Burden and changes in HIV/AIDS morbidity and mortality in Southern Africa Development Community Countries, 1990-2017.
ABSTRACT: BACKGROUND:The 16 Southern Africa Development Community (SADC) countries remain the epicentre of the HIV/AIDS epidemic with the largest number of people living with HIV/AIDS. Anti-retroviral treatment (ART) has improved survival and prevention of mother-to-child transmission (PMTCT) of HIV, but the disease remains a serious cause of mortality. We conducted a descriptive epidemiological analysis of HIV/AIDS burden for the 16 SADC countries using secondary data from the Global Burden of Diseases, Injuries and Risk Factor (GBD) Study. METHODS:The GBD study is a systematic, scientific effort by the Institute for Health Metrics and Evaluation (IHME) to quantify the comparative magnitude of health loss due to diseases, injuries, and risk factors by age, sex, and geographies for specific points in time. We analyzed the following outcomes: mortality, years of life lost (YLLs), years lived with disability (YLDs), and disability-adjusted life-years (DALYs) due to HIV/AIDS for SADC. Input data for GBD was extracted from censuses, household surveys, civil registration and vital statistics, disease registries, health service utilisation, disease notifications, and other sources. Country- and cause-specific HIV/AIDS-related death rates were calculated using the Cause of Death Ensemble model (CODEm) and spatiotemporal Gaussian process regression (ST-GPR). Deaths were multiplied by standard life expectancy at each age-group to calculate YLLs. Cause-specific mortality was estimated using a Bayesian meta-regression modelling tool, DisMod-MR. Prevalence estimates were multiplied by disability weights for mutually exclusive sequelae of diseases to calculate YLDs. Crude and age-adjusted rates per 100,000 population and changes between 1990 and 2017 were determined for each country. RESULTS:In 2017, HIV/AIDS caused 336,175 deaths overall in SADC countries, and more than 20 million DALYs. This corresponds to a 3-fold increase from 113,631 deaths (6,915,170 DALYs) in 1990. The five leading countries with the proportion of deaths attributable to HIV/AIDS in 2017 were Botswana at the top with 28.7% (95% UI; 23.7-35.2), followed by South Africa 28.5% (25.8-31.6), Lesotho, 25.1% (21.2-30.4), eSwatini 24.8% (21.3-28.6), and Mozambique 24.2% (20.6-29.3). The five countries had relative attributable deaths that were at least 14 times greater than the global burden of 1.7% (1.6-1.8). Similar patterns were observed with YLDs, YLLs, and DALYs. Comoros, Seychelles and Mauritius were on the lower end, with attributable proportions less than 1%, below the global proportion. CONCLUSIONS:Great progress in reducing HIV/AIDS burden has been achieved since the peak but more needs to be done. The post-2005 decline is attributed to PMTCT of HIV, resources provided through the US President's Emergency Plan For AIDS Relief (PEPFAR), and behavioural change. The five countries with the highest burden of HIV/AIDS as measured by proportion of death attributed to HIV/AIDS and age-standardized mortaility rate were Botswana, South Africa, Lesotho, eSwatini, and Mozambique. SADC countries should cooperate, work with donors, and embrace the UN Fast-Track approach, which calls for frontloading investment from domestic or other sources to prevent and treat HIV/AIDS. Robust tracking, testing, and early treatment are required, as well as refinement of individual treatment strategies for transient individuals in the region.
