INFORM2 NivEnt: The first trial of the INFORM2 biomarker driven phase I/II trial series: the combination of nivolumab and entinostat in children and adolescents with refractory high-risk malignancies.
ABSTRACT: BACKGROUND:Pediatric patients with relapsed or refractory disease represent a population with a desperate medical need. The aim of the INFORM (INdividualized Therapy FOr Relapsed Malignancies in Childhood) program is to translate next generation molecular diagnostics into a biomarker driven treatment strategy. The program consists of two major foundations: the INFORM registry providing a molecular screening platform and the INFORM2 series of biomarker driven phase I/II trials. The INFORM2 NivEnt trial aims to determine the recommended phase 2 dose (RP2D) of the combination treatment of nivolumab and entinostat (phase I) and to evaluate activity and safety (phase II). METHODS:This is an exploratory non-randomized, open-label, multinational and multicenter seamless phase I/II trial in children and adolescents with relapsed / refractory or progressive high-risk solid tumors and CNS tumors. The phase I is divided in 2 age cohorts: 12-21?years and 6-11?years and follows a 3?+?3 design with two dose levels for entinostat (2?mg/m2 and 4?mg/m2 once per week) and fixed dose nivolumab (3?mg/kg every 2?weeks). Patients entering the trial on RP2D can seamlessly enter phase II which consists of a biomarker defined four group basket trial: high mutational load (group A), high PD-L1 mRNA expression (group B), focal MYC(N) amplification (group C), low mutational load and low PD-L1 mRNA expression and no MYC(N) amplification (group D). A Bayesian adaptive design will be used to early stop cohorts that fail to show evidence of activity. The maximum number of patients is 128. DISCUSSION:This trial intends to exploit the immune enhancing effects of entinostat on nivolumab using an innovative biomarker driven approach in order to maximize the chance of detecting signs of activity. It prevents exposure to unnecessary risks by applying the Bayesian adaptive design for early stopping for futility. The adaptive biomarker driven design provides an innovative approach accelerating drug development and reducing exposure to investigational treatments in these vulnerable children at the same time. TRIAL REGISTRATION:ClinicalTrials.gov, NCT03838042. Registered on 12 February 2019.
Project description:BACKGROUND:Lutathera is a 177Lutetium-labeled somatostatin analog approved for the treatment of gastroenteropancreatic neuroendocrine tumors (NETs). Somatostatin receptors are expressed in small cell lung cancer (SCLC). Nivolumab, an anti-PD-1 antibody, may act synergistically with lutathera to generate antitumor immunity. We conducted a phase I study of lutathera plus nivolumab in patients with advanced NETs of the lung. METHODS:Patients with relapsed/refractory extensive-stage SCLC (ES-SCLC), non-progressing ES-SCLC after first-line platinum-based chemotherapy, or advanced grade I-II pulmonary NETs were eligible. The primary objective was to determine the recommended phase 2 dose (RP2D). The phase I portion followed a standard 3+3 design, assessing two dose levels (dose level 1: lutathera 3.7 GBq every 8 weeks for four doses with nivolumab 240?mg every 2 weeks; dose level 2: lutathera 7.4 GBq every 8 weeks for four doses with nivolumab 240?mg every 2 weeks). RESULTS:Nine patients were enrolled (six ES-SCLC, two pulmonary atypical carcinoid, one high-grade pulmonary neuroendocrine carcinoma). No dose-limiting toxicities (DLTs) were observed at dose level 1. At dose level 2, one patient with refractory ES-SCLC developed a DLT (grade 3 rash). The most common treatment-related adverse events (TRAEs) were lymphopenia (n=7), thrombocytopenia (n=4), anemia (n=3), and nausea (n=3). The most common grade 3 TRAE was lymphopenia (n=4). Among the seven patients with measurable disease, one patient with ES-SCLC had a partial response. Two patients with pulmonary atypical carcinoid had stable disease lasting 6 months. The RP2D was dose level 2. CONCLUSIONS:Lutathera plus nivolumab was well tolerated and showed signs of antitumor activity. This combination warrants further exploration. TRIAL REGISTRATION NUMBER:NCT03325816.
