Prevalence of Methicillin-Resistant Staphylococcus aureus and Associated Risk Factors among Patients with Wound Infection at Referral Hospital, Northeast Ethiopia.
ABSTRACT: Background:The spectrums of infections due to methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus are manifold and are associated with worse outcomes. A study on the prevalence of these pathogens and their sensitivity patterns will give updated information which is very helpful for health personnel responsible in the management of patients and timely monitoring of the emergence of resistant bacteria. Hence, the study aimed at assessing the prevalence of methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus and associated factors among patients with wound infection at Dessie Referral Hospital. Method:A cross-sectional study was conducted among 266 patients at Dessie Referral Hospital from February to May 2016. Wound swab samples were collected aseptically using Levine's technique and transported to Dessie Regional Laboratory by using brain-heart infusion transport media. Isolation of Staphylococcus aureus was done based on cultural and biochemical profiles. Drug susceptibility test was performed using the disc diffusion technique as per the standard and interpreted based on the Clinical and Laboratory Standards Institute guidelines. The data were entered and analyzed by using SPSS version 20. Result:Staphylococcus isolates from 266 processed wound swabs were 92 (34.58%). Of these, 26 (28.3%) were identified as methicillin-resistant S. aureus and 66 (71.7%) were methicillin-sensitive S. aureus. The overall prevalence of methicillin-resistant S. aureus among the study population was 9.8%. The isolated methicillin-resistant S. aureus showed full resistance to penicillin (100%) followed by erythromycin and ciprofloxacin (16, 61.5%) and cotrimoxazole and gentamicin (14, 53.8%). From the total S. aureus isolates, 20 (21.7%) of them showed multidrug resistance. Of these methicillin-resistant S. aureus, 18 (69.8%) showed high multidrug resistance. Patients who are farmers in occupation (AOR?=?6.1, 95% CI (1.086-33.724)), admitted in the hospital (AOR?=?3.56, 95% CI (1.429-8.857)), and have low BMI (<18.5) (AOR?=?13.89, 95% CI (4.919-39.192)) were among the risk factors significantly associated with wound infection due to methicillin-resistant S. aureus. Conclusion:All methicillin-resistant S. aureus isolates were 100% resistant to penicillin and showed high multidrug resistance. Therefore, antibiotic susceptibility test should be performed prior to treatment.
Project description:Staphylococcal pathogens, especially multidrug-resistant Staphylococcus aureus, are responsible for various clinical infections. Multilocus sequence type 630 (ST630) methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus has been shown to have augmented pathogenicity in humans. In this announcement, we report the complete genome sequence of community-acquired methicillin-resistant strain RJ1267 of Staphylococcus aureus ST630.
Project description:Emergence of methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) and methicillin-resistant coagulase-negative staphylococci (MR-CoNS) in bovine milk is a major public health concern. The primary purpose of this research was to determine molecular genetic characteristics and antibiotic resistance of staphylococcal isolates recovered from milk of mastitic cows in the Shaanxi Province in Northwestern China. One hundred and thirteen methicillin-susceptible Staphylococcus aureus (MSSA), one mecA-positive and phenotype-positive MRSA, seven mecA- and mecC- negative but phenotype-positive MRSA and two MR-CoNS including one oxacillin-susceptible mecA-positive Staphylococcus haemolyticus (OS-MRSH) and one mecA-positive and methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus epidermidis (MRSE) isolates were recovered from 214 quarter milk samples on 4 dairy farms. All above 123 isolates were subjected to antibiotic resistance profiling. S. aureus isolates were also genotyped using the spa typing and the multilocus sequence typing (MLST). Eight MRSA and 2 MR-CoNS isolates were additionally tested for SCCmec types. Resistance was common among isolates against ampicillin or penicillin (80.5%), kanamycin (68.3%), gentamicin (67.5%), tetracycline (43.9%) and chloramphenicol (30.1%). However, no isolate was resistant to vancomycin or teicoplanin. Twenty, 29 and 58 isolates showed resistance to 1, 2 or more than 2 antibiotics, respectively. The predominant multidrug resistance profile was penicillin/ampicillin/kanamycin/gentamicin/tetracycline (46 isolates). Most S. aureus isolates belonged to spa types t524 (n = 63), t11772 (a new type, n = 31) and t4207 (n = 15). At the same time, MLST types ST71 (n = 67) and ST2738 (a new type, n = 45) were identified as dominant sequence types. The mecA-positive and phenotype-positive MRSA isolate had a composite genotype t524-ST71-SCCmecIVa, while 7 mecA-negative but phenotype-positive MRSA isolates were all t524-ST71. The OS-MRSH isolate contained a type V SCCmec cassette, while the MRSE isolate possessed a non-typeable SCCmec. The spa-MLST types t11772-ST2738 (n = 27), t11807-ST2683 (n = 4) and t11771-ST2738 (n = 3) were newly identified genotypes of S. aureus. These new genotypes and multidrug-resistant staphylococci could pose additional threat to animal and human health.
