Cardiotoxicity evaluation using magnetic resonance imaging in breast Cancer patients (CareBest): study protocol for a prospective trial.
ABSTRACT: BACKGROUND:Cardiovascular disease is second only to cancer recurrence as a determinant of lifespan in cancer survivors, and cancer therapy-related cardiac dysfunction is a clinically important risk factor. We aim to investigate the use of cardiac magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) to evaluate early tissue changes and perform functional assessment of chemo- and radiation-induced cardiotoxicity and to identify MRI prognostic indicators of cardiotoxicity in breast cancer patients. METHODS:A 3-min cardiac imaging protocol will be added to the breast MRI examination to diagnose cardiotoxicity in breast cancer patients. Standardized MRI-based evaluation of breast cancer and the left ventricular myocardium will be performed at baseline and at 3, 6, and 12?months and 2?years or more after cancer treatment. We will analyze both ventricular volume and ejection fraction (EF), strain of left ventricle (LV), native T1, extracellular volume fraction (ECV), and T2 values acquired in the mid LV. DISCUSSION:The primary result of this study will be the comparison of the prognostic value of MRI parameters (native T1, ECV, both ventricular systolic function and LV strain) for cardiotoxicity. The endpoint is defined as the occurrence of a major adverse cardiac event (MACE). The secondary outcome will be an assessment of the temporal relationships between contractile dysfunction and microstructural injury over 4?years using MRI. This study will assess the usefulness of quantitative MRI to diagnose cardiotoxicity and will clarify the temporal relationships between contractile dysfunction and microstructural injury of the LV myocardium using MRI during breast cancer treatment. TRIAL REGISTRATION:The protocol was registered at clinicaltrials.gov (Clinical trial no. NCT03301389) on October 4, 2017.
Project description:OBJECTIVES:The goal of this study was to demonstrate that cardiac magnetic resonance could reveal anthracycline-induced early tissue remodeling and its relation to cardiac dysfunction and left ventricular (LV) atrophy. BACKGROUND:Serum biomarkers of cardiac dysfunction, although elevated after chemotherapy, lack specificity for the mechanism of myocardial tissue alterations. METHODS:A total of 27 women with breast cancer (mean age 51.8 ± 8.9 years, mean body mass index 26.9 ± 3.6 kg/m2), underwent cardiac magnetic resonance before and up to 3 times after anthracycline therapy. Cardiac magnetic resonance variables were LV ejection fraction, normalized T2-weighted signal intensity for myocardial edema, extracellular volume (ECV), LV cardiomyocyte mass, intracellular water lifetime (?ic; a marker of cardiomyocyte size), and late gadolinium enhancement. RESULTS:At baseline, patients had a relatively low (10-year) Framingham cardiovascular event risk (median 5%), normal LV ejection fractions (mean 69.4 ± 3.6%), and normal LV mass index (51.4 ± 8.0 g/m2), a mean ECV of 0.32 ± 0.038, mean ?ic of 169 ± 69 ms, and no late gadolinium enhancement. At 351 to 700 days after anthracycline therapy (240 mg/m2), mean LV ejection fraction had declined by 12% to 58 ± 6% (p < 0.001) and mean LV mass index by 19 g/m2 to 36 ± 6 g/m2 (p < 0.001), and mean ECV had increased by 0.037 to 0.36 ± 0.04 (p = 0.004), while mean ?ic had decreased by 62 ms to 119 ± 54 ms (p = 0.004). Myocardial edema peaked at about 146 to 231 days (p < 0.001). LV mass index was associated with ?ic (? = 4.1 ± 1.5 g/m2 per 100-ms increase in ?ic, p = 0.007) but not with ECV. Cardiac troponin T (mean 4.6 ± 1.4 pg/ml at baseline) increased significantly after anthracycline treatment (p < 0.001). Total LV cardiomyocyte mass, estimated as: (1 - ECV) × LV mass, declined more rapidly after anthracycline therapy, with peak cardiac troponin T >10 pg/ml. There was no evidence for any significant interaction between 10-year cardiovascular event risk and the effect of anthracycline therapy. CONCLUSIONS:A decrease in LV mass after anthracycline therapy may result from cardiomyocyte atrophy, demonstrating that mechanisms other than interstitial fibrosis and edema can raise ECV. The loss of LV cardiomyocyte mass increased with the degree of cardiomyocyte injury, assessed by peak cardiac troponin T after anthracycline treatment. (Doxorubicin-Associated Cardiac Remodeling Followed by CMR in Breast Cancer Patients; NCT03000036).
