Aberrant static and dynamic functional connectivity of the executive control network in lung cancer patients after chemotherapy: a longitudinal fMRI study.
ABSTRACT: OBJECTIVE:The purpose of the current study was to investigate chemotherapy-related variations in the intrinsic static and dynamic functional connectivity (sFC and dFC, respectively) of the executive control network (ECN) in lung cancer patients. MATERIALS AND METHODS:In this study, we evaluated 18 lung cancer patients scanned before and after adjuvant chemotherapy treatment and compared the patients with 21 healthy controls (HCs). All subjects underwent resting-state functional MRI (rs-fMRI). We constructed the sFC and dFC of the bilateral dorsolateral prefrontal cortex (DLPFC) using a sliding-window approach, and the correlations between the changed sFC or dFC and cognitive performance were analyzed. RESULTS:Whole-brain sFC analysis showed that the lung cancer patients showed significant FC pattern changes in the bilateral DLPFC, mainly in the bilateral superior frontal gyrus (SFG), bilateral middle frontal gyrus, left superior temporal gyrus, left inferior parietal lobe and the right insula. Furthermore, after chemotherapy, the lung cancer patients showed significantly reduced dFC variability between the right DLPFC and right precuneus compared with HCs. In addition, the decreased dFC between the right DLPFC and left SFG in the lung cancer patients after chemotherapy in state 1 and between the right DLPFC and left insula in the lung cancer patients before chemotherapy in state 2 were negatively correlated with MoCA scores ((r = -0.520, p?=?0.039; r = -0.548, p?=?0.028, respectively). CONCLUSIONS:Our results reveal that dynamic connectivity analysis is more effective and sensitive than methods that assume static brain states for linking brain FC patterns and chemotherapy.
Project description:Purpose:The utility of transcranial magnetic stimulation (TMS) has been growing rapidly in both neurocognitive studies and clinical applications in decades. However, it remains unclear how the responses of the stimulated site and the site-related functional network to the external TMS manipulation dynamically change over time. Methods:A multi-session combining TMS-fMRI experiment was conducted to explore the spatiotemporal effects of TMS within the fronto-limbic network. Ten healthy volunteers were modulated by intermittent theta-burst stimulation (iTBS) at a precise site within the left dorsolateral prefrontal cortex (DLPFC, MNI coordinate [-44 36 20]), navigated by individual structural MRI image. Three-session resting-state fMRI images were acquired before iTBS (TP1), immediately after iTBS (TP2), and 15 min after iTBS (TP3) for each participant. Seventy-four regions of interests (ROIs) within the fronto-limbic network were chosen including the bilateral superior frontal gyrus (SFG), middle frontal gyrus (MidFG), inferior frontal gyrus (IFG), orbital gyrus (OrG), cingulate gyrus (CG), and subcortical nuclei (hippocampus and amygdala). Regional fractional amplitude of low-frequency fluctuation (fALFF) and ROI-to-ROI functional connectivity (FC) were compared among TP1, TP2, and TP3. Results:The immediate iTBS effect was observed at the stimulated site. FC between the left dorsolateral SFG and left dorsal IFG and between the left rostral IFG and right MidFG increased at TP2 as compared to at TP1 (all FDR-p < 0.05), while FC within the left OrG decreased. The relatively long-term iTBS effect transmitted with decreased FC between the left IFG and right amygdala, increased FC between the left MidFG and left OrG, and decreased FC between bilateral IFG and OrG at TP3 than at TP1 (all FDR-p < 0.05). Meanwhile, mean fALFF values over the left SFG, MidFG, ventral CG, and IFG were significantly increased at TP3 as compared to those at TP2 (all p < 0.05 with Bonferroni correction). Conclusion:By combining TMS and fMRI, it becomes possible to track the spatiotemporal dynamics of TMS after-effects within the fronto-limbic network. Our findings suggested that the iTBS effect dynamically changed over time from the local neural activation at the stimulated site to its connected remote regions within the fronto-limbic network.
