Susceptibility Patterns of Multidrug-Resistant Acinetobacter baumannii.
ABSTRACT: OBJECTIVES:To investigate the antimicrobial resistance patterns of multidrug-resistant Acinetobacter baumannii (MDRAB) in patients in pediatric intensive care units (PICU) in order to determine a guide for the empirical antibiotic treatment of MDRAB. METHODS:The authors retrospectively evaluated the medical records of patients with MDRAB infections in the PICU during a follow-up period, between January 2015 and January 2017. The identification of A. baumannii was performed using a BD Phoenix 100 Automated Microbiology System. A BD Phoenix NMIC/ID-400 commercial kit was used to test antibiotic susceptibility. All data was entered into Microsoft Excel, and the data was analyzed using SPSS version 23.0. RESULTS:The mean age of the patients was 8.1?±?6.2 y. In all, 46 isolates were obtained from 33 patients. The most effective antimicrobial agents were colistin, trimethoprim/sulfamethoxazole, and tigecycline. Nevertheless, with the exception of colistin, no antibiotic was associated with a susceptibility rate of >45% for the isolates. Low sensitivities in 2015 to tigecycline, aminoglycosides, levofloxacin, and carbapenems had been lost in 2016. CONCLUSIONS:Many drugs that were previously effective against MDRAB, have lost their effectiveness. Currently, there is no effective drug to fight MDRAB, apart from colistin. Thus, it is clear that new drugs and treatment protocols should be developed urgently.
Project description:As antibiotic resistance continues to increase among Gram-negative organisms such as Acinetobacter baumannii there is a growing need for novel therapies to overcome these resistance mechanisms. Antibiotics active against multidrug-resistant A. baumannii (MDRAB) are few, and agents in development are primarily active against other multidrug-resistant Gram-negative organisms. The combinations of colistin and antimicrobials such as glycopeptides and lipopeptides are unique potential treatment modalities against MDRAB. For both lipopeptides and glycopeptides in vitro data have demonstrated significant synergy, resulting in rapid bactericidal activity in time-kill curves. Several invertebrate in vivo models have also demonstrated increased survival compared to colistin alone. Currently, very little clinical data have focused on using these combinations for infections caused exclusively by multidrug-resistant Gram-negatives. The combination of vancomycin and colistin has been studied with conflicting results regarding both improved outcomes and risk of nephrotoxicity. Although in vitro and in vivo models have proved promising, further investigation is required to provide clinical data necessary to support the use of these combinations. The objective of this review is to summarize literature currently available for the novel combination of lipopeptides or glycopeptides with colistin for the treatment of A. baumannii, in particular MDRAB.
Project description:BACKGROUND: Infections sustained by multidrug-resistant (MDR) and pan-resistant Acinetobacter baumannii have become a challenging problem in Intensive Care Units. Tigecycline provided new hope for the treatment of MDR A. baumannii infections, but isolates showing reduced susceptibility have emerged in many countries, further limiting the therapeutic options. Empirical combination therapy has become a common practice to treat patients infected with MDR A. baumannii, in spite of the limited microbiological and clinical evidence supporting its efficacy. Here, the in vitro interaction of tigecycline with seven commonly used anti-Acinetobacter drugs has been assessed. METHODS: Twenty-two MDR A. baumannii isolates from Intensive Care Unit (ICU) patients and two reference strains for the European clonal lineages I and II (including 3, 15 and 6 isolates that were resistant, intermediate and susceptible to tigecycline, respectively) were tested. Antimicrobial agents were: tigecycline, levofloxacin, piperacillin-tazobactam, amikacin, imipenem, rifampicin, ampicillin-sulbactam, and colistin. MICs were determined by the broth microdilution method. Antibiotic interactions were determined by chequerboard and time-kill assays. Only antibiotic combinations showing synergism or antagonism in both chequerboard and time-kill assays were accepted as authentic synergistic or antagonistic interactions, respectively. RESULTS: Considering all antimicrobials in combination with tigecycline, chequerboard analysis showed 5.9% synergy, 85.7% indifference, and 8.3% antagonism. Tigecycline showed synergism with levofloxacin (4 strains; 16.6%), amikacin (2 strains; 8.3%), imipenem (2 strains; 8.3%) and colistin (2 strains; 8.3%). Antagonism was observed for the tigecycline/piperacillin-tazobactam combination (8 strains; 33.3%). Synergism was detected only among tigecycline non-susceptible strains. Time-kill assays confirmed the synergistic interaction between tigecycline and levofloxacin, amikacin, imipenem and colistin for 5 of 7 selected isolates. No antagonism was confirmed by time-kill assays. CONCLUSION: This study demonstrates the in vitro synergistic activity of tigecycline in combination with colistin, levofloxacin, amikacin and imipenem against five tigecycline non-susceptible A. baumannii strains, opening the way to a more rationale clinical assessment of novel combination therapies to combat infections caused by MDR and pan-resistant A. baumannii.
