References for Ultrasound Staging of Breast Maturation, Tanner Breast Staging, Pubic Hair, and Menarche in Norwegian Girls.
ABSTRACT: CONTEXT:Discriminating adipose and glandular tissue is challenging when clinically assessing breast development. Ultrasound facilitates staging of pubertal breast maturation (US B), but has not been systematically compared to Tanner breast (Tanner B) staging, and no normative data have been reported. OBJECTIVE:To present normative references for US B along with references for Tanner B, pubic hair (PH), and menarche. DESIGN, SETTING, AND PARTICIPANTS:A cross-sectional sample of 703 healthy girls aged 6 to 16 years were examined. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES:Breast development was determined with US B and Tanner B staging. Tanner PH and menarcheal status were recorded. The age distributions of entry in US B, Tanner B, and PH stages and menarche were estimated with generalized linear and generalized additive models with a probit link. Method agreement was tested with weighted Cohen's kappa. RESULTS:The median (±2SD) ages for thelarche, US B2 and Tanner B2, were 10.2 (7.7, 12.8) and 10.4 (8.0, 12.7) years. The median (±2SD) ages at Tanner PH2 and menarche were 10.9 (8.5, 13.3) and 12.7 (11.0, 16.2) years. Cohen's kappa of agreement (95% confidence interval) between US B and Tanner B was 0.87 (0.85-0.88). When the methods disagreed, US B was usually more advanced. CONCLUSION:Thelarche occurred at a slightly younger age when assessed with ultrasound compared to clinical Tanner staging, although the 2 methods had a very good agreement when determining pubertal breast maturation. A significant decrease of 2.8 months in age at menarche was observed during the past decade in Norwegian girls.
Project description:BACKGROUND:Earlier age at onset of pubertal events and longer intervals between them (tempo) have been associated with increased breast cancer risk. It is unknown whether the timing and tempo of puberty are associated with adult breast density, which could mediate the increased risk. METHODS:From 1988 to 1997, girls participating in the Dietary Intervention Study in Children (DISC) were clinically assessed annually between ages 8 and 17?years for Tanner stages of breast development (thelarche) and pubic hair (pubarche), and onset of menses (menarche) was self-reported. In 2006-2008, 182 participants then aged 25-29?years had their percent dense breast volume (%DBV) measured by magnetic resonance imaging. Multivariable, linear mixed-effects regression models adjusted for reproductive factors, demographics, and body size were used to evaluate associations of age and tempo of puberty events with %DBV. RESULTS:The mean (standard deviation) and range of %DBV were 27.6 (20.5) and 0.2-86.1. Age at thelarche was negatively associated with %DBV (p trend?=?0.04), while pubertal tempo between thelarche and menarche was positively associated with %DBV (p trend?=?0.007). %DBV was 40% higher in women whose thelarche-to-menarche tempo was 2.9?years or longer (geometric mean (95%CI)?=?21.8% (18.2-26.2%)) compared to women whose thelarche-to-menarche tempo was less than 1.6?years (geometric mean (95%CI)?=?15.6% (13.9-17.5%)). CONCLUSIONS:Our results suggest that a slower pubertal tempo, i.e., greater number of months between thelarche and menarche, is associated with higher percent breast density in young women. Future research should examine whether breast density mediates the association between slower tempo and increased breast cancer risk.
