Insulin resistance drives hepatic de novo lipogenesis in nonalcoholic fatty liver disease.
ABSTRACT: BACKGROUNDAn increase in intrahepatic triglyceride (IHTG) is the hallmark feature of nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) and is decreased by weight loss. Hepatic de novo lipogenesis (DNL) contributes to steatosis in individuals with NAFLD. The physiological factors that stimulate hepatic DNL and the effect of weight loss on hepatic DNL are not clear.METHODSHepatic DNL, 24-hour integrated plasma insulin and glucose concentrations, and both liver and whole-body insulin sensitivity were determined in individuals who were lean (n = 14), obese with normal IHTG content (n = 26), or obese with NAFLD (n = 27). Hepatic DNL was assessed using the deuterated water method corrected for the potential confounding contribution of adipose tissue DNL. Liver and whole-body insulin sensitivity was assessed using the hyperinsulinemic-euglycemic clamp procedure in conjunction with glucose tracer infusion. Six subjects in the obese-NAFLD group were also evaluated before and after a diet-induced weight loss of 10%.RESULTSThe contribution of hepatic DNL to IHTG-palmitate was 11%, 19%, and 38% in the lean, obese, and obese-NAFLD groups, respectively. Hepatic DNL was inversely correlated with hepatic and whole-body insulin sensitivity, but directly correlated with 24-hour plasma glucose and insulin concentrations. Weight loss decreased IHTG content, in conjunction with a decrease in hepatic DNL and 24-hour plasma glucose and insulin concentrations.CONCLUSIONSThese data suggest hepatic DNL is an important regulator of IHTG content and that increases in circulating glucose and insulin stimulate hepatic DNL in individuals with NAFLD. Weight loss decreased IHTG content, at least in part, by decreasing hepatic DNL.TRIAL REGISTRATIONClinicalTrials.gov NCT02706262.FUNDINGThis study was supported by NIH grants DK56341 (Nutrition Obesity Research Center), DK20579 (Diabetes Research Center), DK52574 (Digestive Disease Research Center), and RR024992 (Clinical and Translational Science Award), and by grants from the Academy of Nutrition and Dietetics Foundation, the College of Natural Resources of UCB, and the Pershing Square Foundation.
Project description:BACKGROUNDInsulin is a key regulator of metabolic function. The effects of excess adiposity, insulin resistance, and hepatic steatosis on the complex integration of insulin secretion and hepatic and extrahepatic tissue extraction are not clear.METHODSA hyperinsulinemic-euglycemic clamp and a 3-hour oral glucose tolerance test were performed to evaluate insulin sensitivity and insulin kinetics after glucose ingestion in 3 groups: (a) lean subjects with normal intrahepatic triglyceride (IHTG) and glucose tolerance (lean-NL; n = 14), (b) obese subjects with normal IHTG and glucose tolerance (obese-NL; n = 24), and (c) obese subjects with nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) and prediabetes (obese-NAFLD; n = 22).RESULTSInsulin sensitivity progressively decreased and insulin secretion progressively increased from the lean-NL to the obese-NL to the obese-NAFLD groups. Fractional hepatic insulin extraction progressively decreased from the lean-NL to the obese-NL to the obese-NAFLD groups, whereas total hepatic insulin extraction (molar amount removed) was greater in the obese-NL and obese-NAFLD subjects than in the lean-NL subjects. Insulin appearance in the systemic circulation and extrahepatic insulin extraction progressively increased from the lean-NL to the obese-NL to the obese-NAFLD groups. Total hepatic insulin extraction plateaued at high rates of insulin delivery, whereas the relationship between systemic insulin appearance and total extrahepatic extraction was linear.CONCLUSIONHyperinsulinemia after glucose ingestion in obese-NL and obese-NAFLD is due to an increase in insulin secretion, without a decrease in total hepatic or extrahepatic insulin extraction. However, the liver's maximum capacity to remove insulin is limited because of a saturable extraction process. The increase in insulin delivery to the liver and extrahepatic tissues in obese-NAFLD is unable to compensate for the increase in insulin resistance, resulting in impaired glucose homeostasis.TRIAL REGISTRATIONClinicalTrials.gov NCT02706262.FUNDINGNIH grants DK56341 (Nutrition Obesity Research Center), DK052574 (Digestive Disease Research Center), RR024992 (Clinical and Translational Science Award), and T32 DK007120 (a T32 Ruth L. Kirschstein National Research Service Award); the American Diabetes Foundation (1-18-ICTS-119); Janssen Research & Development; and the Pershing Square Foundation.