Project description:KW-2478 is a novel non-ansamycin Hsp90 inhibitor with modest single-agent activity in relapsed/refractory myeloma but which shows synergistic antimyeloma activity with bortezomib (BTZ) in preclinical studies. This study determined the safety, preliminary clinical activity, and pharmacokinetics of KW-2478, an Hsp90 inhibitor, in combination with BTZ in patients with relapsed/refractory multiple myeloma (MM).Phase I dose escalation determined the recommended phase II dose (RP2D) of KW-2478 plus BTZ, which was then used during phase II.The maximum tolerated dose was not reached during phase I and the RP2D was KW-2478 175?mg?m-2 plus BTZ 1.3?mg?m-2 on days 1, 4, 8, and 11 every 3 weeks. In the efficacy evaluable phase I/II population treated at the RP2D (n=79), the objective response rate was 39.2% (95% confidence interval: 28.4-50.9%), clinical benefit rate 51.9% (40.4-63.3%), median progression-free survival 6.7 (5.9-not reached (NR)) months, and median duration of response 5.5 (4.9-NR) months. In the phase I/II safety population (n=95), the most frequently observed treatment-related grade 3/4 adverse events were diarrhoea, fatigue, and neutropenia (each in 7.4% of patients), and nausea and thrombocytopenia (each in 5.3%).KW-2478 plus BTZ was well tolerated with no apparent overlapping toxicity in patients with relapsed/refractory MM. The antimyeloma activity of KW-2478 in combination with BTZ as scheduled in this trial appeared relatively modest; however, the good tolerability of the combination would support further exploration of alternate dosing schedules and combinations.
Project description:Background:Sonidegib (LDE225) is a potent, selective hedgehog (Hh) inhibitor of Smoothened. This study explored the safety and pharmacokinetics of sonidegib in children with relapsed/recurrent tumors followed by a phase II trial in pediatric and adult patients with relapsed medulloblastoma (MB) to assess tumor response. Methods:Pediatric patients aged ?1 to <18 years were included according to a Bayesian design starting at 372 mg/m2 of continuous once daily oral sonidegib. Tumor samples were analyzed for Hh pathway activation using a validated 5-gene Hh signature assay. In phase II, pediatric patients were treated at the recommended phase II dose (RP2D) while adults received 800 mg daily. Results:Sixteen adult (16 MB) and 60 pediatric (39 MB, 21 other) patients with an age range of 2-17 years were enrolled. The RP2D of sonidegib in pediatric patients was established at 680 mg/m2 once daily. The phase II study was closed prematurely. The 5-gene Hh signature assay showed that the 4 complete responders (2 pediatric and 2 adult) and 1 partial responder (adult) all had Hh-activated tumors, while 5 patients with activated Hh had either stable disease (n = 3) or progressive disease (n = 2). No patient with an Hh-negative signature (n = 50) responded. The safety profile for pediatric patients was generally consistent with the one established for adult patients; however, growth plate changes were observed in prepubertal pediatric patients. Conclusions:Sonidegib was well tolerated and the RP2D in pediatric patients was 680 mg/m2 once daily. Five of the 10 MB patients with activated Hh pathway demonstrated complete or partial responses.
Project description:Entinostat is an oral isoform selective histone deacetylase inhibitor that targets resistance to hormonal therapies in estrogen receptor-positive (ER+) breast cancer. This randomized, placebo-controlled, phase II study evaluated entinostat combined with the aromatase inhibitor exemestane versus exemestane alone.Postmenopausal women with ER+ advanced breast cancer progressing on a nonsteroidal aromatase inhibitor were randomly assigned to exemestane 25 mg daily plus entinostat 5 mg once per week (EE) or exemestane plus placebo (EP). The primary end point was progression-free survival (PFS). Blood was collected in a subset of patients for evaluation of protein lysine acetylation as a biomarker of entinostat activity.One hundred thirty patients were randomly assigned (EE group, n = 64; EP group, n = 66). Based on intent-to-treat analysis, treatment with EE improved median PFS to 4.3 months versus 2.3 months with EP (hazard ratio [HR], 0.73; 95% CI, 0.50 to 1.07; one-sided P = .055; two-sided P = .11 [predefined significance level of .10, one-sided]). Median overall survival was an exploratory end point and improved to 28.1 months with EE versus 19.8 months with EP (HR, 0.59; 95% CI, 0.36 to 0.97; P = .036). Fatigue and neutropenia were the most frequent grade 3/4 toxicities. Treatment discontinuation because of adverse events was higher in the EE group versus the EP group (11% v 2%). Protein lysine hyperacetylation in the EE biomarker subset was associated with prolonged PFS.Entinostat added to exemestane is generally well tolerated and demonstrated activity in patients with ER+ advanced breast cancer in this signal-finding phase II study. Acetylation changes may provide an opportunity to maximize clinical benefit with entinostat. Plans for a confirmatory study are underway.
