Habitat requirements affect genetic variation in three species of mayfly (Ephemeroptera, Baetidae) from South Africa.
ABSTRACT: This study investigates genetic diversity in three species of Ephemeroptera, one eurytopic and therefore widespread (Afroptilum sudafricanum) and two stenotopic and thus endemic (Demoreptus natalensis and Demoreptus capensis) species, all of which co-occur in the southern Great Escarpment, South Africa. Mitochondrial DNA was analysed to compare the genetic diversity between the habitat generalist and the two habitat specialists. Afroptilum sudafricanum showed no indication of population genetic structure due to geographic location, while both Demoreptus species revealed clear genetic differentiation between geographic localities and catchments, evident from phylogenetic analyses and high FST values from AMOVA. In addition, the phylogenetic analyses indicate some deeper haplotype divergences within A. sudafricanum and Demoreptus that merit taxonomic attention. These results give important insight into evolutionary processes occurring through habitat specialisation and population isolation. Further research and sampling across a wider geographic setting that includes both major mountain blocks of the Escarpment and lowland non-Escarpment sites will allow for refined understanding of biodiversity and associated habitat preferences, and illuminate comparative inferences into gene flow and cryptic speciation.
Project description:The genus Cymbalcloeon gen. nov. (Ephemeroptera: Baetidae) is established for a new species Cymbalcloeon sartorii sp. nov. from Thailand, based on larval stage. This genus is unique among all of the Baetidae by the presence of three pairs of single gills on segments V-VII, ventrally oriented to cover the sterna VI-IX. Cymbalcloeon sartorii gen. nov. et sp. nov. presents unique or rare morphological characters such as a deeply concave margin between the prostheca and mola, without setae; a very large subtriangular process of the left mandible; a maxillary palp segment II with scarce and very long setae; almost completely fused labial palp segments II and III with numerous very long setae; elongate tarsal claw with two rows of teeth; a shagreen surface of the terga and paraproct; and a very reduced body size. The gills of the new genus move very quickly during respiration and present a near-synchronous protraction. Due to the very derived larval morphological character and the unknown imaginal stage, the exact phylogenetic position of the genus remains unclear; it most certainly belongs to the concept of Anteropatellata and is possibly closely related to the genus Baetopus.
Project description:Species' ecological preferences are often deduced from habitat characteristics thought to represent more or less optimal conditions for physiological functioning. Evolution has led to stenotopic and eurytopic species, the former having decreased niche breadths and lower tolerances to environmental variability. Species inhabiting freshwater springs are often described as being stenotopic specialists, adapted to the stable thermal conditions found in these habitats. Whether due to past local adaptation these species have evolved or have lost intra-generational adaptive mechanisms to cope with increasing thermal variability has, to our knowledge, never been investigated. By studying how the proteome of a stenotopic species changes as a result of increasing temperatures, we investigate if the absence or attenuation of molecular mechanisms is indicative of local adaptation to freshwater springs. An understanding of compensatory mechanisms is especially relevant as spring specialists will experience thermal conditions beyond their physiological limits due to climate change. In this study, the stenotopic species Crunoecia irrorata (Trichoptera: Lepidostomatidae, Curtis 1834) was acclimated to 10, 15 and 20°C for 168 hr. We constructed a homology-based database and via liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS)-based shotgun proteomics identified 1,358 proteins. Differentially abundant proteins and protein norms of reaction revealed candidate proteins and molecular mechanisms facilitating compensatory responses such as trehalose metabolism, tracheal system alteration and heat-shock protein regulation. A species-specific understanding of compensatory physiologies challenges the characterization of species as having narrow tolerances to environmental variability if that characterization is based on occurrences and habitat characteristics alone.
Project description:The taxonomy and systematics of the genus <i>Baetis</i> Leach (Ephemeroptera: Baetidae) in Israel is clarified for the first time as part of an ongoing comprehensive survey of the Israeli mayfly fauna. Six clearly defined species are currently recognized in Israel, four of which are described here as new to science. The validity of all species is supported by a molecular analysis of the mitochondrial COI gene. A key for the identification of the Israeli species based on the nymphal stage is provided, as well as data on their distribution patterns and ecology. The local fauna represents four Palearctic species groups, three of which reach their limit of distribution range in Israel. <i>Baetis</i> species typically inhabit lotic, pristine habitats in northern Israel, with few exceptions for some species that can be found in the Dead Sea area or in ephemeral ponds.
Project description:We investigated the relative importance of dispersal and vicariance in forming the Madagascar insect fauna, sequencing approximately 2300bp from three rRNA gene regions to investigate the phylogeny of Afrotropical small minnow mayflies (Ephemeroptera: Baetidae). Six lineages contained trans-oceanic sister taxa, and variation in genetic divergence between sister taxa revealed relationships that range from very recent dispersal to ancient vicariance. Dispersal was most recent and frequent in species that spend the larval stage in standing water, adding to evidence that these evolutionarily unstable habitats may select for ecological traits that increase dispersal in insects. Ancestral state likelihood analysis suggested at least one Afrotropical lineage had its origin in Madagascar, demonstrating that unidirectional dispersal from a continental source may be too simplistic. We conclude that the Malagasy mayfly fauna should be considered in a biogeographical context that extends beyond Madagascar itself, encompassing trans-oceanic dispersal within multiple lineages.