Project description:Identification of intrinsic brain activity differences and similarities between major depression (MDD) and bipolar disorder (BD) is necessary. However, results have not yet yielded consistent conclusions. A meta-analysis of whole-brain resting-state functional MRI (rs-fMRI) studies that explored differences in the amplitude of low-frequency fluctuation (ALFF) between patients (including MDD and BD) and healthy controls (HCs) was conducted using seed-based d mapping software. Systematic literature search identified 50 studies comparing 1399 MDD patients and 1332 HCs, and 15 studies comparing 494 BD patients and 593 HCs. MDD patients displayed increased ALFF in the right superior frontal gyrus (SFG) (including the medial orbitofrontal cortex, medial prefrontal cortex [mPFC], anterior cingulate cortex [ACC]), bilateral insula extending into the striatum and left supramarginal gyrus and decreased ALFF in the bilateral cerebellum, bilateral precuneus, and left occipital cortex compared with HCs. BD showed increased ALFF in the bilateral inferior frontal gyrus, bilateral insula extending into the striatum, right SFG, and right superior temporal gyrus (STG) and decreased ALFF in the bilateral precuneus, left cerebellum (extending to the occipital cortex), left ACC, and left STG. In addition, MDD displayed increased ALFF in the left lingual gyrus, left ACC, bilateral precuneus/posterior cingulate gyrus, and left STG and decreased ALFF in the right insula, right mPFC, right fusiform gyrus, and bilateral striatum relative to BD patients. Conjunction analysis showed increased ALFF in the bilateral insula, mPFC, and decreased ALFF in the left cerebellum in both disorders. Our comprehensive meta-analysis suggests that MDD and BD show a common pattern of aberrant regional intrinsic brain activity which predominantly includes the insula, mPFC, and cerebellum, while the limbic system and occipital cortex may be associated with spatially distinct patterns of brain function, which provide useful insights for understanding the underlying pathophysiology of brain dysfunction in affective disorders, and developing more targeted and efficacious treatment and intervention strategies.
Project description:The present study employed functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) to examine the characteristics of negative blood oxygen level-dependent (Negative BOLD) signals during motor execution. Subjects repeated extension and flexion of one of the following: the right hand, left hand, right ankle, or left ankle. Negative BOLD responses during hand movements were observed in the ipsilateral hemisphere of the hand primary sensorimotor area (SMI), medial frontal gyrus (MeFG), middle frontal gyrus (MFG), and superior frontal gyrus (SFG). Negative BOLD responses during foot movements were also noted in the bilateral hand SMI, MeFG, MFG, SFG, inferior frontal gyrus, middle temporal gyrus, parahippocampal gyrus, anterior cingulate cortex, cingulate gyrus (CG), fusiform gyrus, and precuneus. A conjunction analysis showed that portions of the MeFG and CG involving similar regions to those of the default mode network were commonly deactivated during voluntary movements of the right/left hand or foot. The present results suggest that three mechanisms are involved in the Negative BOLD responses observed during voluntary movements: (1) transcallosal inhibition from the contralateral to ipsilateral hemisphere in the SMI, (2) the deactivated neural network with several brain regions, and (3) the default mode network in the MeFG and CG.
Project description:Not all patients with major depressive disorder respond to adequate pharmacological therapy. Psychoradiological studies have reported that antidepressant responders and nonresponders show different alterations in brain grey matter, but the findings are inconsistent. The present study reports a meta-analysis of voxel-based morphometric studies of patients with major depressive disorder, both antidepressant responders and nonresponders, using the anisotropic effect size version of Seed-based D Mapping to identify brain regions correlated to clinical response. A systematic search was conducted up to June 2016 to identify studies focussing on antidepressant response. In responders across 9 datasets grey matter volume (GMV) was significantly higher in the left inferior frontal gyrus and insula, while GMV was significantly lower in the bilateral anterior cingulate cortex (ACC) and the right superior frontal gyrus (SFG). In nonresponders across 5 datasets GMV was significantly lower in the bilateral ACC, median cingulate cortex (MCC) and right SFG. Conjunction analysis confirmed significant differences in the bilateral ACC and right SFG, where GMV was significantly lower in nonresponders but higher in responders. The current study adds to psychoradiology, an evolving subspecialty of radiology mainly for psychiatry and clinical psychology.
