Lysosome activity is modulated by multiple longevity pathways and is important for lifespan extension in C. elegans.
ABSTRACT: Lysosomes play important roles in cellular degradation to maintain cell homeostasis. In order to understand whether and how lysosomes alter with age and contribute to lifespan regulation, we characterized multiple properties of lysosomes during the aging process in C. elegans. We uncovered age-dependent alterations in lysosomal morphology, motility, acidity and degradation activity, all of which indicate a decline in lysosome function with age. The age-associated lysosomal changes are suppressed in the long-lived mutants daf-2, eat-2 and isp-1, which extend lifespan by inhibiting insulin/IGF-1 signaling, reducing food intake and impairing mitochondrial function, respectively. We found that 43 lysosome genes exhibit reduced expression with age, including genes encoding subunits of the proton pump V-ATPase and cathepsin proteases. The expression of lysosome genes is upregulated in the long-lived mutants, and this upregulation requires the functions of DAF-16/FOXO and SKN-1/NRF2 transcription factors. Impairing lysosome function affects clearance of aggregate-prone proteins and disrupts lifespan extension in daf-2, eat-2 and isp-1 worms. Our data indicate that lysosome function is modulated by multiple longevity pathways and is important for lifespan extension.
Project description:Lysosomes degrade macromolecules and recycle metabolites as well as being involved in diverse processes that regulate cellular homeostasis. The lysosome is limited by a single phospholipid bilayer that forms a barrier to separate the potent luminal hydrolases from other cellular constituents, thus protecting the latter from unwanted degradation. The mechanisms that maintain lysosomal membrane integrity remain unknown. Here, we identified SCAV-3, the Caenorhabditis elegans homologue of human LIMP-2, as a key regulator of lysosome integrity, motility, and dynamics. Loss of scav-3 caused rupture of lysosome membranes and significantly shortened lifespan. Both of these phenotypes were suppressed by reinforced expression of LMP-1 or LMP-2, the C. elegans LAMPs, indicating that longevity requires maintenance of lysosome integrity. Remarkably, reduction in insulin/insulin-like growth factor 1 (IGF-1) signaling suppressed lysosomal damage and extended the lifespan in scav-3(lf) animals in a DAF-16-dependent manner. Our data reveal that SCAV-3 is essential for preserving lysosomal membrane stability and that modulation of lysosome integrity by the insulin/IGF-1 signaling pathway affects longevity.
Project description:Mild deficits in mitochondrial function have been shown to increase lifespan in multiple species including worms, flies and mice. Here, we study three C. elegans mitochondrial mutants (clk-1, isp-1 and nuo-6) to identify overlapping genetic pathways that contribute to their longevity. We find that genes regulated by the FOXO transcription factor DAF-16 are upregulated in all three strains, and that the transcriptional changes present in these worms overlap significantly with the long-lived insulin-IGF1 signaling pathway mutant daf-2. We show that DAF-16 and multiple DAF-16 interacting proteins (MATH-33, IMB-2, CST-1/2, BAR-1) are required for the full longevity of all three mitochondrial mutants. Our results suggest that the activation of DAF-16 in these mutants results from elevated levels of reactive oxygen species. Overall, this work reveals an overlapping genetic pathway required for longevity in three mitochondrial mutants, and, combined with previous work, demonstrates that DAF-16 is a downstream mediator of lifespan extension in multiple pathways of longevity.
Project description:Naringin is a dihydroflavonoid, which is rich in several plant species used for herbal medicine. It has a wide range of biological activities, including antineoplastic, anti-inflammatory, antiphotoaging, and antioxidative activities. So it would be interesting to know if naringin has an effect on aging and aging-related diseases. We examined the effect of naringin on the aging of Caenorhabditis elegans (C. elegans). Our results showed that naringin could extend the lifespan of C. elegans. Moreover, naringin could also increase the thermal and oxidative stress tolerance, reduce the accumulation of lipofuscin, and delay the progress of aging-related diseases in C. elegans models of AD and PD. Naringin could not significantly extend the lifespan of long-lived mutants from genes in insulin/IGF-1 signaling (IIS) and nutrient-sensing pathways, such as daf-2, akt-2, akt-1, eat-2, sir-2.1, and rsks-1. Naringin treatment prolonged the lifespan of long-lived glp-1 mutants, which have decreased reproductive stem cells. Naringin could not extend the lifespan of a null mutant of the fox-head transcription factor DAF-16. Moreover, naringin could increase the mRNA expression of genes regulated by daf-16 and itself. In conclusion, we show that a natural product naringin could extend the lifespan of C. elegans and delay the progression of aging-related diseases in C. elegans models via DAF-16.
