Paternal weight of ducks may have an influence on offspring' small intestinal function and cecal microorganisms.
ABSTRACT: BACKGROUND:In animals, many factors affect the small intestinal function and cecal microorganisms, including body weight and genetic background. However, whether paternal weight impacts the small intestinal function and cecal microorganisms remains unknown to date. The current study used Nonghua sheldrake to estimate the effect of paternal weight on the intestine of the offspring by evaluating differences in small intestinal morphology, digestive enzyme activity, and cecal microorganisms between the offspring of male parents with high body weight (group H) and that of male parents with low body weight (group L). RESULTS:The results of the analysis of small intestinal morphology showed that the villus height of the jejunum of group H ducks was higher than that of group L ducks, and the difference was significant for ducks at 10?weeks of age. Moreover, the villus height/crypt depth of the duodenum in group H significantly exceeded that of group L at a duck age of 2?weeks. The amylase activity in the jejunum content of group H exceeded that of group L at 5 and 10?weeks of age. Furthermore, the proportion of the Firmicutes to Bacteroidetes was significantly higher in group H (duck age of 2?weeks). Among the genera with a relative abundance exceeding 1%, the relative abundances of genera Desulfovibrio, Megamonas, Alistipes, Faecalibacterium, and Streptococcus observed in group H were significantly different between group H and group L. CONCLUSIONS:For the first time, this study identifies the effect of paternal weight on offspring small intestinal function and cecal microorganisms. Consequently, this lays a foundation for further research on the relationship between male parents and offspring intestinal function.
Project description:There are great differences in physiological and biological functions between animals of different sexes. However, whether there is a consensus between sexes in duck intestinal development and microorganisms is still unknown. The current study used Nonghua ducks to estimate the effect of sex on the intestine by evaluating differences in intestinal growth indexes and microorganisms. The intestines of male and female ducks were sampled at 2, 5, and 10 wk from the duodenum, jejunum, ileum, and cecum. Then, the intestinal length and weight were measured, the morphology was observed with HE staining, and the intestinal content was analyzed by 16S rRNA sequencing. The results showed that male ducks have shorter intestinal lengths with higher relative weights/relative lengths. The values of jejunal villus height (VH)/crypt depth (CD) of female ducks were significantly higher at 2 wk, whereas the jejunal VH/CD was significantly lower at 10 wk. There was obvious separation of microorganisms in each intestinal segment of ducks of different sexes at the 3 time periods. The dominant phyla at different stages were Firmicutea, Proteobacteria, Bacteroidetes, and Actinobacteria. The duodenal Chao index at the genus level of male ducks was significantly higher at 10 wk than that of female ducks. Significantly different genera were found only in the jejunum, and the abundances of Escherichia_Shigella, Pseudomonas, Clostridium_sensu_stricto_1, Sphingomonas, and Desulfovibrio in male ducks were higher than those in female ducks, whereas the abundance of Rothia was lower, and the abundance of viral infectious diseases, lipid metabolism, metabolism of terpenoids and polyketides, parasitic infectious diseases, xenobiotic biodegradation and metabolism, cardiovascular disease, and metabolism of other amino acids in male ducks were higher than that in female ducks, whereas gene folding, sorting and degradation pathways, and nucleotide metabolism were lower. This study provides a basic reference for the intestinal development and microbial symbiosis of ducks of different sexes.
Project description:The intestinal microbiome influences the health of animals. However, little is known about the impact of indoor conditions and sex on intestinal microbiome diversity and composition in ducks. The present study aimed to investigate differences in the cecal microbiome between male and female ducks reared on the floor (PY group) or in cages (LY group). We also determined the relationships between cecal microbiota composition and slaughter traits, and the expression levels of mucosal and intestinal structural genes in ducks. There was a slight difference in slaughter traits among the groups, with cecum weight being significantly lighter in the LY compared with the PY group, especially in females (p < 0.05). Analysis of the alpha diversity of the cecal microbiota between males and females in the LY and PY groups showed that LY males had significantly lower diversity and richness. Beta diversity analysis demonstrated differences in the microbiota composition in relation to rearing conditions, and a significant difference between the sexes in the PY groups. The dominant bacterial phyla in duck cecum were Bacteroidetes, Firmicutes, Proteobacteria, and Fusobacteria. The relative abundances of the most common bacteria revealed that the intestinal microbiota diversity and composition were affected by both feeding conditions and sex. Several bacterial genera were detected differentially among the groups. These genera were correlated with slaughter traits and expression levels of mucosal and cecal structural genes in ducks. In conclusion, rearing conditions, sex, and associated changes in the cecal microbiota are thus associated with gut barrier functions in ducks.
