ratio = 34, P = 0.014). There was suspected resistance to pirimiphos-methyl (actellic 300CS) in the North Bank Region although only one survivor had the Ace-1-119S mutation. CONCLUSIONS:As no confirmed resistance to bendiocarb and actellic 300CS was detected, the national malaria control programme can continue using these insecticides for IRS. Nevertheless, the detection of Ace-1 119S mutation warrants extensive monitoring. The source of insecticide pressure driving insecticide resistance to pyrethroids and DDT detected at the coastal region should be further investigated in order to properly manage the spread of resistance in The Gambia.
Project description:BACKGROUND:Twenty-seven villages were selected in southwest Burkina Faso to implement new vector control strategies in addition to long lasting insecticidal nets (LLINs) through a Randomized Controlled Trial (RCT). We conducted entomological surveys in the villages during the dry cold season (January 2017), dry hot season (March 2017) and rainy season (June 2017) to describe malaria vectors bionomics, insecticide resistance and transmission prior to this trial. METHODS:We carried out hourly catches (from 17:00 to 09:00) inside and outside 4 houses in each village using the Human Landing Catch technique. Mosquitoes were identified using morphological taxonomic keys. Specimens belonging to the Anopheles gambiae complex and Anopheles funestus group were identified using molecular techniques as well as detection of Plasmodium falciparum infection and insecticide resistance target-site mutations. RESULTS:Eight Anopheles species were detected in the area. Anopheles funestus s.s was the main vector during the dry cold season. It was replaced by Anopheles coluzzii during the dry hot season whereas An. coluzzii and An. gambiae s.s. were the dominant species during the rainy season. Species composition of the Anopheles population varied significantly among seasons. All insecticide resistance mechanisms (kdr-w, kdr-e and ace-1 target site mutations) investigated were found in each members of the An. gambiae complex but at different frequencies. We observed early and late biting phenotypes in the main malaria vector species. Entomological inoculation rates were 2.61, 2.67 and 11.25 infected bites per human per month during dry cold season, dry hot season and rainy season, respectively. CONCLUSION:The entomological indicators of malaria transmission were high despite the universal coverage with LLINs. We detected early and late biting phenotypes in the main malaria vector species as well as physiological insecticide resistance mechanisms. These data will be used to evaluate the impact of complementary tools to LLINs in an upcoming RCT.