Project description:BACKGROUND:Systematic collection of mortality/morbidity data over time is crucial for monitoring trends in population health, developing health policies, assessing the impact of health programs. In Poland, a comprehensive analysis describing trends in disease burden for major conditions has never been published. The Global Burden of Diseases, Injuries, and Risk Factors Study (GBD) provides data on the burden of over 300 diseases in 195 countries since 1990. We used the GBD database to undertake an assessment of disease burden in Poland, evaluate changes in population health between 1990-2017, and compare Poland with other Central European (CE) countries. METHODS:The results of GBD 2017 for 1990 and 2017 for Poland and CE were used to assess rates and trends in years of life lost (YLLs), years lived with disability (YLDs), disability-adjusted life years (DALYs). Data came from cause-of-death registration systems, population health surveys, disease registries, hospitalization databases, and the scientific literature. Analytical approaches have been used to adjust for missing data, errors in cause-of-death certification, and differences in data collection methodology. Main estimation strategies were ensemble modelling for mortality and Bayesian meta-regression for disability. RESULTS:Between 1990-2017, age-standardized YLL rates for all causes declined in Poland by 46.0% (95% UI: 43.7-48.2), YLD rates declined by 4.0% (4.2-4.9), DALY rates by 31.7% (29.2-34.4). For both YLLs and YLDs, greater relative declines were observed for females. There was a large decrease in communicable, maternal, neonatal, and nutritional disease DALYs (48.2%; 46.3-50.4). DALYs due to non-communicable diseases (NCDs) decreased slightly (2.0%; 0.1-4.6). In 2017, Poland performed better than CE as a whole (ranked fourth for YLLs, sixth for YLDs, and fifth for DALYs) and achieved greater reductions in YLLs and DALYs than most CE countries. In 2017 and 1990, the leading cause of YLLs and DALYs in Poland and CE was ischaemic heart disease (IHD), and the leading cause of YLDs was low back pain. In 2017, the top 20 causes of YLLs and YLDs in Poland and CE were the same, although in different order. In Poland, age-standardized DALYs from neonatal causes, other cardiovascular and circulatory diseases, and road injuries declined substantially between 1990-2017, while alcohol use disorders and chronic liver diseases increased. The highest observed-to-expected ratios were seen for alcohol use disorders for YLLs, neonatal sepsis for YLDs, and falls for DALYs (3.21, 2.65, and 2.03, respectively). CONCLUSIONS:There was relatively little geographical variation in premature death and disability in CE in 2017, although some between-country differences existed. Health in Poland has been improving since 1990; in 2017 Poland outperformed CE as a whole for YLLs, YLDs, and DALYs. While the health gap between Poland and Western Europe has diminished, it remains substantial. The shift to NCDs and chronic disability, together with marked between-gender health inequalities, poses a challenge for the Polish health-care system. IHD is still the leading cause of disease burden in Poland, but DALYs from IHD are declining. To further reduce disease burden, an integrated response focused on NCDs and population groups with disproportionally high burden is needed.
Project description:<h4>Background</h4>The mental disorders included in the Global Burden of Diseases, Injuries, and Risk Factors Study (GBD) 2019 were depressive disorders, anxiety disorders, bipolar disorder, schizophrenia, autism spectrum disorders, conduct disorder, attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder, eating disorders, idiopathic developmental intellectual disability, and a residual category of other mental disorders. We aimed to measure the global, regional, and national prevalence, disability-adjusted life-years (DALYS), years lived with disability (YLDs), and years of life lost (YLLs) for mental disorders from 1990 to 2019.