Capacity building for implementation research: a methodology for advancing health research and practice.
ABSTRACT: BACKGROUND:Implementation research is increasingly being recognised as an important discipline seeking to maximise the benefits of evidence-based interventions. Although capacity-building efforts are ongoing, there has been limited attention on the contextual and health system peculiarities in low- and middle-income countries. Moreover, given the challenges encountered during the implementation of health interventions, the field of implementation research requires a creative attempt to build expertise for health researchers and practitioners simultaneously. With support from the Special Programme for Research and Training in Tropical Diseases, we have developed an implementation research short course that targets both researchers and practitioners. This paper seeks to explain the course development processes and report on training evaluations, highlighting its relevance for inter-institutional and inter-regional capacity strengthening. METHODS:The development of the implementation research course curriculum was categorised into four phases, namely the formation of a core curriculum development team, course content development, internal reviews and pilot, and external reviews and evaluations. Five modules were developed covering Introduction to implementation research, Methods in implementation research, Ethics and quality management in implementation research, Community and stakeholder engagement, and Dissemination in implementation research. Course evaluations were conducted using developed tools measuring participants' reactions and learning. RESULTS:From 2016 to 2018, the IR curriculum has been used to train a total of 165 researchers and practitioners predominantly from African countries, the majority of whom are males (57%) and researchers/academics (79.4%). Participants generally gave positive ratings (e.g. integration of concepts) for their reactions to the training. Under 'learnings', participants indicated improvement in their knowledge in areas such as identification of implementation research problems and questions. CONCLUSION:The approach for training both researchers and practitioners offers a dynamic opportunity for the acquisition and sharing of knowledge for both categories of learners. This approach was crucial in demonstrating a key characteristic of implementation research (e.g. multidisciplinary) practically evident during the training sessions. Using such a model to effectively train participants from various low- and middle-income countries shows the opportunities this training curriculum offers as a capacity-building tool.
Project description:INTRODUCTION:Dissemination and implementation research training has great potential to improve the impact and reach of health-related research; however, research training needs from the end user perspective are unknown. This paper identifies and prioritizes dissemination and implementation research training needs. METHODS:A diverse sample of researchers, practitioners, and policymakers was invited to participate in Concept Mapping in 2014-2015. Phase 1 (Brainstorming) gathered participants' responses to the prompt: To improve the impact of research evidence in practice and policy settings, a skill in which researchers need more training is… The resulting statement list was edited and included subsequent phases. Phase 2 (Sorting) asked participants to sort each statement into conceptual piles. In Phase 3 (Rating), participants rated the difficulty and importance of incorporating each statement into a training curriculum. A multidisciplinary team synthesized and interpreted the results in 2015-2016. RESULTS:During Brainstorming, 60 researchers and 60 practitioners/policymakers contributed 274 unique statements. Twenty-nine researchers and 16 practitioners completed sorting and rating. Nine concept clusters were identified: Communicating Research Findings, Improve Practice Partnerships, Make Research More Relevant, Strengthen Communication Skills, Develop Research Methods and Measures, Consider and Enhance Fit, Build Capacity for Research, and Understand Multilevel Context. Though researchers and practitioners had high agreement about importance (r =0.93) and difficulty (r =0.80), ratings differed for several clusters (e.g., Build Capacity for Research). CONCLUSIONS:Including researcher and practitioner perspectives in competency development for dissemination and implementation research identifies skills and capacities needed to conduct and communicate contextualized, meaningful, and relevant research.
Project description:<h4>Introduction</h4>To implement and evaluate a blended online and in-person training to help mentors of early-career researchers appreciate the complexities of Tobacco Regulatory Science (TRS), refine TRS mentoring skills, and become acquainted with resources for providing effective guidance to TRS mentees.<h4>Methods</h4>TRS mentors engaged in a two-part pilot test of the training program. Authors evaluated both the online and in-person training using retrospective pre-post evaluations, which measure learning at the conclusion of a training program, and post-program focus groups. Twenty learners completed the online training, and 16 learners attended the in-person training module. Nine participants completed evaluations for the online module, and 12 participants completed evaluations for the in-person module.<h4>Results</h4>Program assessments revealed that participants found that the training achieved its overall goals. The majority of respondents (87.5%) rated the online portion of the training as valuable. For the in-person training, participants reported statistically significant improvements regarding confidence in: helping mentees to identify skills and training to effectively pursue TRS, assisting mentees in weighing career trajectories, and guiding mentees in conducting research responsive to TRS regulatory priorities.<h4>Conclusions</h4>The novel mentoring program was well received by faculty seeking to strengthen skills for mentoring early-career TRS researchers to navigate the complex landscape of TRS, explore diverse funding opportunities, and discern potential career trajectories. It provided unique content to address issues outside the traditional tobacco research training curriculum and offered specific information on regulatory policies, priorities, and opportunities.<h4>Implications</h4>This research documents the deployment and evaluation of a blended online and in-person training program for investigators mentoring early-career researchers working in TRS. Our assessment discovered that participants found the training to be valuable to their overall mentoring objectives. The training comprises a novel curriculum for investigators engaged in mentoring early-career researchers in a unique field, thus filling a deficit in the published literature by presenting a curriculum that has been customized to the unique needs of TRS mentors.