Project description:Freshwater species often show high levels of endemism and risk of extinction owing to their limited dispersal abilities. This is exemplified by the stenotopic freshwater crab, Johora singaporensis which is one of the world's 100 most threatened species, and currently inhabits less than 0.01 km2 of five low order hill streams within the highly urbanized island city-state of Singapore. We compared populations of J. singaporensis with that of the non-threatened, widespread, abundant, and eurytopic freshwater crab, Parathelphusa maculata, and found surprisingly high congruence between their population genomic histories. Based on 2,617 and 2,470 genome-wide SNPs mined via the double-digest restriction-associated DNA sequencing method for ~90 individuals of J. singaporensis and P. maculata, respectively, the populations are strongly isolated (FST = 0.146-0.371), have low genetic diversity for both species (also for COI), and show signatures of recent genetic bottlenecks. The most genetically isolated populations for both species are separated from other populations by one of the oldest roads in Singapore. These results suggest that anthropogenic developments may have impacted stream-dependent species in a uniform manner, regardless of ubiquity, habitat preference, or dispersal modes of the species. While signs of inbreeding were not detected for the critically endangered species, the genetic distinctiveness and low diversity of the populations call for genetic rescue and connecting corridors between the remaining fragments of the natural habitat.
Project description:BACKGROUND:Many species contain evolutionarily distinct groups that are genetically highly differentiated but morphologically difficult to distinguish (i.e., cryptic species). The presence of cryptic species poses significant challenges for the accurate assessment of biodiversity and, if unrecognized, may lead to erroneous inferences in many fields of biological research and conservation. RESULTS:We tested for cryptic genetic variation within the broadly distributed alpine mayfly Baetis alpinus across several major European drainages in the central Alps. Bayesian clustering and multivariate analyses of nuclear microsatellite loci, combined with phylogenetic analyses of mitochondrial DNA, were used to assess population genetic structure and diversity. We identified two genetically highly differentiated lineages (A and B) that had no obvious differences in regional distribution patterns, and occurred in local sympatry. Furthermore, the two lineages differed in relative abundance, overall levels of genetic diversity as well as patterns of population structure: lineage A was abundant, widely distributed and had a higher level of genetic variation, whereas lineage B was less abundant, more prevalent in spring-fed tributaries than glacier-fed streams and restricted to high elevations. Subsequent morphological analyses revealed that traits previously acknowledged as intraspecific variation of B. alpinus in fact segregated these two lineages. CONCLUSIONS:Taken together, our findings indicate that even common and apparently ecologically well-studied species may consist of reproductively isolated units, with distinct evolutionary histories and likely different ecology and evolutionary potential. These findings emphasize the need to investigate hidden diversity even in well-known species to allow for appropriate assessment of biological diversity and conservation measures.
Project description:An initial checklist of mayflies (Ephemeroptera) of Iran is compiled based on critical review of available literature data, complemented with new data from 38 localities of Gilan and Ardabil provinces. At present, altogether only 46 species and 25 genera are known from Iran, 18 species are reported as new to Iran in this study. Some previously published data are critically evaluated and doubtful taxa are excluded from the list. Basic analysis of the distribution and biogeography of recorded species is given. Procloeon (Pseudocentroptilum) caspicum Sroka, sp. n. is described based on mature larva and egg. Critical differential diagnostic characters distinguishing the species from related taxa are discussed in detail.
Project description:Background:The Mediterranean basin is known to be the cradle of many endemic species. Within mayflies (Insecta, Ephemeroptera), North African species belonging to the family Baetidae remain poorly known and, traditionally, affinities to European fauna were proposed. Recent studies, based on molecular reconstructions, showed closer relationships to Mediterranean islands fauna. New information:Baetidae were sampled from North-West Algerian wadis (Tafna basin) and involved in COI barcoding reconstructions. Seven species were identified. The subgenus Rhodobaetis is represented by Baetis atlanticus known previously from Macaronesian islands, Europe and Morocco and the Maghrebian endemic Baetis sinespinosus. Specimens, previously identified as Cloeon cf. dipterum, correspond to Cloeon peregrinator and, until now, only reported from Macaronesia. Besides the confirmation of endemicity of some species, such as Procloen stagnicola and B. sinespinosus, our molecular study showed quite original results for relationships between European, insular and Algerian species. Baetis maurus stood out as a North African endemic sister clade to an Iberian clade. Furthermore, we found clear interspecific distances between Algerian and European clades for A. cf. sinaica and B. cf. pavidus, suggesting the presence of cryptic species in Algeria. However, additional studies are needed, as, for the moment, no clear morphological characters were found to separate the different clades and support them as valid species.
Project description:Material collected between 2000 and 2014 on the island Borneo, including the Indonesian province of Kalimantan, the Malaysian province of Sabah and Brunei Darussalam, substantially increased our knowledge of Labiobaetis on this island. The total number of Labiobaetis species in Borneo increased to five, as only one species, L. borneoensis (Müller-Liebenau, 1984), was previously reported. Three new species were identified by morphology and partly by using genetic distance (COI, Kimura 2-parameter). They are described and illustrated based on their larvae (Labiobaetis bakerae sp. nov., L. penan sp. nov. and L. dayakorum sp. nov.); in one case, the imago is described as well. New reports of L. borneoensis are presented and the imago of this species is described for the first time. Labiobaetis moriharai (Müller-Liebenau, 1984), originally described from mainland Malaysia (Province Selangor), is reported from Borneo for the first time. The interspecific K2P distances in Borneo are between 19% and 25%, the intraspecific distances are usually between 0% and 1%. The total number of Labiobaetis species worldwide is augmented to 126.