<h4>Methods</h4>In this study, we assessed prevalence and burden estimates from GBD 2019 for 12 mental disorders, males and females, 23 age groups, 204 countries and territories, between 1990 and 2019. DALYs were estimated as the sum of YLDs and YLLs to premature mortality. We systematically reviewed PsycINFO, Embase, PubMed, and the Global Health Data Exchange to obtain data on prevalence, incidence, remission, duration, severity, and excess mortality for each mental disorder. These data informed a Bayesian meta-regression analysis to estimate prevalence by disorder, age, sex, year, and location. Prevalence was multiplied by corresponding disability weights to estimate YLDs. Cause-specific deaths were compiled from mortality surveillance databases. The Cause of Death Ensemble modelling strategy was used to estimate death rate by age, sex, year, and location. The death rates were multiplied by the years of life expected to be remaining at death based on a normative life expectancy to estimate YLLs. Deaths and YLLs could be calculated only for anorexia nervosa and bulimia nervosa, since these were the only mental disorders identified as underlying causes of death in GBD 2019.<h4>Findings</h4>Between 1990 and 2019, the global number of DALYs due to mental disorders increased from 80·8 million (95% uncertainty interval [UI] 59·5-105·9) to 125·3 million (93·0-163·2), and the proportion of global DALYs attributed to mental disorders increased from 3·1% (95% UI 2·4-3·9) to 4·9% (3·9-6·1). Age-standardised DALY rates remained largely consistent between 1990 (1581·2 DALYs [1170·9-2061·4] per 100 000 people) and 2019 (1566·2 DALYs [1160·1-2042·8] per 100 000 people). YLDs contributed to most of the mental disorder burden, with 125·3 million YLDs (95% UI 93·0-163·2; 14·6% [12·2-16·8] of global YLDs) in 2019 attributable to mental disorders. Eating disorders accounted for 17 361·5 YLLs (95% UI 15 518·5-21 459·8). Globally, the age-standardised DALY rate for mental disorders was 1426·5 (95% UI 1056·4-1869·5) per 100 000 population among males and 1703·3 (1261·5-2237·8) per 100 000 population among females. Age-standardised DALY rates were highest in Australasia, Tropical Latin America, and high-income North America.<h4>Interpretation</h4>GBD 2019 showed that mental disorders remained among the top ten leading causes of burden worldwide, with no evidence of global reduction in the burden since 1990. The estimated YLLs for mental disorders were extremely low and do not reflect premature mortality in individuals with mental disorders. Research to establish causal pathways between mental disorders and other fatal health outcomes is recommended so that this may be addressed within the GBD study. To reduce the burden of mental disorders, coordinated delivery of effective prevention and treatment programmes by governments and the global health community is imperative.<h4>Funding</h4>Bill & Melinda Gates Foundation, Australian National Health and Medical Research Council, Queensland Department of Health, Australia.
Project description:<h4>Background</h4>While several studies investigated the epidemiology and burden of stroke in the North Africa and Middle East region, no study has comprehensively evaluated the age-standardized attributable burden to all stroke subtypes and their risk factors yet.<h4>Objective</h4>The aim of the present study is to explore the regional distribution of the burden of stroke, including ischemic stroke, subarachnoid hemorrhage, and intracerebral hemorrhage, and the attributable burden to its risk factors in 2019 among the 21 countries of North Africa and Middle East super-region.<h4>Methods</h4>The data of the Global Burden of Disease Study (GBD) 2019 on stroke incidence, prevalence, death, disability-adjusted life years (DALYs), years of life lost (YLLs), years lived with disability (YLDs) rates, and attributed deaths, DALYs, YLLs, and YLDs to stroke risk factors were used for the present study.<h4>Results</h4>The age-standardized deaths, DALYs, and YLLs rates were diminished statistically significant by 27.8, 32.0, and 35.1% from 1990 to 2019, respectively. Attributed deaths, DALYs, and YLLs to stroke risk factors, including high systolic blood pressure, high body-mass index, and high fasting plasma glucose shrank statistically significant by 24.9, 25.8, and 28.8%, respectively.<h4>Conclusion</h4>While the age-standardized stroke burden has reduced during these 30 years, it is still a concerning issue due to its increased burden in all-age numbers. Well-developed primary prevention, timely diagnosis and management of the stroke and its risk factors might be appreciated for further decreasing the burden of stroke and its risk factors and reaching Sustainable Development Goal 3.4 target for reducing premature mortality from non-communicable diseases.