Project description:Emergence of multidrug-resistant Acinetobacter baumannii (MDRAB) has become a critical clinical problem worldwide and limited therapeutic options for infectious diseases caused by MDRAB. Therefore, there is an urgent need for the development of new antimicrobial agents or alternative therapy to combat MDRAB infection. The aim of this study was to investigate effects of Mastoparan-AF (MP-AF), an amphipathic peptide isolated from the hornet venom of Vespa affinis with broad-spectrum antimicrobial activity, on MDRAB. As compared with clinical used antibiotics, MP-AF exhibited potent antimicrobial activity at 2-16 ?g/ml against the reference strain A. baumannii ATCC 15151 and seven MDRAB clinical isolates, especially the colistin-resistant MDRAB, E0158. The synergistic antimicrobial combination study revealed that MP-AF acted synergistically with specific antibiotics, e.g., ciprofloxacin, trimethoprim/sulfamethoxazole (SXT) or colistin against some isolates of the MDRAB. It was noteworthy when MP-AF combined with SXT exhibited synergistic activity against all SXT-resistant MDRAB isolates. The synergistic combination of MP-AF and antibiotics could reduce the dosage recommended of each antimicrobial agent and improve the safety of medications with ignorable adverse effects, such as colistin with nephrotoxicity in therapeutic dose. Furthermore, MP-AF combined with antibiotics with different antimicrobial mechanisms could reduce selective pressure of antibiotics on bacteria and prevent the emergence of antimicrobial-resistant strains. Importantly, we are the first finding that MP-AF could make MDRAB from the original non-susceptibility to SXT become sensitivity. In conclusion, MP-AF alone or in combination with other antibiotics, especially SXT, is a potential candidate against MDRAB infection in clinical medicine.
Project description:<h4>Background</h4>Acinetobacter baumannii complex (A. baumannii) has been isolated worldwide. The rapid spread of multidrug-resistant A. baumannii complex (MDRAB) in clinical settings has made choosing an appropriate antibiotic to treat these infections and executing contact precautions difficult for clinicians. Although controlling the transmission of MDRAB is a high priority for institutions, there is little information about MDRAB control. Therefore, this study evaluated infection control measures for A. baumannii infections, clusters and outbreaks in the literature.<h4>Methods</h4>We performed a review of OVID Medline (from 1980 to 2015), and analyzed the literature.<h4>Results</h4>We propose that both infection control programs and antibiotic control programs are essential for control of MDRAB. The first, effective control of MDRAB infections, requires compliance with a series of infection control methods including strict environmental cleaning, effective sterilization of reusable medical equipment, concentration on proper hand hygiene practices, and use of contact precautions, together with appropriate administrative guidance. The second strategy, effective antibiotic control programs to decrease A. baumannii, is also of paramount importance.<h4>Conclusion</h4>We believe that both infection control programs and antibiotics stewardship programs are essential for control of MDRAB infections.