Project description:Weight loss by ketogenic diet (KD) has gained popularity in management of nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD). KD rapidly reverses NAFLD and insulin resistance despite increasing circulating nonesterified fatty acids (NEFA), the main substrate for synthesis of intrahepatic triglycerides (IHTG). To explore the underlying mechanism, we quantified hepatic mitochondrial fluxes and their regulators in humans by using positional isotopomer NMR tracer analysis. Ten overweight/obese subjects received stable isotope infusions of: [D7]glucose, [13C4]?-hydroxybutyrate and [3-13C]lactate before and after a 6-d KD. IHTG was determined by proton magnetic resonance spectroscopy (1H-MRS). The KD diet decreased IHTG by 31% in the face of a 3% decrease in body weight and decreased hepatic insulin resistance (-58%) despite an increase in NEFA concentrations (+35%). These changes were attributed to increased net hydrolysis of IHTG and partitioning of the resulting fatty acids toward ketogenesis (+232%) due to reductions in serum insulin concentrations (-53%) and hepatic citrate synthase flux (-38%), respectively. The former was attributed to decreased hepatic insulin resistance and the latter to increased hepatic mitochondrial redox state (+167%) and decreased plasma leptin (-45%) and triiodothyronine (-21%) concentrations. These data demonstrate heretofore undescribed adaptations underlying the reversal of NAFLD by KD: That is, markedly altered hepatic mitochondrial fluxes and redox state to promote ketogenesis rather than synthesis of IHTG.
Project description:<h4>Background and aims</h4>It is proposed that impaired expansion of subcutaneous adipose tissue (SAT) and an increase in adipose tissue (AT) fibrosis causes ectopic lipid accumulation, insulin resistance (IR), and metabolically unhealthy obesity. We therefore evaluated whether a decrease in SAT expandability, assessed by measuring SAT lipogenesis (triglyceride [TG] production), and an increase in SAT fibrogenesis (collagen production) are associated with NAFLD and IR in persons with obesity.<h4>Approach and results</h4>In vivo abdominal SAT lipogenesis and fibrogenesis, expression of SAT genes involved in extracellular matrix (ECM) formation, and insulin sensitivity were assessed in three groups of participants stratified by adiposity and intrahepatic TG (IHTG) content: (1) healthy lean with normal IHTG content (Lean-NL; n = 12); (2) obese with normal IHTG content and normal glucose tolerance (Ob-NL; n = 25); and (3) obese with NAFLD and abnormal glucose metabolism (Ob-NAFLD; n = 25). Abdominal SAT TG synthesis rates were greater (P < 0.05) in both the Ob-NL (65.9 ± 4.6 g/wk) and Ob-NAFLD groups (71.1 ± 6.7 g/wk) than the Lean-NL group (16.2 ± 2.8 g/wk) without a difference between the Ob-NL and Ob-NAFLD groups. Abdominal SAT collagen synthesis rate and the composite expression of genes encoding collagens progressively increased from the Lean-NL to the Ob-NL to the Ob-NAFLD groups and were greater in the Ob-NAFLD than the Ob-NL group (P < 0.05). Composite expression of collagen genes was inversely correlated with both hepatic and whole-body insulin sensitivity (P < 0.001).<h4>Conclusions</h4>AT expandability is not impaired in persons with obesity and NAFLD. However, SAT fibrogenesis is greater in persons with obesity and NAFLD than in those with obesity and normal IHTG content, and is inversely correlated with both hepatic and whole-body insulin sensitivity.