Project description:<h4>Background</h4>Peer-reviewed literature on health is almost exclusively published in English, limiting the uptake of research for decision making in francophone African countries. We used results from the Global Burden of Diseases, Injuries, and Risk Factors Study (GBD) 2017 to assess the burden of disease in francophone Africa and inform health professionals and their partners in the region.<h4>Methods</h4>We assessed the burden of disease in the 21 francophone African countries and compared the results with those for their non-francophone counterparts in three economic communities: the Economic Community of West African States, the Economic Community of Central African States, and the Southern African Development Community. GBD 2017 employed a variety of statistical models to determine the number of deaths from each cause, through the Cause of Death Ensemble model algorithm, using CoDCorrect to ensure that the number of deaths per cause did not exceed the total number of estimated deaths. After producing estimates for the number of deaths from each of the 282 fatal outcomes included in the GBD 2017 list of causes, the years of life lost (YLLs) due to premature death were calculated. Years lived with disability (YLDs) were estimated as the product of prevalence and a disability weight for all mutually exclusive sequelae. Disability-adjusted life-years (DALYs) were calculated as the sum of YLLs and YLDs. All calculations are presented with 95% uncertainty intervals (UIs). A sample of 1000 draws was taken from the posterior distribution of each estimation step; aggregation of uncertainty across age, sex, and location was done on each draw, assuming independence of uncertainty. The lower and upper UIs represent the ordinal 25th and 975th draws of each quantity and attempt to describe modelling as well as sampling error.<h4>Findings</h4>In 2017, 779 deaths (95% UI 750-809) per 100 000 population occurred in francophone Africa, a decrease of 45·3% since 1990. Malaria, lower respiratory infections, neonatal disorders, diarrhoeal diseases, and tuberculosis were the top five Level 3 causes of death. These five causes were found among the six leading causes of death in most francophone countries. In 2017, francophone Africa experienced 53 570 DALYs (50 164-57 361) per 100 000 population, distributed between 43 708 YLLs (41 673-45 742) and 9862 YLDs (7331-12 749) per 100 000 population. In 2017, YLLs constituted the majority of DALYs in the 21 countries of francophone Africa. Age-specific and cause-specific mortality and population ageing were responsible for most of the reductions in disease burden, whereas population growth was responsible for most of the increases.<h4>Interpretation</h4>Francophone Africa still carries a high burden of communicable and neonatal diseases, probably due to the weakness of health-care systems and services, as evidenced by the almost complete attribution of DALYs to YLLs. To cope with this burden of disease, francophone Africa should define its priorities and invest more resources in health-system strengthening and in the quality and quantity of health-care services, especially in rural and remote areas. The region could also be prioritised in terms of technical and financial assistance focused on achieving these goals, as much as on demographic investments including education and family planning.<h4>Funding</h4>Bill & Melinda Gates Foundation.
Project description:<h4>Background</h4>Accurate childhood cancer burden data are crucial for resource planning and health policy prioritisation. Model-based estimates are necessary because cancer surveillance data are scarce or non-existent in many countries. Although global incidence and mortality estimates are available, there are no previous analyses of the global burden of childhood cancer represented in disability-adjusted life-years (DALYs).<h4>Methods</h4>Using the Global Burden of Diseases, Injuries, and Risk Factors Study (GBD) 2017 methodology, childhood (ages 0-19 years) cancer mortality was estimated by use of vital registration system data, verbal autopsy data, and population-based cancer registry incidence data, which were transformed to mortality estimates through modelled mortality-to-incidence ratios (MIRs). Childhood cancer incidence was estimated using the mortality estimates and corresponding MIRs. Prevalence estimates were calculated by using MIR to model survival and multiplied by disability weights to obtain years lived with disability (YLDs). Years of life lost (YLLs) were calculated by multiplying age-specific cancer deaths by the difference between the age of death and a reference life expectancy. DALYs were calculated as the sum of YLLs and YLDs. Final point estimates are reported with 95% uncertainty intervals.<h4>Findings</h4>Globally, in 2017, there were 11·5 million (95% uncertainty interval 10·6-12·3) DALYs due to childhood cancer, 97·3% (97·3-97·3) of which were attributable to YLLs and 2·7% (2·7-2·7) of which were attributable to YLDs. Childhood cancer was the sixth leading cause of total cancer burden globally and the ninth leading cause of childhood disease burden globally. 82·2% (82·1-82·2) of global childhood cancer DALYs occurred in low, low-middle, or middle Socio-demographic Index locations, whereas 50·3% (50·3-50·3) of adult cancer DALYs occurred in these same locations. Cancers that are uncategorised in the current GBD framework comprised 26·5% (26·5-26·5) of global childhood cancer DALYs.<h4>Interpretation</h4>The GBD 2017 results call attention to the substantial burden of childhood cancer globally, which disproportionately affects populations in resource-limited settings. The use of DALY-based estimates is crucial in demonstrating that childhood cancer burden represents an important global cancer and child health concern.<h4>Funding</h4>Bill & Melinda Gates Foundation, American Lebanese Syrian Associated Charities (ALSAC), and St. Baldrick's Foundation.