Project description:BACKGROUND:Earlier age at menarche is an established risk factor for breast cancer. While age at menarche has been fairly stable over the past half-century, age at breast development (thelarche) has continued to decrease. Recently, earlier age at thelarche and a longer time between thelarche and menarche (pubertal tempo) were shown to be associated with increased breast cancer risk. Our objective was to examine how breast cancer risk was associated with pubertal timing and tempo in a prospective US cohort. METHODS:Women ages 35-74?years without a history of breast cancer, but who had a sister previously diagnosed with breast cancer, were enrolled in the Sister Study from 2003 to 2009 (N =?50,884). At enrollment, participants reported their ages at thelarche and menarche. Pubertal tempo was age at menarche minus age at thelarche. We estimated adjusted hazard ratios (HRs) and 95% confidence intervals (CIs) for each pubertal milestone and risk of breast cancer (invasive or ductal carcinoma in situ) using Cox proportional hazards regression. We examined whether associations between age at thelarche and breast cancer risk were modified by birth cohort, race/ethnicity, weight at age 10, and extent of breast cancer family history, as characterized by a Bayesian score based on first-degree family structure. RESULTS:During follow-up (mean?=?9.3?years), 3295 eligible women were diagnosed with breast cancer. Early ages at thelarche (HR?=?1.23, 95% CI 1.03-1.46 for <?10 vs. 12-13?years) and menarche (HR?=?1.10, 95% CI 1.01-1.20 for <?12 vs. 12-13?years) were positively associated with breast cancer risk. Pubertal tempo was not associated with breast cancer risk (HR?=?0.99, 95% CI 0.97-1.02 per 1-year longer tempo). When considering early thelarche (<?10?years) and early menarche (<?12?years) jointly, women with both had a 30% greater risk of breast cancer compared with women with neither risk factor (95% CI 1.07-1.57). The association between age at thelarche and breast cancer risk did not significantly vary by birth cohort, race/ethnicity, childhood weight, or Bayesian family history score. CONCLUSIONS:Earlier ages at thelarche and menarche may enhance susceptibility to breast carcinogenesis. Age at thelarche is an important risk factor to consider given secular trends towards earlier development.
Project description:Epigenetic age is an indicator of biological aging, capturing the impact of environmental and behavioral influences across time on cellular function. Deviance between epigenetic age and chronological age (AgeAccel) is a predictor of health. Pubertal timing has similarly been associated with cancer risk and mortality rate among females. We examined the association between AgeAccel and pubertal timing and adolescent breast composition in the longitudinal Growth and Obesity Cohort Study. AgeAccel was estimated in whole blood using the Horvath method at breast Tanner 2 (B2) and 4 (B4). Total breast volume, absolute fibro-glandular volume (FGV), and %FGV were evaluated at B4 using dual X-ray absorptiometry. The impact of AgeAccel (mean: 0; SD: 3.78) across puberty on the time to breast development (thelarche), menarche, and pubertal tempo (thelarche to menarche) was estimated using accelerated failure time models; generalized estimating equations were used to evaluate associations with breast density. A five-year increase in average adolescent AgeAccel was associated with a significant decrease in time to menarche [hazard ratio (HR): 1.37; 95% confidence interval (CI): 1.04, 1.80] adjusting for birth weight, maternal pre-pregnancy body mass index, maternal height, maternal education, B2 height, fat percentage, and cell composition. AgeAccel displayed a stronger inverse association with pubertal tempo (HR: 1.48; 95% CI: 1.10, 1.99). A five-year increase in AgeAccel was associated with 5% greater %FGV, adjusting for B4 percent body fat, and maternal traits (95% CI: 1.01, 1.10). Our study provides unique insight into the influence of AgeAccel on pubertal development in girls, which may have implications for adult health.
Project description:<h4>Importance</h4>The initial clinical sign of pubertal onset in girls is breast gland development (thelarche). Although numerous studies have used recalled age at menarche (first menstruation) to assess secular trends of pubertal timing, no systematic review has been conducted of secular trends of thelarche.<h4>Objectives</h4>To systematically evaluate published data on pubertal timing based on age at thelarche and evaluate the change in pubertal onset in healthy girls around the world.<h4>Data sources</h4>A systematic literature search was performed in PubMed and Embase of all original peer-reviewed articles published in English before June 20, 2019.<h4>Study selection</h4>Included studies used clinical assessment of breast development in healthy girls and used adequate statistical methods, including the reporting of SEs or CIs. The quality of the articles was evaluated by assessing study design, potential sources of bias, main characteristics of the study population, and methods of statistical analysis.<h4>Data extraction and synthesis</h4>In accordance with PRISMA guidelines, all articles were assessed for eligibility independently by 2 authors. Weighted regression analysis was performed using a random-effects model.<h4>Main outcomes and measures</h4>Studies examining age at thelarche (development of Tanner breast stage 2) in healthy girls.<h4>Results</h4>The literature search resulted in a total of 3602 studies, of which 30 studies fulfilled the eligibility criteria. There was a secular trend in ages at thelarche according to race/ethnicity and geography. Overall, the age at thelarche decreased 0.24 years (95% CI, -0.44 to -0.04) (almost 3 months) per decade from 1977 to 2013 (P?=?.02).<h4>Conclusions and relevance</h4>The age at thelarche has decreased a mean of almost 3 months per decade from 1977 to 2013. A younger age at pubertal onset may change current diagnostic decision-making. The medical community needs current and relevant data to redefine "precocious puberty," because the traditional definition may be outdated, at least in some regions of the world.