Project description:Multidrug-resistant Acinetobacter baumannii (MDRAB) presents an increasing challenge to health care. Although colistin has been used as a treatment of last resort, there is concern regarding its potential for toxicity and the emergence of resistance. The mechanism of action of colistin, however, raises the possibility of synergy with compounds that are normally inactive against Gram-negative organisms by virtue of the impermeability of the bacterial outer membrane. This study evaluated the effect of colistin combined with vancomycin on 5 previously characterized epidemic strains and 34 MDRAB clinical isolates by using time-kill assay, microdilution, and Etest methods. For all the isolates, significant synergy was demonstrated by at least one method, with reductions in the MIC of vancomycin from >256 ?g/ml to ?48 ?g/ml for all strains after exposure to 0.5 ?g/ml colistin. This raises the possibility of the clinical use of this combination for infections due to MDRAB, with the potential for doses lower than those currently used.
Project description:Acinetobacter baumannii has emerged as an important opportunistic pathogen due to its ability to acquire resistance to most currently available antibiotics. Colistin is often considered as the last line of therapy for infections caused by multidrug-resistant A. baumannii (MDRAB). However, colistin-resistant A. baumannii strain has recently been reported. To explore how multiple drug-resistant A. baumannii responded to colistin resistance, we compared the genomic, transcriptional and proteomic profile of A. baumannii MDR-ZJ06 to the induced colistin-resistant strain ZJ06-200P5-1. Genomic analysis showed that lpxC was inactivated by ISAba1 insertion, leading to LPS loss. Transcriptional analysis demonstrated that the colistin-resistant strain regulated its metabolism. Proteomic analysis suggested increased expression of the RND efflux pump system and down-regulation of FabZ and ?-lactamase. These alterations were believed to be response to LPS loss. In summary, the lpxC mutation not only established colistin resistance but also altered global gene expression.
Project description:Multidrug-resistant Acinetobacter baumannii (MDRAB) is an increasing problem worldwide. Prevalence of carbapenem resistance in Acinetobacter spp. due to acquired carbapenemase genes is not known in Finland. The purpose of this study was to examine prevalence and clonal spread of multiresistant A. baumannii group species, and their carbapenemase genes. A total of 55 Acinetobacter isolates were evaluated with repetitive PCR (DiversiLab) to analyse clonality of isolates, in conjunction with antimicrobial susceptibility profile for ampicillin/sulbactam, colistin, imipenem, meropenem, rifampicin and tigecycline. In addition, a new real-time PCR assay, detecting most clinically important carbapenemase genes just in two multiplex reactions, was developed. The assay detects genes for KPC, VIM, IMP, GES-1/-10, OXA-48, NDM, GIM-1, SPM-1, IMI/NMC-A, SME, CMY-10, SFC-1, SIM-1, OXA-23-like, OXA-24/40-like, OXA-58 and ISAbaI-OXA-51-like junction, and allows confident detection of isolates harbouring acquired carbapenemase genes. There was a time-dependent, clonal spread of multiresistant A. baumannii strongly correlating with carbapenamase gene profile, at least in this geographically restricted study material. The new carbapenemase screening assay was able to detect all the genes correctly suggesting it might be suitable for epidemiologic screening purposes in clinical laboratories.