Project description:Importance:Cancer is the second leading cause of death worldwide. Current estimates on the burden of cancer are needed for cancer control planning. Objective:To estimate mortality, incidence, years lived with disability (YLDs), years of life lost (YLLs), and disability-adjusted life-years (DALYs) for 32 cancers in 195 countries and territories from 1990 to 2015. Evidence Review:Cancer mortality was estimated using vital registration system data, cancer registry incidence data (transformed to mortality estimates using separately estimated mortality to incidence [MI] ratios), and verbal autopsy data. Cancer incidence was calculated by dividing mortality estimates through the modeled MI ratios. To calculate cancer prevalence, MI ratios were used to model survival. To calculate YLDs, prevalence estimates were multiplied by disability weights. The YLLs were estimated by multiplying age-specific cancer deaths by the reference life expectancy. DALYs were estimated as the sum of YLDs and YLLs. A sociodemographic index (SDI) was created for each location based on income per capita, educational attainment, and fertility. Countries were categorized by SDI quintiles to summarize results. Findings:In 2015, there were 17.5 million cancer cases worldwide and 8.7 million deaths. Between 2005 and 2015, cancer cases increased by 33%, with population aging contributing 16%, population growth 13%, and changes in age-specific rates contributing 4%. For men, the most common cancer globally was prostate cancer (1.6 million cases). Tracheal, bronchus, and lung cancer was the leading cause of cancer deaths and DALYs in men (1.2 million deaths and 25.9 million DALYs). For women, the most common cancer was breast cancer (2.4 million cases). Breast cancer was also the leading cause of cancer deaths and DALYs for women (523?000 deaths and 15.1 million DALYs). Overall, cancer caused 208.3 million DALYs worldwide in 2015 for both sexes combined. Between 2005 and 2015, age-standardized incidence rates for all cancers combined increased in 174 of 195 countries or territories. Age-standardized death rates (ASDRs) for all cancers combined decreased within that timeframe in 140 of 195 countries or territories. Countries with an increase in the ASDR due to all cancers were largely located on the African continent. Of all cancers, deaths between 2005 and 2015 decreased significantly for Hodgkin lymphoma (-6.1% [95% uncertainty interval (UI), -10.6% to -1.3%]). The number of deaths also decreased for esophageal cancer, stomach cancer, and chronic myeloid leukemia, although these results were not statistically significant. Conclusion and Relevance:As part of the epidemiological transition, cancer incidence is expected to increase in the future, further straining limited health care resources. Appropriate allocation of resources for cancer prevention, early diagnosis, and curative and palliative care requires detailed knowledge of the local burden of cancer. The GBD 2015 study results demonstrate that progress is possible in the war against cancer. However, the major findings also highlight an unmet need for cancer prevention efforts, including tobacco control, vaccination, and the promotion of physical activity and a healthy diet.