Project description:Objective: Burn-injured patients are highly susceptible to infectious complications, which are often associated with increased morbidity and mortality. Rates of antibiotic resistance have increased, and resistant species such as methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus provide additional challenges in the form of virulence factors. Proteins can disrupt local healing, leading to systemic immune disruption. To optimize outcomes, treatments that reduce pathogenicity must be identified. This study aims to compare a glycylcycline antibiotic-tigecycline-with clindamycin for effectiveness in treating superantigenic methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus in burn wounds. Methods: Sprague-Dawley rats received paired 2 × 2-cm burn wounds, which were subsequently inoculated with known virulence factor-producing methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus or media alone on postinjury day 1. Infected animals received twice-daily tigecycline (high or low dose), twice-daily clindamycin (high or low dose), or saline alone (positive controls). Daily sampling and imaging assessments were performed. Results: Bacterial counts and toxin levels were reduced significantly in antibiotic-treated groups relative to positive controls (P < .001). Results from day 7 showed measurable toxin levels in clindamycin-treated, but not tigecycline-treated, wounds. Imaging analysis revealed a return of wound perfusion in tigecycline-treated animals similar to the sham animals. Transcript analysis using polymerase chain reaction and polymerase chain reaction arrays demonstrated downregulation of gene expression in antibiotic-treated animals as compared with positive controls. Conclusions: Overall, this study supports the use of tigecycline in the treatment of methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus-infected burn wounds. While both protein synthesis inhibitors are effective, tigecycline appears to be superior in controlling toxin levels, enabling better wound healing.
Project description:Chronic nonhealing wounds have imposed serious challenges in the clinical practice, especially for the patients infected with multidrug-resistant microbes. Herein, we developed an ultrasmall copper sulfide (covellite) nanodots (CuS NDs) based dual functional nanosystem to cure multidrug-resistant bacteria-infected chronic nonhealing wound. The nanosystem could eradicate multidrug-resistant bacteria and expedite wound healing simultaneously owing to the photothermal effect and remote control of copper-ion release. The antibacterial results indicated that the combination treatment of photothermal CuS NDs with photothermal effect initiated a strong antibacterial effect for drug-resistant pathogens including methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) and extended-spectrum ?-lactamase Escherichia coli both in vitro and in vivo. Meanwhile, the released Cu<sup>2+</sup> could promote fibroblast cell migration and endothelial cell angiogenesis, thus accelerating wound-healing effects. In MRSA-infected diabetic mice model, the nanosystem exhibited synergistic wound healing effect of infectious wounds in vivo and demonstrated negligible toxicity and nonspecific damage to major organs. The combination of ultrasmall CuS NDs with photothermal therapy displayed enhanced therapeutic efficacy for chronic nonhealing wound in multidrug-resistant bacterial infections, which may represent a promising class of antibacterial strategy for clinical translation.