Project description:Magnolol rich in Magnolia officinalis is a bioactive polyphenolic compound. The aim of this study was to examine the effects of magnolol additive (MA) on growth performance, expression levels of antioxidant-related genes, and intestinal mucosal morphology of Linwu ducks aged from 49 to 70 days, comparing with that of an antibiotic additive (colistin sulfate [CS]). A total of 275, 49-day-old ducks were assigned to 5 groups with 5 cages of 11 ducks each and fed diets supplemented with 0, 100, 200 and 300 mg of MA/kg and 300 mg of CS/kg for 3 weeks, respectively. The results showed that the average daily body weight gain (ADG) was increased significantly in MA-fed groups (200 and 300 mg/kg), compared with the basal diet (BD) group (P < 0.05). The mRNA levels of superoxide dismutase-1 (SOD1), manganese superoxide dismutase-2 (MnSOD2) and catalase (CAT) were also increased significantly in MA groups (P < 0.05). In addition, hematoxylin and eosin staining revealed that Linwu ducks fed the diets with MA had more intact intestinal mucosa than those fed the BD and CS diets. In addition, ileal villus height, ileal villus height/crypt depth ratio (V/C) and duodenal V/C were also improved significantly (P < 0.05). Taken together, these data demonstrated that MA is an effective feed additive to enhance the growth performance of the Linwu ducks by improving the antioxidant and intestinal mucosal status, suggesting that MA will be a potential additive to replace antibiotic (CS).
Project description:The objective of this study was to investigate the effects of low-protein diets with low digestibility of feed ingredients on intestinal damage and to explore whether the protease supplementation can alleviate the damage in Pekin ducks. A total of 576 Pekin ducklings (6 replicate pens, 16 ducks/pen) were randomly assigned to 6 dietary treatments (3 × 2 factorial arrangement) in a randomized complete block design. Factors were CP levels (13.5%, 15.5%, and 17.5%) and protease (0 or 20,000U/kg). Compared with the diets containing 17.5% CP, low-protein diets (13.5% CP) showed suppressed (P < 0.05) growth performance and feed intake (FI); reduced (P < 0.05) serum-free arginine, isoleucine, leucine, methionine, phenylalanine, valine, and proline as well as the cecal acetate and propionate concentration; increased (P < 0.05) plasma and ileal mucosal tumor necrosis factor-? (TNF-?) concentration; and downregulated (P < 0.05) mRNA expression of TNF-?, nuclear transcription factor-?b, interferon gamma, and Occludin in ileal mucosa. Irrespective of the dietary CP levels, protease supplementation significantly increased (P < 0.05) the serum-free glutamic acid concentration while decreasing (P < 0.05) the plasma endotoxin, IL-6, and the cecal isovalerate concentration. A significant interactive effect was observed between low-protein diets and protease supplementation (P < 0.05) on serum-free arginine concentration, the ratio of ileal villus height to crypt depth, and the IL-6 concentration in ileal mucosa. These results indicated that low-protein diets could damage intestinal integrity to induce systemic inflammation response and at last to suppress growth performance. Protease supplementation could partly attenuate the negative effects on gut health caused by low-protein diets in Pekin ducks.