Project description:Purpose/Objectives:Node-positive breast cancer patients often receive chemotherapy and regional nodal irradiation. The cardiotoxic effects of these treatments, however, may offset some of the survival benefit. Cardiac magnetic resonance (CMR) is an emerging modality to assess cardiac injury. This is a pilot trial assessing cardiac damage using CMR in patients who received anthracycline-based chemotherapy and three-dimensional conformal radiotherapy (3DCRT) regional nodal irradiation using heart constraints. Materials and Methods:Node-positive breast cancer patients (2000-2008) treated with anthracycline-based chemotherapy and 3DCRT regional nodal irradiation (including the internal mammary chain nodes) with heart ventricular constraints (V25 < 10%) were invited to participate. Cardiac tissues were contoured and analyzed separately for whole heart (pericardium) and for combined ventricles and left atrium (myocardium). CMR obtained ventricular function/dimensions, late gadolinium enhancement (LGE), global longitudinal strain (GLS), and extracellular volume fraction (ECV) as measures of cardiac injury and/or early fibrosis. CMR parameters were correlated with dose-volume constraints using Spearman correlations. Results:Fifteen left-sided and five right-sided patients underwent CMR. Median diagnosis age was 50 (32-77). No patients had baseline cardiac disease before regional nodal irradiation. Median time after 3DCRT was 8.3 years (5.2-14.4). Median left-sided mean heart dose (MHD) was 4.8 Gy (1.1-11.2) and V25 was 5.7% (0-12%). Median left ventricular ejection fraction (LVEF) was 63%. No abnormal LGE was observed. No correlations were seen between whole heart doses and LVEF, LV mass, GLS, or LV dimensions. Increasing ECV did not correlate with increased heart or ventricular doses. However, correlations between higher LV mass and ventricular mean dose, V10, and V25 were seen. Conclusion:At a median follow-up of 8.3 years, this cohort of node-positive breast cancer patients who received anthracycline-based chemotherapy and regional nodal irradiation had no clinically abnormal CMR findings. However, correlations between ventricular mean dose, V10, and V25 and LV mass were seen. Larger corroborating studies that include advanced techniques for measuring regional heart mechanics are warranted.
Project description:Nonischemic cardiomyopathy is a common cause of left ventricular (LV) dysfunction and myocardial fibrosis. The purpose of this study was to noninvasively evaluate changes in segmental LV extracellular volume (ECV) fraction, LV velocities, myocardial scar, and wall motion in nonischemic cardiomyopathy patients.Cardiac MRI including pre- and postcontrast myocardial T1 mapping and velocity quantification (tissue phase mapping) of the LV (basal, midventricular, and apical short axis) was applied in 31 patients with nonischemic cardiomyopathy (50±18 years). Analysis based on the 16-segment American Heart Association model was used to evaluate the segmental distribution of ECV, peak systolic and diastolic myocardial velocities, scar determined by late gadolinium enhancement, and wall motion abnormalities. LV segments with scar or impaired wall motion were significantly associated with elevated ECV (rs =0.26; P<0.001) and reduced peak systolic radial velocities (r=-0.43; P<0.001). Regional myocardial velocities and ECV were similar for patients with reduced (n=12; ECV=0.28±0.06) and preserved left ventricular ejection fraction (n=19; ECV=0.30±0.09). Patients with preserved left ventricular ejection fraction showed significant relationships between increasing ECV and reduced systolic (r=-0.19; r=-0.30) and diastolic (r=0.34; r=0.26) radial and long-axis peak velocities (P<0.001). Even after excluding myocardial segments with late gadolinium enhancement, significant relationships between ECV and segmental LV velocities were maintained indicating the potential of elevated ECV to identify regional diffuse fibrosis not visible by late gadolinium enhancement, which was associated with impaired regional LV function.Regionally elevated ECV negatively affected myocardial velocities. The association of elevated regional ECV with reduced myocardial velocities independent of left ventricular ejection fraction suggests a structure-function relationship between altered ECV and segmental myocardial function in nonischemic cardiomyopathy.