Project description:<h4>Background</h4>Few training opportunities are available for implementation practitioners; we designed the Practicing Knowledge Translation (PKT) to address this gap. The goal of PKT is to train practitioners to use evidence and apply implementation science in healthcare settings. The aim of this study was to describe PKT and evaluate participant use of implementation science theories, models, and frameworks (TMFs), knowledge, self-efficacy, and satisfaction and feedback on the course.<h4>Methods</h4>PKT was delivered to implementation practitioners between September 2015 and February 2016 through a 3-day workshop, 11 webinars. We assessed PKT using an uncontrolled before and after study design, using convergent parallel mixed methods. The primary outcome was use of TMFs in implementation projects. Secondary outcomes were knowledge and self-efficacy across six core competencies, factors related to each of the outcomes, and satisfaction with the course. Participants completed online surveys and semi-structured interviews at baseline, 3, 6, and 12 months.<h4>Results</h4>Participants (n?=?15) reported an increase in their use of implementation TMFs (mean?=?2.11; estimate?=?2.11; standard error (SE)?=?0.4; p?= 0.03). There was a significant increase in participants' knowledge of developing an evidence-informed, theory-driven program (ETP) (estimate?=?4.10; SE?=?0.37; p?= 0.002); evidence implementation (estimate?=?2.68; SE?=?0.42; p?< 0.001); evaluation (estimate?=?4.43; SE?=?0.36; p?< 0.001); sustainability, scale, and spread (estimate?=?2.55; SE?=?0.34; p?< 0.001); and context assessment (estimate?=?3.86; SE?=?0.32; p?< 0.001). There was a significant increase in participants' self-efficacy in developing an ETP (estimate?=?3.81; SE?=?0.34; p?< 0.001); implementation (estimate?=?3.01; SE?=?0.36; p?< 0.001); evaluation (estimate?=?3.83; SE?=?0.39; p?= 0.002); sustainability, scale, and spread (estimate?=?3.06; SE?=?0.46; p?= 0.003); and context assessment (estimate?=?4.05; SE?=?0.38; p?= 0.016).<h4>Conclusion</h4>Process and outcome measures collected indicated that PKT participants increased use of, knowledge of, self-efficacy in KT. Our findings highlight the importance of longitudinal evaluations of training initiatives to inform how to build capacity for implementers.
Project description:Background: In face of the looming shortage of general practitioners, primary healthcare providers and post-graduate training in general practice are increasingly becoming part of the political agenda in Germany. In 2009 the program "Verbundweiterbildung plus Baden-Württemberg" (VWB plus BW) was developed by the Competence Center for General Practice in Baden-Wuerttemberg to ensure primary healthcare in the future by enhancing the attractiveness of general medicine. This paper describes the experiences that have been gathered in developing a post-graduate training-program for physicians undergoing specialist training in general practice. Project description: The Competence Center for General Practice in Baden-Wuerttemberg supports the organization of regional networks dedicated to post-graduate medical education. First core element of the VWB plus BW program is a special seminar series for physicians pursuing post-graduate training. This seminar program is aligned with the German competency-based curriculum in general medicine and is meant to promote medical expertise and other related competencies, such as business and medical practice management and communication skills. Mentoring and advising the physicians regarding professional and personal planning form the second core element. The third core element is seen in the train-the-trainer seminars that address the competencies of the trainers. In order to focus the program's content closely on the needs of the target groups, scientifically based evaluations and research are carried out. Results: Since starting in 2009, 685 physicians have entered the program and 141 have passed the examination to become medical specialists (as of December 2016). In total, 31 networks, 60 hospitals and 211 general practices have participated. The seminar sessions have been rated on average with 1.43 on a six-point Likert scale by the physician trainees (1=extremely satisfied, 6=extremely dissatisfied). Alongside the medical training, these physicians viewed the exchange of information and experiences with other physicians as very positive and important. In 185 seminars lasting 90 minutes each, the seminar program has presently covered 250 out of 320 units in the competency-based curriculum for general medicine. A total of 281 trainers have been trained in 13 train-the-trainer courses and have rated this course on average with 1.36 on a six-point Likert scale. Above all, the trainers emphasized the exchange of information and experiences with other trainers as very positive. In 2013 the DEGAM concept for its Verbundweiterbildungplus program was developed based on that of the VWB plus BW. Since 2008 over 40 articles on the topic of post-graduate medical education have been published. Conclusion: The steadily increasing number of participants over the years demonstrates that the VWB plus BW is relevant for recent medical graduates and contributes to the attractiveness of general practice. The consistently excellent evaluations of the training program and the train-the-trainer course affirm the focus on the needs of the target groups. The post-graduate VWB plus BW program advances structured, competency-based and quality-oriented specialist training and fosters professional sharing between physicians - something that could also be relevant for other fields. The increasing numbers of participating physicians and specialists in general practice in Baden-Württemberg lead to the conclusion that the VWB plus BW program positively influences the number of general practitioners.