Project description:<h4>Objectives</h4>We used the results of the Global Burden of Disease 2015 study to estimate trends of HIV/AIDS burden in Eastern Mediterranean Region (EMR) countries between 1990 and 2015.<h4>Methods</h4>Tailored estimation methods were used to produce final estimates of mortality. Years of life lost (YLLs) were calculated by multiplying the mortality rate by population by age-specific life expectancy. Years lived with disability (YLDs) were computed as the prevalence of a sequela multiplied by its disability weight.<h4>Results</h4>In 2015, the rate of HIV/AIDS deaths in the EMR was 1.8 (1.4-2.5) per 100,000 population, a 43% increase from 1990 (0.3; 0.2-0.8). Consequently, the rate of YLLs due to HIV/AIDS increased from 15.3 (7.6-36.2) per 100,000 in 1990 to 81.9 (65.3-114.4) in 2015. The rate of YLDs increased from 1.3 (0.6-3.1) in 1990 to 4.4 (2.7-6.6) in 2015.<h4>Conclusions</h4>HIV/AIDS morbidity and mortality increased in the EMR since 1990. To reverse this trend and achieve epidemic control, EMR countries should strengthen HIV surveillance, and scale up HIV antiretroviral therapy and comprehensive prevention services.
Project description:<h4>Background</h4>In estimating the global burden of cancer, adolescents and young adults with cancer are often overlooked, despite being a distinct subgroup with unique epidemiology, clinical care needs, and societal impact. Comprehensive estimates of the global cancer burden in adolescents and young adults (aged 15-39 years) are lacking. To address this gap, we analysed results from the Global Burden of Diseases, Injuries, and Risk Factors Study (GBD) 2019, with a focus on the outcome of disability-adjusted life-years (DALYs), to inform global cancer control measures in adolescents and young adults.<h4>Methods</h4>Using the GBD 2019 methodology, international mortality data were collected from vital registration systems, verbal autopsies, and population-based cancer registry inputs modelled with mortality-to-incidence ratios (MIRs). Incidence was computed with mortality estimates and corresponding MIRs. Prevalence estimates were calculated using modelled survival and multiplied by disability weights to obtain years lived with disability (YLDs). Years of life lost (YLLs) were calculated as age-specific cancer deaths multiplied by the standard life expectancy at the age of death. The main outcome was DALYs (the sum of YLLs and YLDs). Estimates were presented globally and by Socio-demographic Index (SDI) quintiles (countries ranked and divided into five equal SDI groups), and all estimates were presented with corresponding 95% uncertainty intervals (UIs). For this analysis, we used the age range of 15-39 years to define adolescents and young adults.<h4>Findings</h4>There were 1·19 million (95% UI 1·11-1·28) incident cancer cases and 396 000 (370 000-425 000) deaths due to cancer among people aged 15-39 years worldwide in 2019. The highest age-standardised incidence rates occurred in high SDI (59·6 [54·5-65·7] per 100 000 person-years) and high-middle SDI countries (53·2 [48·8-57·9] per 100 000 person-years), while the highest age-standardised mortality rates were in low-middle SDI (14·2 [12·9-15·6] per 100 000 person-years) and middle SDI (13·6 [12·6-14·8] per 100 000 person-years) countries. In 2019, adolescent and young adult cancers contributed 23·5 million (21·9-25·2) DALYs to the global burden of disease, of which 2·7% (1·9-3·6) came from YLDs and 97·3% (96·4-98·1) from YLLs. Cancer was the fourth leading cause of death and tenth leading cause of DALYs in adolescents and young adults globally.<h4>Interpretation</h4>Adolescent and young adult cancers contributed substantially to the overall adolescent and young adult disease burden globally in 2019. These results provide new insights into the distribution and magnitude of the adolescent and young adult cancer burden around the world. With notable differences observed across SDI settings, these estimates can inform global and country-level cancer control efforts.<h4>Funding</h4>Bill & Melinda Gates Foundation, American Lebanese Syrian Associated Charities, St Baldrick's Foundation, and the National Cancer Institute.