Project description:A reliable, non-invasive diagnostic method is needed for early detection and serial monitoring of cardiotoxicity, a well-known side effect of chemotherapy. This study aimed to assess the feasibility of T1-mapping cardiac magnetic resonance imaging (CMR) for evaluating subclinical myocardial changes in a doxorubicin-induced cardiotoxicity rabbit model. Adult male New Zealand White rabbits were injected twice-weekly with doxorubicin and subjected to CMR on a clinical 3T MR system before and every 2-4 weeks post-drug administration. Native T1 and extracellular volume (ECV) values were measured at six mid-left ventricle (LV) and specific LV lesions. Histological assessments evaluated myocardial injury and fibrosis. Three pre-model and 11 post-model animals were included. Myocardial injury was observed from 3 weeks. Mean LV myocardium ECV values increased significantly from week 3 before LV ejection fraction decreases (week 6), and ECVs of the RV upper/lower insertion sites and papillary muscle exceeded those of the LV. The mean native T1 value in the mid-LV increased significantly increased from week 6, and LV myocardium ECV correlated strongly with the degree of fibrosis (r?=?0.979, p?<?0.001). Myocardial T1 mapping, particularly ECV values, reliably and non-invasively detected early cardiotoxicity, allowing serial monitoring of chemotherapy-induced cardiotoxicity.
Project description:AIMS:Childhood cancer therapy is associated with a significant risk of therapy-related cardiotoxicity. This meta-analysis aims to evaluate cardiac biomarkers for the detection of cancer therapy-related left ventricular (LV) dysfunction in childhood cancer patients. METHODS AND RESULTS:PubMed, Cochrane Library, Wiley Library, and Web of Science were screened for studies investigating brain natriuretic peptide (BNP)/N-terminal proBNP (NT-proBNP) or cardiac troponin in childhood cancer patients. The odds ratios (OR) for elevation of cardiac biomarkers and association with LV dysfunction were calculated using a random-effects model. Data from 27 studies with 1651 subjects were included. BNP/NT-proBNP levels were higher post-treatment compared with controls or pre-treatment values [standardized mean difference = 1.0; 95% confidence interval (CI) = 0.6-1.4; n = 320; P < 0.001]. LV dysfunction was present in 11.76% of included patients, and risk for LV dysfunction was increased in patients with elevated BNP/NT-proBNP (OR = 7.1; 95% CI = 2.0-25.5; n = 350; P = 0.003). The sensitivity of BNP/NT-proBNP for the detection of LV dysfunction was 33.3%, and the specificity was 91.5%. Sensitivity increased when selecting for studies that assessed patients < 5 years after anthracycline exposure and for studies including high cumulative anthracycline doses. Anthracycline chemotherapy was associated with an increased frequency of elevated troponin (OR = 3.7; 95% CI = 2.1-6.5; n = 348; P < 0.001). The available evidence on the association between elevated troponin and LV dysfunction was insufficient for an adequate analysis. In five included studies, the frequency of LV dysfunction was not increased in patients with elevated troponin (OR = 2.5; 95% CI = 0.5-13.2; n = 179; P = 0.53). CONCLUSIONS:BNP/NT-proBNP is associated with cardiotoxicity in paediatric cancer patients receiving anthracycline therapy, but owing to low sensitivity, BNP/NT-proBNP has to be evaluated in the context of further parameters including clinical assessment and echocardiography. Future studies are needed to determine whether troponin serves as a marker for cardiotoxicity in children. Standardized recommendations for the application of cardiac biomarkers in children undergoing cardiotoxic cancer therapy may benefit management and clinical outcome.
Project description:The optimal management of chronic severe primary degenerative mitral regurgitation (MR) is to repair the valve but identification of the optimal timing of surgery remains challenging. Current guidelines suggest 'watchful waiting' until the onset of symptoms or left ventricular (LV) dysfunction but these have been challenged as promoting 'rescue surgery'. Better predictors are required to inform decision-making in relation to the necessity and timing of surgery. Chronic volume overload is a stimulus for adverse adaptive LV remodelling. Subclinical reduction in LV strain before mitral repair predicts a fall in LV ejection fraction following surgery and is thought to reflect the development of myocardial fibrosis in response to chronic volume overload. Myocardial fibrosis can be detected non-invasively using cardiac magnetic resonance (CMR) imaging techniques as an expansion of the extracellular volume (ECV).This study investigates whether: 1) patients with above median ECV will have smaller reduction in end-systolic volume index (as a measure of the degree of reverse LV remodelling) on CMR following mitral valve repair, compared to those with below median ECV; and 2) higher ECV on CMR, validated through histology, adversely impacts upon post-operative complications and symptomatic improvement following surgery. This is a multi-centre, prospective, cross-sectional comparison of patients prior to and 9 months following surgery for chronic severe primary degenerative MR. To establish the natural history of ECV in MR, an additional cohort of patients with asymptomatic MR who do not wish to consider early repair will be followed. Investigations include CMR, cardiopulmonary exercise test, stress echocardiography, signal-averaged electrocardiogram, 24-h electrocardiogram monitoring, laboratory tests and patient-reported outcome measures. Patients undergoing surgery will have cardiac biopsies performed at the time of mitral valve repair for histological quantification of fibrosis.This study will advance our understanding of ventricular remodelling in MR, its impact on patient symptoms and ventricular response following surgery. Establishing the link between myocardial fibrosis (measured on CMR and validated through histology), with early ventricular dysfunction, will offer physicians a novel non-invasive biomarker that can further inform the timing of surgery.This trial was registered at ClinicalTrials.gov ( NCT02355418 ) on 30th November 2015.