Project description:Neurons face the challenge of maintaining cellular homeostasis through lysosomal degradation. While enzymatically active degradative lysosomes are enriched in the soma, their axonal trafficking and positioning and impact on axonal physiology remain elusive. Here, we characterized axon-targeted delivery of degradative lysosomes by applying fluorescent probes that selectively label active forms of lysosomal cathepsins D, B, L, and GCase. By time-lapse imaging of cortical neurons in microfluidic devices and standard dishes, we reveal that soma-derived degradative lysosomes rapidly influx into distal axons and target to autophagosomes and Parkinson disease-related ?-synuclein cargos for local degradation. Impairing lysosome axonal delivery induces an aberrant accumulation of autophagosomes and ?-synuclein cargos in distal axons. Our study demonstrates that the axon is an active compartment for local degradation and reveals fundamental aspects of axonal lysosomal delivery and maintenance. Our work establishes a foundation for investigations into axonal lysosome trafficking and functionality in neurodegenerative diseases.
Project description:BACKGROUND:The mitochondrial unfolded protein response (mitoUPR) is a stress response pathway activated by disruption of proteostasis in the mitochondria. This pathway has been proposed to influence lifespan, with studies suggesting that mitoUPR activation has complex effects on longevity. RESULTS:Here, we examined the contribution of the mitoUPR to the survival and lifespan of three long-lived mitochondrial mutants in Caenorhabditis elegans by modulating the levels of ATFS-1, the central transcription factor that mediates the mitoUPR. We found that clk-1, isp-1, and nuo-6 worms all exhibit an ATFS-1-dependent activation of the mitoUPR. While loss of atfs-1 during adulthood does not affect lifespan in any of these strains, absence of atfs-1 during development prevents clk-1 and isp-1 worms from reaching adulthood and reduces the lifespan of nuo-6 mutants. Examining the mechanism by which deletion of atfs-1 reverts nuo-6 lifespan to wild-type, we find that many of the transcriptional changes present in nuo-6 worms are mediated by ATFS-1. Genes exhibiting an ATFS-1-dependent upregulation in nuo-6 worms are enriched for transcripts that function in stress response and metabolism. Consistent, with this finding, loss of atfs-1 abolishes the enhanced stress resistance observed in nuo-6 mutants and prevents upregulation of multiple stress response pathways including the HIF-1-mediated hypoxia response, SKN-1-mediated oxidative stress response and DAF-16-mediated stress response. CONCLUSIONS:Our results suggest that in the long-lived mitochondrial mutant nuo-6 activation of the mitoUPR causes atfs-1-dependent changes in the expression of genes involved in stress response and metabolism, which contributes to the extended longevity observed in this mutant. This work demonstrates that the mitoUPR can modulate multiple stress response pathways and suggests that it is crucial for the development and lifespan of long-lived mitochondrial mutants.
Project description:Dietary restriction (DR) is a dietary regimen that extends lifespan in many organisms. One mechanism contributing to the conserved effect of DR on longevity is the cellular recycling process autophagy, which is induced in response to nutrient scarcity and increases sequestration of cytosolic material into double-membrane autophagosomes for degradation in the lysosome. Although autophagy plays a direct role in DR-mediated lifespan extension in the nematode Caenorhabditis elegans, the contribution of autophagy in individual tissues remains unclear. In this study, we show a critical role for autophagy in the intestine, a major metabolic tissue, to ensure lifespan extension of dietary-restricted eat-2 mutants. The intestine of eat-2 mutants has an enlarged lysosomal compartment and flux assays indicate increased turnover of autophagosomes, consistent with an induction of autophagy in this tissue. This increase in intestinal autophagy may underlie the improved intestinal integrity we observe in eat-2 mutants, since whole-body and intestinal-specific inhibition of autophagy in eat-2 mutants greatly impairs the intestinal barrier function. Interestingly, intestinal-specific inhibition of autophagy in eat-2 mutants leads to a decrease in motility with age, alluding to a potential cell non-autonomous role for autophagy in the intestine. Collectively, these results highlight important functions for autophagy in the intestine of dietary-restricted C. elegans.