Project description:Staphylococcus aureus is one of the major causes of nosocomial infections. This organism produces powerful toxins and cause superficial lesions, systemic infections, and several toxemic syndromes. A total of 109 S. aureus strains isolated from a variety of infections like ocular diseases, wound infection, and sputum were included in the study. Minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) was determined against 8 antimicrobials. PCR determined the presence of 16S rRNA, nuc, mecA, czrC, qacA/B, pvl, and toxin genes in S. aureus isolates. Pulse-field gel electrophoresis (PFGE), multi-locus sequence typing (MLST), SCCmec, spa-, and agr-typing and serotyping determined the diversity among them. All isolates of S. aureus were resistant to two or more than two antibiotics and generated 32 resistance patterns. These isolates were positive for 16S rRNA and S. aureus-specific nuc gene, but showed variable results for mecA, czrC, and qacA/B and pvl genes. Of the 32 methicillin-resistant S. aureus (MRSA), 13 strains carried SCCmec type V, seven type IV, two type III, and nine carried unreported type UT6. Of the 109 strains, 98.2% were positive for hlg, 94.5% for hla, 86.2% for sei, 73.3% for efb, 70.6% for cna, 30.2% for sea, and 12.8% for sec genes. Serotypes VII and VI were prevalent among S. aureus strains. PFGE analysis grouped the 109 strains into 77 clusters. MLST classified the strains into 33 sequence types (ST) and eight clonal complexes (CCs) of which 12 were singletons, and two belong to new allelic profiles. Isolates showed 46 spa-types that included two new spa-types designated as t14911 and t14912. MRSA and methicillin-susceptible S. aureus (MSSA) isolates were diverse in terms of antibiotic resistance pattern, toxin genotypes, SCCmec types, serotypes and PFGE, MLST, and spa-types. However, few isolates from eye infection and wound infection belong to CC239, ST239, and spa-type t037/t657. The study thus suggests that S. aureus strains are multidrug resistant, virulent, and diverse irrespective of sources and place of isolation. These findings necessitate the continuous surveillance of multidrug-resistant and virulent S. aureus and monitoring of the transmission of infection.
Project description:Wound infections are an emerging medical problem worldwide, frequently neglected in under-resourced countries. Bacterial culture and antimicrobial drug resistance testing of infected wounds in patients in a rural hospital in Ghana identified no methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus or carbapenem-resistant Enterobacteriaceae but identified high combined resistance of Enterobacteriaceae against third-generation cephalosporins and fluoroquinolones.
Project description:Staphylococci are a key component of the human microbiota, and they mainly colonize the skin and anterior nares. However, they can cause infection in hospitalized patients and healthy individuals in the community. Although majority of the Staphylococcus aureus strains are coagulase-positive, some do not produce coagulase, and the isolation of coagulase-positive non-S. aureus isolates in humans is increasingly being reported. Therefore, sound knowledge of the species and characteristics of staphylococci in a given setting is important, especially isolates from children and immunocompromised individuals. The spectrum of Staphylococcus species colonizing children in Uganda is poorly understood; here, we aimed to determine the species and characteristics of staphylococci isolated from children in Eastern Uganda. Seven hundred and sixty four healthy children less than 5 years residing in Iganga and Mayuge districts in Eastern Uganda were enrolled. A total of 513 staphylococci belonging to 13 species were isolated from 485 children (63.5%, 485/764), with S. aureus being the dominant species (37.6%, 193/513) followed by S. epidermidis (25.5%, 131/513), S. haemolyticus (2.3%, 12/513), S. hominis (0.8%, 4/513) and S. haemolyticus/lugdunensis (0.58%, 3/513). Twenty four (4.95%, 24/485) children were co-colonized by two or more Staphylococcus species. With the exception of penicillin, antimicrobial resistance (AMR) rates were low; all isolates were susceptible to vancomycin, teicoplanin, linezolid and daptomycin. The prevalence of methicillin resistance was 23.8% (122/513) and it was highest in S. haemolyticus (66.7%, 8/12) followed by S. aureus (28.5%, 55/193) and S. epidermidis (23.7%, 31/131). The prevalence of multidrug resistance was 20.3% (104/513), and 59% (72/122) of methicillin resistant staphylococci were multidrug resistant. Four methicillin susceptible S. aureus isolates and a methicillin resistant S. scuiri isolate were mupirocin resistant (high-level). The most frequent AMR genes were mecA, vanA, ant(4')-Ia, and aac(6')-Ie- aph(2'')-Ia, pointing to presence of AMR drivers in the community.