Project description:Cancer therapeutics-related cardiac dysfunction (CTRCD) is a well-established adverse effect resulting from a number of cancer therapeutics. Newer immunotherapy has been associated with cardiomyopathy and myocarditis making comprehensive imaging useful for early recognition. Cardiac MRI (CMR) offers a comprehensive evaluation to detect CTRCD. Established guidelines for monitoring left ventricular ejection fraction for potential cardiotoxicity have recently incorporated CMR. We will review the utility of CMR in contemporary evaluation for potential oncologic cardiotoxicity.
Project description:Background:The extracellular volume (ECV) calculated by T1 mapping, and tissue-tracking strain using cardiac magnetic resonance (CMR) are useful for assessing the left ventricular (LV) function. However, those parameters are controversial for assessing left atrial (LA) function. This study aimed to investigate the usefulness of CMR to evaluate the LA function using those parameters. Furthermore, those LA function parameters were compared in each LV function. Methods:A total of 65 consecutive patients who underwent contrast CMR were prospectively enrolled (age 55.7 ± 14. 6 years, males 67.7%). Among the 65 patients, there were 15 without hypertension, diabetes, or atrial fibrillation (Healthy group). The remaining 50 patients were divided into two groups according to a left ventricular ejection fraction (LVEF) of 50%. We assessed the correlations between the LV- and LA-CMR parameters among the three groups (LVEF < 50%; n = 20, LVEF ? 50%; n = 30, and Healthy; n = 15). Results:The LA-longitudinal strain for an LVEF < 50% was lower than that for the others (LVEF < 50%; 13.6 ± 7.9%, LVEF ? 50%; 24. 5 ± 13.5%, Healthy; 24.5 ± 9.8%, p = 0.003). However, the LA-ECV did not significantly differ among the three groups (LVEF < 50%; 50.3 ± 3.6%, LVEF ? 50%; 53.1 ± 4.9%, Healthy; 53.2 ± 6.5%, p = 0.12). A multiple regression model after adjusting for the patient background revealed that a worse LA-longitudinal strain was correlated with a low LVEF and large LA-volume, but the LA-ECV was not associated with those. Conclusions:The LA-strain in LV dysfunction patients was significantly lower. However, the LA-ECV did not significantly differ from that in those without LV dysfunction. Tissue-tracking strain is more useful for evaluating the LA dysfunction than T1 mapping.
Project description:Imaging-based assessment of cardiovascular structure and function provides clinically relevant information in smokers. Non-cardiac-gated thoracic computed tomographic (CT) scanning is increasingly leveraged for clinical care and lung cancer screening. We sought to determine if more comprehensive measures of ventricular geometry could be obtained from CT using an atlas-based surface model of the heart.Subcohorts of 24 subjects with cardiac magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) and 262 subjects with echocardiography were identified from COPDGene, a longitudinal observational study of smokers. A surface model of the heart was manually initialized, and then automatically optimized to fit the epicardium for each CT. Estimates of right and left ventricular (RV and LV) volume and free-wall curvature were then calculated and compared to structural and functional metrics obtained from MRI and echocardiograms.CT measures of RV dimension and curvature correlated with similar measures obtained using MRI. RV and LV volume obtained from CT inversely correlated with echocardiogram-based estimates of RV systolic pressure using tricuspid regurgitation jet velocity and LV ejection fraction respectively. Patients with evidence of RV or LV dysfunction on echocardiogram had larger RV and LV dimensions on CT. Logistic regression models based on demographics and ventricular measures from CT had an area under the curve of >0.7 for the prediction of elevated right ventricular systolic pressure and ventricular failure.These data suggest that non-cardiac-gated, non-contrast-enhanced thoracic CT scanning may provide insight into cardiac structure and function in smokers.