Project description:Mild deficits in mitochondrial function have been shown to increase lifespan in multiple species including worms, flies and mice. Here, we study three C. elegans mitochondrial mutants (clk-1, isp-1 and nuo-6) to identify overlapping genetic pathways that contribute to their longevity. We find that genes regulated by the FOXO transcription factor DAF-16 are upregulated in all three strains, and that the transcriptional changes present in these worms overlap significantly with the long-lived insulin-IGF1 signaling pathway mutant daf-2. We show that DAF-16 and multiple DAF-16 interacting proteins (MATH-33, IMB-2, CST-1/2, BAR-1) are required for the longevity of all three mitochondrial mutants. Our results suggest that the activation of DAF-16 in these mutants results from elevated levels of reactive oxygen species. Overall, this work reveals an overlapping genetic pathway required for longevity in three mitochondrial mutants, and, combined with previous work, demonstrates that DAF-16 is a downstream mediator of lifespan extension in multiple pathways of longevity. Overall design: Six biological replicates per genotype (WT, sod-2, clk-1, nuo-6, isp-1, daf-2) or three biological replicates per genotype (sod-1, ctl-1, prdx-2); mRNA was isolated individually from each replicate; Six WT and sod-2 were sequenced individually in a different experiment though were analyzed in the same way as other samples
Project description:Human macrophages incubated for prolonged periods with mildly oxidized LDL (oxLDL) or cholesteryl ester-rich lipid dispersions (DISP) accumulate free and esterified cholesterol within large, swollen lysosomes similar to those in foam cells of atherosclerosis. The cholesteryl ester (CE) accumulation is, in part, the result of inhibition of lysosomal hydrolysis due to increased lysosomal pH mediated by excessive lysosomal free cholesterol (FC). To determine if the inhibition of hydrolysis was long lived and further define the extent of the lysosomal defect, we incubated THP-1 macrophages with oxLDL or DISP to produce lysosome sterol engorgement and then chased with acetylated LDL (acLDL). Unlike oxLDL or DISP, CE from acLDL normally is hydrolyzed rapidly. Three days of incubation with oxLDL or DISP produced an excess of CE in lipid-engorged lysosomes, indicative of inhibition. After prolonged oxLDL or DISP pretreatment, subsequent hydrolysis of acLDL CE was inhibited. Coincident with the inhibition, the lipid-engorged lysosomes failed to maintain an acidic pH during both the initial pretreatment and subsequent acLDL incubation. This indicates that the alterations in lysosomes were general, long lived, and affected subsequent lipoprotein metabolism. This same phenomenon, occurring within atherosclerotic foam cells, could significantly affect lesion progression.
Project description:Analysis of gene expression in two long-lived daf-2 mutant (mutation in the insulin/IGF-1 receptor) and eat-2 mutant (caloric restriction model), comparison of gene expression profiles of two long-lived mutants provide novel insight into longevity Impaired insulin/IGF-1 signaling (IIS) pathway and caloric restriction (CR) are two well-established interventions to prolong lifespan in worm C. elegans. Although many studies using “-omics” approaches have gained informative knowledges on key longevity regulators in either IIS or CR models, few of those investigated the shared regulators between these two longevity interventions and integrated the messages from different –omics studies. In this study, we aimed to identify key pathways and metabolite fingerprints of longevity shared between the two interventions in worms using a multi-omics integration approach. We collected transcriptomics and metabolomics data from two long-lived mutant worm strains, i.e. daf-2 (impaired IIS pathway) and eat-2 (CR model) and compared with N2 strain. We detected many key pathways that were upregulated at the gene expression level in both long-lived mutants, such as defense response and lipid storage, while synthesis of macromolecules and developmental processes were downregulated at the transcript level. From our polar metabolite analysis, we discovered several shared metabolic features between the two long-lived mutants, including glycerol-3P, adenine, xanthine and AMP. In addition, we detected a lowered amino acid pool and two fatty acid species, C18:0 and C17:1, that behaved similarly in both long-lived mutants. After we integrated transcriptomics and metabolomics data based on the annotations in KEGG, our results highlighted a downregulation of pyrimidine metabolism and upregulation of purine metabolism in both long-lived mutants compared to N2 worms. Overall, our findings point towards the existence of shared metabolic pathways that are important for lifespan extension and provide novel insight of potential regulators and metabolic fingerprints for longevity. Overall design: three worm strains, N2 (Bristol) was used as control/wild-type; together with two long-lived mutants daf-2(e1370) and eat-2(ad465). Both mutants were backcross with N2 strain for three times and sequenced. Culture temperature: 20 C; feeding bacterial strain: E. coli HT115; harvest at young adult phase; 500 worms per biological replicates; 4 replicates per worm strain
Project description:Secoisolariciresinol diglucoside (SDG) is a phytoestrogen and rich in food flaxseed, sunflower seeds, and sesame seeds. Among the beneficial pharmacological activities of SDG on health, many are age related, such as anticancer, antidiabetes, antioxidant, and neuroprotective effects. Thus, we investigated if SDG had an effect on antiaging in Caenorhabditis elegans (C. elegans). Our results showed that SDG could extend the lifespan of C. elegans by up to 22.0%, delay age-related decline of body movement, reduce the lethality of heat and oxidative stress, alleviate dopamine neurodegeneration induced by 6-hydroxydopamine (6-OHDA), and decrease the toxicity of A? protein in C. elegans. SDG could increase the expression of the downstream genes of DAF-16, DAF-12, NHR-80, and HSF-1 at mRNA level. SDG could not extend the lifespan of mutants from genes daf-16, hsf-1, nhr-80, daf-12, glp-1, eat-2, and aak-2. The above results suggested that SDG might enhance the stress resistance, delay the progression of aging-related diseases, and extend the lifespan of C. elegans via DAF-16 and HSF-1.