Project description:Investigating the neurobiological mechanism of suicidal ideation (SI) in major depressive disorder (MDD) may be beneficial to prevent the suicidal behavior. Mounting evidence showed that habenula contributed to the etiology of MDD. The habenula is a key brain region that links the forebrain to midbrain, crucial for the processing of reward and aversion. The aim of the present study was to identify whether first-episode, drug-naive MDD patients with SI displayed altered habenula neural circuitry. Forty-three and 38 drug-naïve patients with first-episode MDD with or without SI (SI+/- group) and 35 healthy control subjects (HC) underwent resting-state functional magnetic resonance imaging. The whole-brain habenula static (sFC) and dynamic functional connectivity (dFC) were calculated to identify regions showing significant difference among these three groups followed by region of interest to region of interest <i>post hoc</i> analysis. For sFC, compared with SI- and HC groups, SI+ group showed decreased sFC from habenula to the precuneus and the inferior frontal gyrus. Patients with MDD displayed increased sFC from habenula to the putamen but decreased sFC to the precentral gyrus. For dFC, SI+ group showed increased dFC from habenula to the superior temporal gyrus, the precuneus, but decreased dFC to the lingual gyrus, the postcentral gyrus, when comparing with SI- and HC groups. Patients with MDD, regardless of SI, displayed decreased dFC from the habenula to the angular gyrus. These findings provide evidence that SI in first-episode, drug-naïve patients with MDD may be related to an abnormality in habenula neural circuitry, which may provide the theoretical basis of novel treatments.
Project description:Introduction:Brain dynamics (i.e., variable strength of communication between areas), even at the scale of seconds, are thought to underlie complex human behavior, such as learning and memory. In multiple sclerosis (MS), memory problems occur often and have so far only been related to "stationary" brain measures (e.g., atrophy, lesions, activation and stationary (s) functional connectivity (FC) over an entire functional scanning session). However, dynamics in FC (dFC) between the hippocampus and the (neo)cortex may be another important neurobiological substrate of memory impairment in MS that has not yet been explored. Therefore, we investigated hippocampal dFC during a functional (f) magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) episodic memory task and its relationship with verbal and visuospatial memory performance outside the MR scanner. Methods:Thirty-eight MS patients and 29 healthy controls underwent neuropsychological tests to assess memory function. Imaging (1.5T) was obtained during performance of a memory task. We assessed hippocampal volume, functional activation, and sFC (i.e., FC of the hippocampus with the rest of the brain averaged over the entire scan, using an atlas-based approach). Dynamic FC of the hippocampus was calculated using a sliding window approach. Results:No group differences were found in hippocampal activation, sFC, and dFC. However, stepwise forward regression analyses in patients revealed that lower dFC of the left hippocampus (standardized ? = -0.30; p = .021) could explain an additional 7% of variance (53% in total) in verbal memory, in addition to female sex and larger left hippocampal volume. For visuospatial memory, lower dFC of the right hippocampus (standardized ? = -0.38; p = .013) could explain an additional 13% of variance (24% in total) in addition to higher sFC of the right hippocampus. Conclusion:Low hippocampal dFC is an important indicator for maintained memory performance in MS, in addition to other hippocampal imaging measures. Hence, brain dynamics may offer new insights into the neurobiological mechanisms underlying memory (dys)function.
Project description:Children's gains in problem-solving skills during the elementary school years are characterized by shifts in the mix of problem-solving approaches, with inefficient procedural strategies being gradually replaced with direct retrieval of domain-relevant facts. We used a well-established procedure for strategy assessment during arithmetic problem solving to investigate the neural basis of this critical transition. We indexed behavioral strategy use by focusing on the retrieval frequency and examined changes in brain activity and connectivity associated with retrieval fluency during arithmetic problem solving in second- and third-grade (7- to 9-year-old) children. Children with higher retrieval fluency showed elevated signal in the right hippocampus, parahippocampal gyrus (PHG), lingual gyrus (LG), fusiform gyrus (FG), left ventrolateral PFC (VLPFC), bilateral dorsolateral PFC (DLPFC), and posterior angular gyrus. Critically, these effects were not confounded by individual differences in problem-solving speed or accuracy. Psychophysiological interaction analysis revealed significant effective connectivity of the right hippocampus with bilateral VLPFC and DLPFC during arithmetic problem solving. Dynamic causal modeling analysis revealed strong bidirectional interactions between the hippocampus and the left VLPFC and DLPFC. Furthermore, causal influences from the left VLPFC to the hippocampus served as the main top-down component, whereas causal influences from the hippocampus to the left DLPFC served as the main bottom-up component of this retrieval network. Our study highlights the contribution of hippocampal-prefrontal circuits to the early development of retrieval fluency in arithmetic problem solving and provides a novel framework for studying dynamic developmental processes that accompany children's development of problem-solving skills.