Project description:The treatment of Staphylococcus aureus (S. aureus) infections has become more difficult due to the emergence of multidrug resistance in the bacteria. Here, we report the synthesis of a lawsone (2-hydroxy-1,4-naphthoquinone)-based compound as an antimicrobial agent against methicillin-resistant S. aureus (MRSA). A series of lawsone-derivative compounds were synthesized by means of tuning the lipophilicity of lawsone and screened for minimum inhibitory concentrations against MRSA to identify a candidate compound that possesses a potent antibacterial activity. The identified lawsone-derivative compound exhibited significantly improved drug resistance profiles against MRSA compared to conventional antibiotics. The therapeutic efficacy of the compound was validated using murine models of wound infection as well as non-lethal systemic infection induced by MRSA. Our study further revealed the multifaceted modes of action of the compound, mediated by three distinctive mechanisms: (1) cell membrane damage, (2) chelation of intracellular iron ions, and (3) generation of intracellular reactive oxygen species.
Project description:This study aimed to evaluate the persistence of nasal carriage of Staphylococcus aureus, methicillin-resistant S. aureus and multidrug-resistant S. aureus over 14?days of follow-up among industrial hog operation workers in North Carolina.Workers anticipating at least 24?h away from work were enrolled June-August 2012. Participants self-collected a nasal swab and completed a study journal on the evening of day 1, and each morning and evening on days 2-7 and 14 of the study. S. aureus isolated from nasal swabs were assessed for antibiotic susceptibility, spa type and absence of the scn gene. Livestock association was defined by absence of scn.Twenty-two workers provided 327 samples. S. aureus carriage end points did not change with time away from work (mean 49?h; range >0-96?h). Ten workers were persistent and six were intermittent carriers of livestock-associated S. aureus. Six workers were persistent and three intermittent carriers of livestock-associated multidrug-resistant S. aureus. One worker persistently carried livestock-associated methicillin-resistant S. aureus. Six workers were non-carriers of livestock-associated S. aureus. Eighty-two per cent of livestock-associated S. aureus demonstrated resistance to tetracycline. A majority of livestock-associated S. aureus isolates (n=169) were CC398 (68%) while 31% were CC9. No CC398 and one CC9 isolate was detected among scn-positive isolates.Nasal carriage of livestock-associated S. aureus, multidrug-resistant S. aureus and methicillin-resistant S. aureus can persist among industrial hog operation workers over a 14-day period, which included up to 96?h away from work.
Project description:Staphylococcus aureus infections present a serious challenge to healthcare practitioners due to the emergence of resistance to numerous conventional antibiotics. Due to their unique mode of action, peptide nucleic acids are novel alternatives to traditional antibiotics to tackle the issue of bacterial multidrug resistance. In this study, we designed a peptide nucleic acid covalently conjugated to the HIV-TAT cell penetrating peptide (GRKKKRRQRRRYK) in order to target the RNA polymerase ? subunit gene (rpoA) required for bacterial genes transcription. We explored the antimicrobial activity of the anti-rpoA construct (peptide nucleic acid-TAT) against methicillin-resistant S. aureus, vancomycin-intermediate S. aureus, vancomycin-resistant S. aureus, linezolid-resistant S. aureus, and methicillin-resistant S. epidermidis in pure culture, infected mammalian cell culture, and in an in vivo Caenorhabditis elegans infection model. The anti-rpoA construct led to a concentration-dependent inhibition of bacterial growth (at micromolar concentrations) in vitro and in both infected cell culture and in vivo in C. elegans. Moreover, rpoA gene silencing resulted in suppression of its message as well as reduced expression of two important methicillin-resistant S. aureus USA300 toxins (?-hemolysin and Panton-Valentine leukocidin). This study confirms that rpoA gene is a potential target for development of novel antisense therapeutics to treat infections caused by methicillin-resistant S. aureus.