Project description:BACKGROUND:Child and adolescent injury is one of the leading causes of child death globally with a large proportion occurring in Low- and Middle-Income Countries (LMICs). Similarly, the Eastern Mediterranean Region (EMR) countries borne a heavy burden that largely impact child and adolescent safety and health in the region. We aim to assess child and adolescent injury morbidity and mortality and estimate its burden in the Eastern Mediterranean Region based on findings from the Global Burden of Disease (GBD), Injuries and Risk Factors study 2017. METHODS:Data from the Global Burden of Disease GBD 2017 were used to estimate injury mortality for children aged 0-19, Years of Life Lost (YLLs), Years lived with Disability (YLDs) and Disability Adjusted Life Years (DALYs) by age and sex from 1990 to 2017. RESULTS:In 2017, an estimated 133,117 (95% UI 122,587-143,361) children died in EMR compared to 707,755 (95% UI 674401.6-738,166.6) globally. The highest rate of injury deaths was reported in Syria at 183.7 (95% UI 181.8-185.7) per 100,000 population. The leading cause of injury deaths was self-harm and interpersonal violence followed by transport injury. The primary cause of injury DALYs in EMR in 2017 was self-harm and interpersonal violence with a rate of 1272.95 (95% UI 1228.9 - 1319.2) almost 3-times the global rate. CONCLUSION:Almost 19% of global child injury related deaths occur in the EMR. Concerted efforts should be integrated to inform policies and adopt injury preventive strategies to reduce injury burden and promote child and adolescent health and well-being in EMR countries.
Project description:Neglected Tropical Diseases (NTDs) are important causes of morbidity, disability, and mortality among poor and vulnerable populations in several countries worldwide, including Brazil. We present the burden of NTDs in Brazil from 1990 to 2016 based on findings from the Global Burden of Diseases, Injuries, and Risk Factors Study 2016 (GBD 2016).We extracted data from GBD 2016 to assess years of life lost (YLLs), years lived with disability (YLDs), and disability-adjusted life-years (DALYs) for NTDs by sex, age group, causes, and Brazilian states, from 1990 to 2016. We included all NTDs that were part of the priority list of the World Health Organization (WHO) in 2016 and that are endemic/autochthonous in Brazil. YLDs were calculated by multiplying the prevalence of sequelae multiplied by its disability weight. YLLs were estimated by multiplying each death by the reference life expectancy at each age. DALYs were computed as the sum of YLDs and YLLs.In 2016, there were 475,410 DALYs (95% uncertainty interval [UI]: 337,334-679,482; age-standardized rate of 232.0 DALYs/100,000 population) from the 12 selected NTDs, accounting for 0.8% of national all-cause DALYs. Chagas disease was the leading cause of DALYs among all NTDs, followed by schistosomiasis and dengue. The sex-age-specific NTD burden was higher among males and in the youngest and eldest (children <1 year and those aged ?70 years). The highest age-standardized DALY rates due to all NTDs combined at the state level were observed in Goiás (614.4 DALYs/100,000), Minas Gerais (433.7 DALYs/100,000), and Distrito Federal (430.0 DALYs/100,000). Between 1990 and 2016, the national age-standardized DALY rates from all NTDs decreased by 45.7%, with different patterns among NTD causes and Brazilian states. Most NTDs decreased in the period, with more pronounced reduction in DALY rates for onchocerciasis, lymphatic filariasis, and rabies. By contrast, age-standardized DALY rates due to dengue, visceral leishmaniasis, and trichuriasis increased substantially. Age-standardized DALY rates decreased for most Brazilian states, increasing only in the states of Amapá, Ceará, Rio Grande do Norte, and Sergipe.GBD 2016 findings show that, despite the reduction in disease burden, NTDs are still important and preventable causes of disability and premature death in Brazil. The data call for renewed and comprehensive efforts to control and prevent the NTD burden in Brazil through evidence-informed and efficient and affordable interventions. Multi-sectoral and integrated control and surveillance measures should be prioritized, considering the population groups and geographic areas with the greatest morbidity, disability, and most premature deaths due to NTDs in the country.