Project description:Knowledge about the modulation of gut microbiota improves our understanding of the underlying mechanism by which probiotic treatment benefits the chickens. This study examined the effects of Bacillus subtilis DSM 32315 on intestinal structure and microbial composition in broilers. Broiler chicks were fed basal diets without or with B. subtilis supplementation (1.0?×?109 spores/kg of diet). Supplemental B. subtilis increased average body weight and average daily gain, as well as elevated villus height and villus height to crypt depth ratio of ileum in broilers. Multi-dimension analysis showed a certain degree of separation between the cecal microbiota from treatment and control groups. Increased Firmicutes abundance and reduced Bacteroidetes abundance in cecum were observed responded to B. subtilis addition, which also increased the abundances of Christensenellaceae and Caulobacteraceae, and simultaneously decreased the abundances of potentially harmful bacteria such as Vampirovibrio, Escherichia/Shigella and Parabacteroides. Network analysis signified that B. subtilis addition improved the interaction pattern within cecal microbiota of broilers, however, it exerted little influence on the metabolic pathways of cecal microbiota by comparison of the functional prediction of metagenomes. In conclusion, supplemental B. subtilis DSM 32315 improved growth performance and intestinal structure of broilers, which could be at least partially responsible by the manipulation of cecal microbial composition.
Project description:The importance of maternal nutrition to offspring health and risk of disease is well established. Emerging evidence suggests paternal diet may affect offspring health as well.In the current study we sought to determine whether modulating pre-conception paternal B vitamin intake alters intestinal tumor formation in offspring. Additionally, we sought to identify potential mechanisms for the observed weight differential among offspring by profiling hepatic gene expression and lipid content.Male Apc1638N mice (prone to intestinal tumor formation) were fed diets containing replete (control, CTRL), mildly deficient (DEF), or supplemental (SUPP) quantities of vitamins B2, B6, B12, and folate for 8 weeks before mating with control-fed wild type females. Wild type offspring were euthanized at weaning and hepatic gene expression profiled. Apc1638N offspring were fed a replete diet and euthanized at 28 weeks of age to assess tumor burden.No differences in intestinal tumor incidence or burden were found between male Apc1638N offspring of different paternal diet groups. Although in female Apc1638N offspring there were no differences in tumor incidence or multiplicity, a stepwise increase in tumor volume with increasing paternal B vitamin intake was observed. Interestingly, female offspring of SUPP and DEF fathers had a significantly lower body weight than those of CTRL fed fathers. Moreover, hepatic trigylcerides and cholesterol were elevated 3-fold in adult female offspring of SUPP fathers. Weanling offspring of the same fathers displayed altered expression of several key lipid-metabolism genes. Hundreds of differentially methylated regions were identified in the paternal sperm in response to DEF and SUPP diets. Aside from a few genes including Igf2, there was a striking lack of overlap between these genes differentially methylated in sperm and differentially expressed in offspring.In this animal model, modulation of paternal B vitamin intake prior to mating alters offspring weight gain, lipid metabolism and tumor growth in a sex-specific fashion. These results highlight the need to better define how paternal nutrition affects the health of offspring.
Project description:Accumulating evidence has revealed the dysbiosis of gut/fecal microbiota induced by heat stress (HS) in mammals and poultry. However, the effects of HS on microbiota communities in different intestinal segments of Cherry-Valley ducks (a widely used meat-type breed) and their potential associations with growth performances, fat deposition, intestinal morphology, and antioxidant capacity have not been well evaluated yet. In this study, room temperature (RT) of 25°C was considered as control, and RT at 32°C for 8 h per day was set as the HS treatment. After 3 weeks, the intestinal contents of jejunum, ileum, and cecum were harvested to investigate the microbiota composition variations by 16S ribosomal RNA amplicon sequencing. And the weight gain, adipose indices, intestinal morphology, and a certain number of serum biochemical parameters were also measured and analyzed. The results showed the microbial species at different levels differentially enriched in duck jejunum and cecum under HS, while no significant data were observed in ileum. HS also caused the intestinal morphological changes (villus height and the ratio of villus height to crypt depth) and the reductions of growth speed (daily gain), levels of serum triglyceride (TG) and total cholesterol, and antioxidant activity (higher malondialdehyde (MDA) content and lower total antioxidant). The higher abdominal fat content and serum glucose level were also observed in HS ducks. The Spearman correlation analysis indicated that in jejunum the phyla Firmicutes and Proteobacteria were associated with average daily gain, feed/gain, serum TG and MDA levels, and villus height/crypt depth (P < 0.05). The phylum Firmicutes and genus Acinetobacter were significantly associated with fat deposition and serum glucose level (P < 0.05). The genus Lactobacillus was positively associated with serum total antioxidant (P < 0.05), while some other microbial species were found negatively associated, including order Pseudomonadales, genera Acinetobacter, and unidentified_Mitochondria. However, no significant correlations were observed in cecum. These findings imply the potential roles of duck gut microbiota in the intestinal injuries, fat deposition, and reductions of growth speed and antioxidant capacity caused by HS, although the molecular mechanisms requires further investigation.