Project description:Nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) and alterations in hepatic lipoprotein kinetics are common metabolic complications associated with obesity. Lifestyle modification involving diet-induced weight loss and regular exercise decreases intrahepatic triglyceride (IHTG) content and very low density lipoprotein (VLDL) triglyceride (TG) secretion rate. The aim of this study was to evaluate the weight loss-independent effect of following the physical activity guidelines recommended by the Department of Health and Human Services on IHTG content and VLDL kinetics in obese persons with NAFLD. Eighteen obese people (body mass index [BMI]: 38.1 ± 4.6 kg/m(2)) with NAFLD were randomized to 16 weeks of exercise training (45%-55% VO(2peak) , 30-60 minutes × 5 days/week; n = 12) or observation (control; n = 6). Magnetic resonance spectroscopy and stable isotope tracer infusions in conjunction with compartmental modeling were used to evaluate IHTG content and hepatic VLDL-TG and apolipoprotein B-100 (apoB-100) secretion rates. Exercise training resulted in a 10.3% ± 4.6% decrease in IHTG content (P < 0.05), but did not change total body weight (103.1 ± 4.2 kg before and 102.9 ± 4.2 kg after training) or percent body fat (38.9% ± 2.1% before and 39.2% ± 2.1% after training). Exercise training did not change the hepatic VLDL-TG secretion rate (17.7 ± 3.9 ?mol/min before and 16.8 ± 5.4 ?mol/min after training) or VLDL-apoB-100 secretion rate (1.5 ± 0.5 nmol/min before and 1.6 ± 0.6 nmol/min after training).Following the Department of Health and Human Services recommended physical activity guidelines has small but beneficial effects on IHTG content, but does not improve hepatic lipoprotein kinetics in obese persons with NAFLD.
Project description:Oxidative stress (OS) in non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) promotes liver injury and inflammation. Treatment with vitamin E (?-tocopherol, ?T), a lipid-soluble antioxidant, improves liver injury but also decreases steatosis, thought to be upstream of OS, through an unknown mechanism. To elucidate the mechanism, we combined a mechanistic human trial interrogating pathways of intrahepatic triglyceride (IHTG) accumulation and in vitro experiments. 50% of NAFLD patients (n = 20) treated with ?T (200-800 IU/d) for 24 weeks had a ? 25% relative decrease in IHTG by magnetic resonance spectroscopy. Paired liver biopsies at baseline and week 4 of treatment revealed a decrease in markers of hepatic de novo lipogenesis (DNL) that strongly predicted week 24 response. In vitro, using HepG2 cells and primary human hepatocytes, ?T inhibited glucose-induced DNL by decreasing SREBP-1 processing and lipogenic gene expression. This mechanism is dependent on the antioxidant capacity of ?T, as redox-silenced methoxy-?T is unable to inhibit DNL in vitro. OS by itself was sufficient to increase S2P expression in vitro, and S2P is upregulated in NAFLD livers. In summary, we utilized ?T to demonstrate a vicious cycle in which NAFLD generates OS, which feeds back to augment DNL and increases steatosis. Clinicaltrials.gov: NCT01792115.
Project description:<h4>Objective</h4>Nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (i.e., increased intrahepatic triglyceride [IHTG] content), predisposes to type 2 diabetes and cardiovascular disease. Adipose tissue lipolysis and hepatic de novo lipogenesis (DNL) are the main pathways contributing to IHTG. We hypothesized that dietary macronutrient composition influences the pathways, mediators, and magnitude of weight gain-induced changes in IHTG.<h4>Research design and methods</h4>We overfed 38 overweight subjects (age 48 ± 2 years, BMI 31 ± 1 kg/m<sup>2</sup>, liver fat 4.7 ± 0.9%) 1,000 extra kcal/day of saturated (SAT) or unsaturated (UNSAT) fat or simple sugars (CARB) for 3 weeks. We measured IHTG (<sup>1</sup>H-MRS), pathways contributing to IHTG (lipolysis ([<sup>2</sup>H<sub>5</sub>]glycerol) and DNL (<sup>2</sup>H<sub>2</sub>O) basally and during euglycemic hyperinsulinemia), insulin resistance, endotoxemia, plasma ceramides, and adipose tissue gene expression at 0 and 3 weeks.<h4>Results</h4>Overfeeding SAT increased IHTG more (+55%) than UNSAT (+15%, <i>P</i> < 0.05). CARB increased IHTG (+33%) by stimulating DNL (+98%). SAT significantly increased while UNSAT decreased lipolysis. SAT induced insulin resistance and endotoxemia and significantly increased multiple plasma ceramides. The diets had distinct effects on adipose tissue gene expression.<h4>Conclusions</h4>Macronutrient composition of excess energy influences pathways of IHTG: CARB increases DNL, while SAT increases and UNSAT decreases lipolysis. SAT induced the greatest increase in IHTG, insulin resistance, and harmful ceramides. Decreased intakes of SAT could be beneficial in reducing IHTG and the associated risk of diabetes.