Project description:Background: Acinetobacter baumannii complex is an increasingly important cause of osteomyelitis. It is considered a difficult to treat agent, due to increasing antimicrobial resistance and few available therapeutic options. Objective: To compare effectiveness and tolerability of tigecycline and colistin in patients with osteomyelitis caused by carbapenem-resistant A. baumannii complex (CRABC). Methods: This retrospective review included all patients admitted to a 150-bed tertiary hospital from 2007 to 2015 with microbiologically confirmed CRABC osteomyelitis for which they received tigecycline or colistin. Data on demographic and clinical characteristics, adverse events, and outcomes 12 months after the end of antimicrobial treatment were analysed and stratified according to the antimicrobial used. Results: 65 patients were included, 34 treated with colistin and 31 with tigecycline. There were significantly more men (P = 0.028) in the colistin group, and more smokers (P = 0.021) and greater occurrence of chronic osteomyelitis (P = 0.036) in the tigecycline treatment group. Median duration of therapy was 42.5 days for colistin and 42 days for tigecycline, with no significant difference. Overall incidence of adverse events was higher in the colistin group (P = 0.047). In particular, incidence of renal impairment was also higher in this group (P = 0.003). Nausea and vomiting were more frequent with tigecycline (P = 0.046). There were no significant differences between groups in relapse, amputation, or death. Conclusions: Tigecycline had a better safety profile than colistin in the treatment of osteomyelitis due to CRABC, with no significant difference in outcomes after 12 months of follow-up.
Project description:A review of the literature was undertaken to delineate the current level and mechanisms of resistance to carbapenems, colistin, and tigecycline in South Africa. Thirty-two English publications and 32 National Institute of Communicable Diseases communiqués identified between early January 2000 and 20 May, 2016 showed substantial reports of NDM (n?=?860), OXA-48 (n?=?584), VIM (n?=?131), and IMP (n?=?45) carbapenemases within this period, mainly in Klebsiella pneumoniae (n?=?1138), Acinetobacter baumannii (n?=?332), Enterobacter cloacae (n?=?201), and Serratia marcescens (n?=?108). Colistin and tigecycline resistance was prevalent among K. pneumoniae, A. baumannii, S. marcescens, and E. cloacae. The first mcr-1 colistin resistance gene to be detected in South Africa was reported in Escherichia coli from livestock as well as from hospitalized and outpatients. There are increasing reports of NDM and OXA-48 carbapenemases among Enterobacteriaceae and A. baumannii in South Africa. Mcr-1 is now present in South African patients and livestock. Resistance to carbapenems, colistin, and tigecycline restricts infection management options for clinicians.
Project description:Immune response stimulation to prevent infection progression may be an adjuvant to antimicrobial treatment. Lysophosphatidylcholine (LPC) is an immunomodulator involved in immune cell recruitment and activation. In this study, we aimed to evaluate the efficacy of LPC in combination with colistin, tigecycline, or imipenem in experimental murine models of peritoneal sepsis and pneumonia. We used Acinetobacter baumannii strain Ab9, which is susceptible to colistin, tigecycline, and imipenem, and multidrug-resistant strain Ab186, which is susceptible to colistin and resistant to tigecycline and imipenem. Pharmacokinetic and pharmacodynamic parameters for colistin, tigecycline, and imipenem and the 100% minimal lethal dose (MLD100) were determined for both strains. The therapeutic efficacies of LPC, colistin (60 mg/kg of body weight/day), tigecycline (10 mg/kg/day), and imipenem (180 mg/kg/day), alone or in combination, were assessed against Ab9 and Ab186 at the MLD100 in murine peritoneal sepsis and pneumonia models. The levels of pro- and anti-inflammatory cytokines, i.e., tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNF-?) and interleukin-10 (IL-10), were determined by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) for the same experimental models after inoculating mice with the MLD of both strains. LPC in combination with colistin, tigecycline, or imipenem markedly enhanced the bacterial clearance of Ab9 and Ab186 from the spleen and lungs and reduced bacteremia and mouse mortality rates (P < 0.05) compared with those for colistin, tigecycline, and imipenem monotherapies. Moreover, at 4 h post-bacterial infection, Ab9 induced higher TNF-? and lower IL-10 levels than those with Ab186 (4 ?g/ml versus 3 ?g/ml [P < 0.05] and 2 ?g/ml versus 3.4 ?g/ml [P < 0.05], respectively). LPC treatment combined with colistin, tigecycline, or imipenem modestly reduced the severity of infection by A. baumannii strains with different resistance phenotypes compared to LPC monotherapy in both experimental models.