Project description:OBJECTIVES:To understand whether parents' weight status before conception predicts body mass index (BMI) of their offspring in early life and the differences between the mother-child and father-child associations. DESIGN:A birth cohort study. SETTING:Conducted at the Community Health Service Centre in Shenyang, Wuhan and Guangzhou. PARTICIPANTS:A total of 2220 live birth newborns were recruited randomly after consent of their parents, and 1178 were followed up until 2 years old. METHODS:Parental demographics, maternal characteristics during pregnancy, children's anthropometric data and feeding patterns at 1?month old were collected. BMI was calculated and BMI Z-scores (BMI_Z) were generated by referring to WHO growth standard. Parental weight status was categorised into underweight, normal weight, and overweight and obese according to the Working Group of Obesity in China. General linear models and generalised linear models were used to assess the associations between parents and offspring. OUTCOME MEASURES:The primary outcomes were descriptive data on child's sex-specific anthropometric variables. The secondary outcomes were BMI_Z and weight status of children at each time point. RESULTS:No gender difference was observed in BMI_Z or overweight or obesity rates from birth to 24 months old, although boys were significantly heavier and had a greater length/height than girls (P<0.05). The overweight and obesity rates of children peaked at 12 months old. Maternal BMI/weight status had a significant but small effect on BMI_Z at birth, but not on the paternal side. The impact of parental BMI on child's BMI_Z after birth was similar at each follow-up. Offspring with underweight mothers tend to have reduced BMI_Z after birth while overweight/obese fathers had children with a greater BMI_Z. CONCLUSIONS:Maternal weight status had small effect on both fetal and child growth after birth. Significant but mild paternal influence was only detected after birth.
Project description:Post-weaning diarrhoea (PWD) in piglets is associated with colonization of the intestine with bacterial pathogens. In this study, we evaluated the use of recombinant porcine ?-defensin 2 (rpBD2) as a medicated feed additive for weaned piglets. The crude extract from the culture supernatant of rpBD2-expressing Pichia pastoris was used as a medicated feed additive for weaned piglets. Dietary treatments included a positive control (basal diet + antibiotics, designated PC) and three different rpBD2 treatments without antibiotics (basal diet supplemented with 1, 5, or 15 g of crude rpBD2/kg basal diet, designated 1PD, 5PD, and 15PD, respectively). Of all the treatments, 5PD had the greatest impact on the weaned piglets. It increased their body weight, average daily weight gain, average daily feed intake, and intestinal villus height in the duodenum and jejunum, and reduced the incidence of PWD. The diversity of the cecal digesta and mucosa microflora was compared between the weaned piglets in the PC and 5PD groups. Piglets treated with 5PD had lower diversity indices and fewer bacterial pathogens in their cecal digesta and mucosa than the PC group. Our results demonstrate that crude rpBD2 could provide an alternative to the traditional antibiotic feed additives given to weaned piglets.
Project description:Maternal behaviour has profound, long-lasting implications for the health and well-being of developing offspring. In the monogamous California mouse (Peromyscus californicus), care by both parents is critical for offspring survival. We tested the hypothesis that similar to maternal care in rodents, paternal huddling and grooming (HG) behaviour can be transmitted to future generations via behavioural mechanisms. In California mice, testosterone maintains paternal HG behaviour. In the present study, we randomly assigned a group of male California mice to castration or sham-operated conditions and allowed them to raise their offspring normally. Adult sons of these males were paired with a female, and they were observed interacting with their own offspring. We found that like their fathers, the sons of castrated males huddled and groomed their young at lower levels than the sons of sham-operated fathers. The sons of castrates also retrieved pups more frequently. When both parents were present, the sons of castrates also showed a trend towards engaging in less exploratory behaviour. These data support the hypothesis that paternal behaviour, like maternal behaviour, can be transferred to future generations via epigenetic mechanisms and suggest that in a biparental species both parents contribute to offspring behavioural development.