Project description:<h4>Objective</h4>The neural mechanisms that give rise to the phantom sound of tinnitus are poorly understood. This study aims to investigate whether aberrant spontaneous brain activity exists in chronic tinnitus patients using resting-state functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) technique.<h4>Materials and methods</h4>A total of 31 patients with chronic tinnitus patients and 32 healthy age-, sex-, and education-matched healthy controls were prospectively examined. Both groups had normal hearing thresholds. We calculated the amplitude of low-frequency fluctuations (ALFFs) of fMRI signals to measure spontaneous neuronal activity and detect the relationship between fMRI information and clinical data of tinnitus.<h4>Results</h4>Compared with healthy controls, we observed significant increased ALFF within several selected regions including the right middle temporal gyrus (MTG), right superior frontal gyrus (SFG), and right angular gyrus; decreased ALFF was detected in the left cuneus, right middle occipital gyrus and bilateral thalamus. Moreover, tinnitus distress correlated positively with increased ALFF in right MTG and right SFG; tinnitus duration correlated positively with higher ALFF values in right SFG.<h4>Conclusions</h4>The present study confirms that chronic tinnitus patients have aberrant ALFF in many brain regions, which is associated with specific clinical tinnitus characteristics. ALFF disturbance in specific brain regions might be used to identify the neuro-pathophysiological mechanisms in chronic tinnitus patients.
Project description:Objective:The aim of this work was to investigate whether there are differences in the executive control network (ECN) between patients with Parkinson's disease (PD) before and after deep brain stimulation (DBS) surgery and to explore how deep brain stimulation (DBS) surgery affects ECN connectivity in patients with PD. Methods:Resting-state magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) data were obtained from 23 patients with Parkinson's disease preoperatively (pre-PD) and postoperatively (post-PD) and 14 normal controls (CN). The right dorsolateral prefrontal cortex (DLPFC) was used as the seed region of interest (ROI) to study the characteristics of the functional connectivity of the ECN in these subjects. Results:There were differences in the ECN among PD patients before and after surgery and between the CN. Compared with the CN group, the pre-PD patients showed significantly reduced functional connectivity (FC) between the DLPFC and the left inferior frontal gyrus, left precuneus, left cerebellum posterior lobe, right middle frontal gyrus, right inferior parietal gyrus, right posterior central gyrus, right precuneus, and right inferior frontal gyrus. Compared to the CN group, the post-PD patients showed significantly reduced FC between the DLPFC and left inferior frontal gyrus, left precuneus, left cerebellum posterior lobe, right middle frontal gyrus, right inferior frontal gyrus, and right parietal lobule. There is no difference in the ECN between the pre-PD patients and the post-PD patients. Conclusions:The FC of ECN in PD patients was different from that in normal controls, but the FC of the ECN in patients with PD may not be altered by DBS. This suggests that the ECN may be considered an imaging biomarker for the identification of PD but may not be a good imaging biomarker for the evaluation of DBS efficacy.
Project description:The current insight into the neurobiological pathogenesis underlying social anxiety disorder (SAD) is still rather limited. We implemented a meta-analysis to explore the neuroanatomical basis of SAD. We undertook a systematic search of studies comparing gray matter volume (GMV) differences between SAD patients and healthy controls (HC) using a whole-brain voxel-based morphometry (VBM) approach. The anisotropic effect size version of seed-based d mapping (AES-SDM) meta-analysis was conducted to explore the GMV differences of SAD patients compared with HC. We included eleven studies with 470 SAD patients and 522 HC in the current meta-analysis. In the main meta-analysis, relative to HC, SAD patients showed larger GMVs in the left precuneus, right middle occipital gyrus (MOG) and supplementary motor area (SMA), as well as smaller GMV in the left putamen. In the subgroup analyses, compared with controls, adult patients (age ? 18 years) with SAD exhibited larger GMVs in the left precuneus, right superior frontal gyrus (SFG), angular gyrus, middle temporal gyrus (MTG), MOG and SMA, as well as a smaller GMV in the left thalamus; SAD patients without comorbid depressive disorder exhibited larger GMVs in the left superior parietal gyrus and precuneus, right inferior temporal gyrus, fusiform gyrus, MTG and superior temporal gyrus (STG), as well as a smaller GMV in the bilateral thalami; and currently drug-free patients with SAD exhibited a smaller GMV in the left thalamus compared with HC while no larger GMVs were found. For SAD patients with different clinical features, our study revealed directionally consistent larger cortical GMVs and smaller subcortical GMVs, including locationally consistent larger precuneus and thalamic deficits in the left brain. Age, comorbid depressive disorder and concomitant medication use of the patients might be potential confounders of SAD at the neuroanatomical level.