Project description:<h4>Background</h4>Many studies investigating pubertal development use Tanner staging to assess maturation. Endocrine markers in urine and saliva may provide an objective, sensitive, and non-invasive method for assessing development.<h4>Objective</h4>Our objective was to examine whether changes in endocrine levels can indicate the onset of pubertal development prior to changes in self-rated Tanner stage.<h4>Methods</h4>Thirty-five girls and 42 boys aged 7 to 15 years were enrolled in the Growth and Puberty (GAP) study, a longitudinal pilot study conducted from 2007-2009 involving children of women enrolled in the Agricultural Health Study (AHS) in Iowa. We collected saliva and urine samples and assessed pubertal development by self-rated Tanner staging (pubic hair, breast development (girls), genital development (boys)) at three visits over six months. We measured dehydroepiandrosterone (DHEA) in saliva and creatinine-adjusted luteinizing hormone (LH), testosterone, follicle stimulating hormone (FSH), estrone 3-glucuronide (E13G) and pregnanediol 3-glucuronide (Pd3G) concentrations in first morning urine. We evaluated the relationships over time between Tanner stage and each biomarker using repeated measures analysis.<h4>Results</h4>Among girls still reporting Tanner breast stage 1 at the final visit, FSH levels increased over the 6-month follow-up period and were no longer lower than higher stage girls at the end of follow-up. We observed a similar pattern for testosterone in boys. By visit 3, boys still reporting Tanner genital stage 1 or pubic hair stage 1 had attained DHEA levels that were comparable to those among boys reporting Tanner stages 2 or 3.<h4>Conclusions</h4>Increasing concentrations of FSH in girls and DHEA and testosterone in boys over a 6-month period revealed the start of the pubertal process prior to changes in self-rated Tanner stage. Repeated, non-invasive endocrine measures may complement the more subjective assessment of physical markers in studies determining pubertal onset.
Project description:Rett syndrome is a unique neurodevelopmental disorder, affecting approximately one in 10,000 live female births, most experiencing reduced growth. We characterized pubertal trajectories in females with Rett syndrome. We hypothesized that pubertal trajectory deviates from the general female population with early pubertal onset and delayed menarche.Participants were individuals enrolled in the Rett Syndrome Natural History Study with clinical diagnosis of Rett syndrome or mutations in MECP2. Intervals to thelarche, adrenarche, and menarche were assessed by survival analysis; body mass index, mutation type, clinical severity, and pubertal milestone relationships were assessed by log-likelihood test; pathway synchrony (relationship between thelarche, adrenarche, and menarche) was assessed by chi-squared analysis.Compared with the general female population, more than 25% initiated puberty early, yet entered menarche later (median age 13.0 years). A total of 19% experienced delayed menarche. Median length of puberty, from thelarche to menarche, was 3.9 years. Higher body mass index correlated with earlier thelarche and adrenarche but not menarche; milder mutations correlated with earlier menarche; and milder clinical presentation correlated with earlier thelarche and menarche. Fifty-two percent entered puberty in synchrony, but different from the general population, 15% led with thelarche and 32% with adrenarche.Pubertal trajectories in Rett syndrome differ from general population, entering puberty early and reaching menarche later. Body mass index affects pubertal timing, but the relationship between specific mutations, clinical presentation, and underlying neuroendocrine pathology is less clear.
Project description:OBJECTIVES:To estimate age at attaining Tanner stages in Ugandan/Zimbabwean HIV-infected children initiating antiretroviral therapy (ART) in older childhood and investigate predictors of delayed puberty, particularly age at ART initiation. DESIGN:Observational analysis within a randomized trial. METHODS:Tanner staging was assessed every 24 weeks from 10 years of age, menarche every 12 weeks and height every 4-6 weeks. Age at attaining different Tanner stages was estimated using normal interval regression, considering predictors using multivariable regression. Growth was estimated using multilevel models with child-specific intercepts and trajectories. RESULTS:Median age at ART initiation was 9.4 years (inter-quartile range 7.8, 11.3) (n?=?582). At the first assessment, the majority (80.2%) were in Tanner stage 1; median follow-up with staging was 2.8 years. There was a strong delaying effect of older age at ART initiation on age at attaining all Tanner stages (P?<?0.05) and menarche (P?=?0.02); in boys the delaying effect generally weakened with older age. There were additional significant delays associated with greater impairments in pre-ART height-for-age Z-score (P?<?0.05) in both sexes and pre-ART BMI-for-age in girls (P?<?0.05). There was no evidence that pre-ART immuno-suppression independently delayed puberty or menarche. However, older children/adolescents had significant growth spurts in intermediate Tanner stages, and were still significantly increasing their height when in Tanner stage 5 (P?<?0.01). CONCLUSION:Delaying ART initiation until older childhood substantially delays pubertal development and menarche, independently of immuno-suppression. This highlights that factors other than CD4, such as pubertal development, need consideration when making decisions about timing of ART initiation in older children.