Project description:In this phase I/II trial, a triplet regimen of ixazomib (Ixa: 3 or 4?mg), pomalidomide (Pom: 4?mg), and dexamethasone (Dex: 40?mg) was administered to 32 lenalidomide-refractory multiple myeloma (MM) patients; 31 were evaluable for response and toxicity. At dose level 1 (DL1, 3?mg Ixa), 1/3 patients experienced grade 3 fatigue, grade 3 lung infection, grade 4 neutropenia, and grade 4 thrombocytopenia; all were considered dose-limiting. Per 3?+?3 phase I design, an additional three patients were enrolled to DL1, with no further dose-limiting toxicity (DLT). At dose level 2 (DL2, 4?mg Ixa), 1/3 patients had dose-limiting febrile neutropenia, neutropenia, and thrombocytopenia (grade 4 each). DL2 was expanded to enroll three additional patients with no further DLT, establishing the recommended phase II dose (RP2D). In phase II, 19 additional patients were treated at RP2D. With a median follow-up of 11.9 months, 48% achieved ???partial response (PR), with 5 patients (20%) achieving very good partial response (VGPR) and 76% experiencing???stable disease. The most common adverse events (?grade 2) were anemia, neutropenia, thrombocytopenia, and infections. Peripheral neuropathy was infrequent. In summary, Ixa/Pom/Dex is a well-tolerated and effective oral combination therapy for patients with relapsed/refractory MM.
Project description:Rhabdomyosarcoma (RMS) is the most common soft tissue sarcoma of childhood with an unmet clinical need for decades. A single oncogenic fusion gene is associated with treatment resistance and a 40 to 45% decrease in overall survival. We previously showed that expression of this PAX3:FOXO1 fusion oncogene in alveolar RMS (aRMS) mediates tolerance to chemotherapy and radiotherapy and that the class I-specific histone deacetylase (HDAC) inhibitor entinostat reduces PAX3:FOXO1 protein abundance. Here, we established the antitumor efficacy of entinostat with chemotherapy in various preclinical cell and mouse models and found that HDAC3 inhibition was the primary mechanism of entinostat-induced suppression of PAX3:FOXO1 abundance. HDAC3 inhibition by entinostat decreased the activity of the chromatin remodeling enzyme SMARCA4, which, in turn, derepressed the microRNA miR-27a. This reexpression of miR-27a led to PAX3:FOXO1 mRNA destabilization and chemotherapy sensitization in aRMS cells in culture and in vivo. Furthermore, a phase 1 clinical trial (ADVL1513) has shown that entinostat is tolerable in children with relapsed or refractory solid tumors and is planned for phase 1B cohort expansion or phase 2 clinical trials. Together, these results implicate an HDAC3-SMARCA4-miR-27a-PAX3:FOXO1 circuit as a driver of chemoresistant aRMS and suggest that targeting this pathway with entinostat may be therapeutically effective in patients.
Project description:PURPOSE:Although azacitidine (AZA) improves survival in patients with high-risk myelodysplastic syndrome, the overall response remains approximately 50%. Entinostat is a histone deacetylase inhibitor that has been combined with AZA with significant clinical activity in a previous phase I dose finding study. DESIGN:Open label phase II randomized trial comparing AZA 50 mg/m(2)/d given for 10 days ± entinostat 4 mg/m(2)/d day 3 and day 10. All subtypes of myelodysplasia, chronic myelomonocytic leukemia, and acute myeloid leukemia with myelodysplasia-related changes were eligible for the study. The primary objective was the rate of hematologic normalization (HN; complete remission + partial remission + trilineage hematological improvement). RESULTS:One hundred forty-nine patients were analyzed, including 97 patients with myelodysplastic syndrome and 52 patients with acute myeloid leukemia. In the AZA group, 32% (95% CI, 22% to 44%) experienced HN and 27% (95% CI, 17% to 39%) in the AZA + entinostat group. Both arms exceeded the HN rate of historical control (Cancer and Leukemia Group B 9221 trial), but only the AZA group fulfilled the primary objective of the study. Rates of overall hematologic response were 46% and 44%, respectively. Median overall survivals were 18 months for the AZA group and 13 months for the AZA + entinostat group. The combination arm led to less demethylation compared with the monotherapy arm, suggesting pharmacodynamic antagonism. CONCLUSION:Addition of entinostat to AZA did not increase clinical response as defined by the protocol and was associated with pharmacodynamic antagonism. However, the prolonged administration of AZA by itself seems to increase HN rate compared with standard dosing and warrants additional investigation.