Project description:We describe a pilot of the Clinical REsearch During Outbreaks (CREDO) initiative, a training curriculum for researchers in epidemic-prone low- and middle-income countries who may respond to disease outbreaks. Participants reported improved confidence in their ability to conduct such research and overall satisfaction with the course structure, content, and training.
Project description:Introduction: Many medical faculties are introducing faculty development programmes to train their teaching staff with the aim of improving student learning performance. Frequently changing parameters within faculties pose a challenge for the sustainable establishment of such programmes. In this paper, we aim to describe facilitating and hindering parameters using the example of the basic teacher training (BTT) course at the Charité - Universtitätsmedizin Berlin (Charité). Project description: After sporadic pilot attempts for university education training, basic teacher training was finally established at the Charité in 2006 for all new teaching staff. An interdisciplinary taskforce at the office for student affairs designed the programme according to the Kern cycle of curriculum development, while the Charité advanced training academy provided the necessary resources. Within ten years more than 900 faculty members have completed the BTT (9% of current active teaching staff at the Charité). The BTT programme underwent several phases (piloting, evaluation, review, personnel and financial boosting), all of which were marked by changes in the staff and organizational framework. Evaluations by participants were very positive, sustainable effects on teaching could be proven to a limited extent. Discussion: Success factors for the establishment of the programme were the institutional framework set by the faculty directors, the commitment of those involved, the support of research grants and the thoroughly positive evaluation by participants. More challenging were frequent changes in parameters and the allocation of incentive resources for other, format-specific training courses (e.g. PBL) as part of the introduction of the new modular curriculum of the Charité. Conclusion: The sustainment of the programme was enabled through strategic institutional steps taken by the faculty heads. Thanks to the commitment and input by those at a working level as well as management level, the basic teacher training course is today an established part of the faculty development programme at the Charité.
Project description:<h4>Background</h4>Academic institutions building capacity for implementation scholarship are also well positioned to build capacity in real world health and human service settings. How practitioners and policy makers are included and trained in implementation capacity-building initiatives, and their impact on building implementation practice capacity is unclear. This scoping review identified and examined features of interventions that build implementation practice capacity across researchers and practitioners or practitioners-in-training.<h4>Methods</h4>Five bibliographic databases were searched. Eligible studies (a) described an implementation capacity building intervention with a connection to an academic institution, (b) targeted researchers and practitioners (including practitioners-in-training, students, or educators), and (c) reported intervention or participant outcomes. Articles that only described capacity building interventions without reporting outcomes were excluded. Consistent with Arksey and O'Malley's framework, key study characteristics were extracted (target participants, core components, and outcomes) and analyzed using open coding and numerical analysis.<h4>Results</h4>Of 1349 studies identified, 64 met eligibility for full-text review, and 14 were included in the final analysis. Half of the studies described implementation capacity building interventions that targeted health or behavioral health researchers, practitioners, and practitioners-in-training together, and half targeted practitioners or practitioners-in-training only. The most common components included structured didactic activities offered in person or online, mentorship and expert consultation to support implementation, and practical application activities (e.g., field placements, case studies). Knowledge sharing activities and technical assistance were less common. All studies reported favorable outcomes related to knowledge attainment, increased ability to implement evidence, productivity, and satisfaction.<h4>Conclusions</h4>Building implementation capacity among practitioners is critical for integrating insights from implementation science into the field and preventing the "secondary" implementation research-to-practice gap. This scoping review identified several promising implementation practice capacity building interventions that tend to build practitioner capacity via expert led activities which may be relevant for academic institutions seeking to build implementation practice capacity. To avoid widening the implementation research-to-practice gap, implementation capacity building interventions are needed that target policy makers, expand beyond multiple practice settings, and leverage university/community partnerships or on-site academic medical centers. Future studies will also be needed to test the impact on service quality and public health outcomes.