Project description:Studies in animals have documented that, compared with glucose, dietary fructose induces dyslipidemia and insulin resistance. To assess the relative effects of these dietary sugars during sustained consumption in humans, overweight and obese subjects consumed glucose- or fructose-sweetened beverages providing 25% of energy requirements for 10 weeks. Although both groups exhibited similar weight gain during the intervention, visceral adipose volume was significantly increased only in subjects consuming fructose. Fasting plasma triglyceride concentrations increased by approximately 10% during 10 weeks of glucose consumption but not after fructose consumption. In contrast, hepatic de novo lipogenesis (DNL) and the 23-hour postprandial triglyceride AUC were increased specifically during fructose consumption. Similarly, markers of altered lipid metabolism and lipoprotein remodeling, including fasting apoB, LDL, small dense LDL, oxidized LDL, and postprandial concentrations of remnant-like particle-triglyceride and -cholesterol significantly increased during fructose but not glucose consumption. In addition, fasting plasma glucose and insulin levels increased and insulin sensitivity decreased in subjects consuming fructose but not in those consuming glucose. These data suggest that dietary fructose specifically increases DNL, promotes dyslipidemia, decreases insulin sensitivity, and increases visceral adiposity in overweight/obese adults.
Project description:Patients with nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) are reported to have low growth hormone (GH) production and/or hepatic GH resistance. GH replacement can resolve the fatty liver condition in diet-induced obese rodents and in GH-deficient patients. However, it remains to be determined whether this inhibitory action of GH is due to direct regulation of hepatic lipid metabolism. Therefore, an adult-onset, hepatocyte-specific, GH receptor (GHR) knockdown (aLivGHRkd) mouse was developed to model hepatic GH resistance in humans that may occur after sexual maturation. Just 7 days after aLivGHRkd, hepatic de novo lipogenesis (DNL) was increased in male and female chow-fed mice, compared with GHR-intact littermate controls. However, hepatosteatosis developed only in male and ovariectomized female aLivGHRkd mice. The increase in DNL observed in aLivGHRkd mice was not associated with hyperactivation of the pathway by which insulin is classically considered to regulate DNL. However, glucokinase mRNA and protein levels as well as fructose-2,6-bisphosphate levels were increased in aLivGHRkd mice, suggesting that enhanced glycolysis drives DNL in the GH-resistant liver. These results demonstrate that hepatic GH actions normally serve to inhibit DNL, where loss of this inhibitory signal may explain, in part, the inappropriate increase in hepatic DNL observed in NAFLD patients.
Project description:Approximately one-third of the U.S. population has nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD), a condition closely associated with insulin resistance and increased risk of liver injury. Dysregulated mitochondrial metabolism is central in these disorders, but the manner and degree of dysregulation are disputed. This study tested whether humans with NAFLD have abnormal in vivo hepatic mitochondrial metabolism. Subjects with low (3.0%) and high (17%) intrahepatic triglyceride (IHTG) were studied using (2)H and (13)C tracers to evaluate systemic lipolysis, hepatic glucose production, and mitochondrial pathways (TCA cycle, anaplerosis, and ketogenesis). Individuals with NAFLD had 50% higher rates of lipolysis and 30% higher rates of gluconeogenesis. There was a positive correlation between IHTG content and both mitochondrial oxidative and anaplerotic fluxes. These data indicate that mitochondrial oxidative metabolism is ~2-fold greater in those with NAFLD, providing a potential link between IHTG content, oxidative stress, and liver damage.
Project description:AMPK is an energy sensor modulating metabolism, inflammation, and a target for metabolic disorders. Metabolic dysfunction results in lower AMPK activity. PXL770 is a direct AMPK activator, inhibiting <i>de novo</i> lipogenesis (DNL) and producing efficacy in preclinical models. We aimed to assess pharmacokinetics, safety, and pharmacodynamics of PXL770 in humans with metabolic syndrome-associated fatty liver disease. In a randomized, double-blind four-week trial, 12 overweight/obese patients with non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) and insulin resistance received PXL770 500 mg QD; 4 subjects received matching placebo. Endpoints included pharmacokinetics, hepatic fractional DNL, oral glucose tolerance testing, additional pharmacodynamic parameters, and safety. PK parameters show adequate plasma exposure in NAFLD patients for daily oral dosing. PXL770 decreases DNL-both peak and AUC are reduced versus baseline-and improves glycemic parameters and indices of insulin sensitivity versus baseline. Assessment of specific lipids reveals decrease in diacyglycerols/triacylglycerols. Safety/tolerability are similar to placebo. These results unveil initial human translation of AMPK activation and support this therapeutic strategy for metabolic disorders.