Project description:Entinostat is a synthetic benzamide derivative histone deacetylase (HDAC) inhibitor, which potently and selectively inhibits class I and IV HDAC enzymes. This action promotes histone hyperacetylation and transcriptional activation of specific genes, with subsequent inhibition of cell proliferation, terminal differentiation and apoptosis. This oral HDAC inhibitor has been evaluated in Phase I and II trials in patients with advanced malignancies, and is in general well tolerated. Entinostat does not currently have regulatory approval for clinical use; however promising preclinical and clinical data exist in hormone-resistant breast cancer. An ECOG-ACRIN Phase III registration study is ongoing in advanced breast cancer (E2112, NCT02115282) and aims to confirm the overall survival advantage observed with the combination of exemestane and entinostat/placebo in the Phase II setting (ENCORE301 trial). This article provides an overview of the chemistry, pharmacokinetics/pharmacodynamics and available clinical data for entinostat with a focus on advanced breast cancer.
Project description:Histone deacetylase inhibitors (HDACis) have been shown to overcome resistance to epidermal growth factor receptor tyrosine kinase inhibitors (EGFR-TKIs) linked to epigenetic changes and epithelial-mesenchymal transition (EMT) state. This randomized phase II study evaluated the outcome of erlotinib with and without the isoform selective HDACi, entinostat.Previously treated patients with stage IIIB/IV non-small-cell lung cancer, no prior EGFR-TKIs, and performance status ? 2 were randomly administered erlotinib 150 mg on days 1 through 28 plus entinostat 10 mg orally on days 1 and 15 every 28 days (EE) or erlotinib plus placebo (EP). The primary end point was 4-month progression-free survival (PFS) rate with additional end points including 6-month PFS rate, PFS, and overall survival (OS). Exploratory analyses included EMT- and EGFR-related biomarker analysis on archival tissue.One hundred thirty-two patients were enrolled (EE, 67; EP, 65). The 4-month PFS rate was comparable for both groups (EE, 18% v EP, 20%; P = .7). In the subset of patients with high E-cadherin levels, OS was longer in the EE group compared with the EP group (9.4 v 5.4 months; hazard ratio, 0.35; 95% CI, 0.13 to 0.92; P = .03) with a corresponding trend toward increased PFS. The adverse event (AE) profile was acceptable, with rash, fatigue, diarrhea, and nausea the most common AEs in both groups.Erlotinib combined with entinostat did not improve the outcomes of patients in the overall study population when compared with erlotinib monotherapy. High E-cadherin expression levels at time of diagnosis indicate an increased sensitivity to HDACi/EGFR-TKI inhibition providing the basis for a biomarker-driven validation study.
Project description:Entinostat, a class I-selective histone deacetylase inhibitor, has shown promising activity in ENCORE 301, a randomized, placebo-controlled, phase II trial of exemestane with or without entinostat in women with locally recurrent or metastatic estrogen receptor-positive breast cancer progressing on a nonsteroidal aromatase inhibitor. ENCORE 301 showed an 8.3-mo improvement in median overall survival among patients who received entinostat. We investigated the impact of entinostat on immune subsets with CD40, HLA-DR, and immune checkpoint receptor expression analyses in 34 patient blood samples from ENCORE 301. We found that entinostat significantly decreased granulocytic and monocytic MDSCs at cycle 1 day 15. MDSC CD40 was significantly downregulated by entinostat. A significant increase in HLA-DR expression on CD14+ monocytes by entinostat was observed. Entinostat did not impact T-cell subsets or T-cell immune checkpoint receptor expression. Our findings suggest that a significant interplay between this epigenetic regimen and host immune homeostatic mechanisms may impact therapeutic outcome.