Project description:OBJECTIVE:A clinically relevant approach to patient care grounded in neurobiological constructs and evidence based practice which emphasizes a relevant psychopharmacology is needed to optimally train psychiatry residents. METHODS:We implemented a biological psychiatry course that now incorporates neurobiology, psychopharmacology, and evidence-based practice in conjunction with a Research Domain Criteria (RDoC) perspective. A survey launched prior to course implementation and following each class session, served as the outcome metric of residents' attitudes toward the new curriculum and followed a baseline attitudinal survey designed to evaluate the program. RESULTS:Greater than 90% of the psychiatry residents at Duke University who took the attitudinal survey agreed or strongly agreed with needing a course that helped them develop an understanding of neurobiology, psychopharmacology, and evidence-based practice concepts. Most residents also indicated a less than adequate understanding of the neurobiology and psychopharmacology of psychiatric disorders prior to sessions. CONCLUSION:Our biological psychiatry curriculum was associated with enthusiasm among residents regarding the incorporation of neurobiology, psychopharmacology, and evidence-based practice into course topics and discussions. A biological psychiatry curriculum with integrated neurobiology and psychopharmacology built on an evidence base approach is possible, well-received, and needed in training of future psychiatrists.
Project description:Human research ethics training should provide relevant, meaningful information and build skills. Compliance should not be the only goal; training should also enhance knowledge, skills, and capacity. However, most currently available human research ethics training programs are geared toward learners who already have some research experience and working knowledge of research methods (e.g., graduate students, junior researchers); many community partners, however, have little or no prior exposure to research. More important, standard training programs do not adequately address the unique context of community-engaged research (CEnR).This article describes the development process, final curricular materials, and suggestions for successful implementation of CIRTification, a human research ethics training program designed specifically for community research partners who will be working on the "frontlines" of research.Development of CIRTification involved an extensive literature review, consultation with stakeholders including community partners, academic researchers, and human research protection program personnel.The curriculum, as well as information and materials to help potential users promote acceptance of the curriculum by their local institutional review boards (IRBs), are freely available online at www.go.uic.edu/CIRT. Ideally, community research partners who complete CIRTification will not only learn about the importance of protecting research participants but also be empowered to substantially contribute to the ethical practices of their respective research collaborations.
Project description:<h4>Background</h4>Healthcare providers need training to implement shared decision making (SDM). In Norway, we developed "Ready for SDM", a comprehensive SDM curriculum tailored to various healthcare providers, settings, and competence levels, including a course targeting interprofessional healthcare teams. The overall aim was to evaluate a train-the-trainer (TTT) program for healthcare providers wanting to offer this course within their hospital trust.<h4>Methods</h4>Our observational descriptive design was informed by Kirkpatrick´s Model of Educational Outcomes. The South-Eastern Regional Health Authority invited healthcare providers from all health trusts in its jurisdiction to attend. The TTT consisted of a one-day basic course with lectures on SDM, exercises and group reflections followed by a two-day advanced course including an SDM observer training. Immediately after each of the two courses, reaction and learning (Kirkpatrick levels 1 and 2) were assessed using a self-administered questionnaire. After the advanced course, observer skills were operationalized as accuracy of the participants' assessment of a consultation compared to an expert assessment. Within three months post-training, we measured number of trainings conducted and number of healthcare providers trained (Kirkpatrick level 3) using an online survey. Qualitative and quantitative descriptive analysis were performed.<h4>Results</h4>Twenty-one out of 24 (basic) and 19 out of 22 (advanced) healthcare providers in 9 health trusts consented to participate. The basic course was evaluated as highly acceptable, the advanced course as complex and challenging. Participants identified a need for more training in pedagogical skills and support for planning implementation of SDM-training. Participants achieved high knowledge scores and were positive about being an SDM trainer. Observer skills regarding patient involvement in decision-making were excellent (mean of weighted t = .80). After three months, 67% of TTT participants had conducted more than two trainings each and trained a total of 458 healthcare providers.<h4>Conclusion</h4>Findings suggest that the TTT is a feasible approach for supporting large-scale training in SDM. Our study informed us about how to improve the advanced course. Further research shall investigate the efficacy of the training in the context of a comprehensive multifaceted strategy for implementing SDM in clinical practice.<h4>Trial registration</h4>Retrospectively registered at ISRCTN (99432465) March 25, 2020.