Project description:BACKGROUND:Systemic inflammation may play a role in shaping breast composition, one of the strongest risk factors for breast cancer. Pubertal development presents a critical window of breast tissue susceptibility to exogenous and endogenous factors, including pro-inflammatory markers. However, little is known about the role of systemic inflammation on adolescent breast composition and pubertal development among girls. METHODS:We investigated associations between circulating levels of inflammatory markers (e.g., interleukin-6 (IL-6), tumor necrosis factor receptor 2 (TNFR2), and C-reactive protein (CRP)) at Tanner stages 2 and 4 and breast composition at Tanner stage 4 in a cohort of 397 adolescent girls in Santiago, Chile (Growth and Obesity Cohort Study, 2006-2018). Multivariable linear models were used to examine the association between breast composition and each inflammatory marker, stratifying by Tanner stage at inflammatory marker measurement. Accelerated failure time models were used to evaluate the association between inflammatory markers concentrations at each Tanner stage and time to menarche. RESULTS:In age-adjusted linear regression models, a doubling of TNFR2 at Tanner 2 was associated with a 26% (95% CI 7-48%) increase in total breast volume at Tanner 4 and a 22% (95% CI 10-32%) decrease of fibroglandular volume at Tanner 4. In multivariable models further adjusted for body fatness and other covariates, these associations were attenuated to the null. The time to menarche was 3% (95% CI 1-5%) shorter among those in the highest quartile of IL-6 at Tanner 2 relative to those in the lowest quartile in fully adjusted models. Compared to those in the lowest quartile of CRP at Tanner 4, those in the highest quartile experienced 2% (95% CI 0-3%) longer time to menarche in multivariable models. CONCLUSIONS:Systemic inflammation during puberty was not associated with breast volume or breast density at the conclusion of breast development among pubertal girls after adjusting for body fatness; however, these circulating inflammation biomarkers, specifically CRP and IL-6, may affect the timing of menarche onset.
Project description:BACKGROUND:Animal studies suggest that phthalates and bisphenol A (BPA), endocrine-disrupting chemicals found in many consumer products, may impact the timing of puberty. OBJECTIVES:We aimed to determine the association of prenatal exposure to high-molecular-weight phthalates and BPA with pubertal timing in boys and girls participating in the Center for the Health Assessment of Mothers and Children of Salinas (CHAMACOS) longitudinal cohort study. METHODS:We quantified urinary concentrations of eight phthalate metabolites and BPA at two time points during pregnancy among participating mothers ([Formula: see text]) and conducted clinical Tanner staging of puberty on their children every 9 months between 9 and 13 y of age. We conducted accelerated failure time models and examined the role of child overweight/obese status in this association. RESULTS:The sum of urinary metabolites of di(2-ethylhexyl) phthalate [Formula: see text], monobenzyl phthalate (MBzP), and BPA were associated with later onset of at least one of the three outcomes assessed in girls (thelarche, pubarche, or menarche) and with earlier onset of at least one of the two outcomes assessed in boys (gondarche and pubarche). We found that monocarboxynonyl phthalate, monocarboxyoctyl phthalate, mono(3-carboxypropyl) phthalate, and BPA were associated with later pubarche and menarche mostly among normal-weight girls but not overweight/obese girls. MBzP was associated with later thelarche in all girls, and [Formula: see text] was associated with later thelarche and menarche in all girls. BPA and all phthalate biomarkers were associated with earlier gonadarche and pubarche in all boys as well as in overweight/obese boys when stratified by weight. Among normal-weight boys, associations with BPA were also inverse, whereas associations with phthalate metabolites were close to the null or positive. CONCLUSIONS:Several high-molecular-weight phthalates and BPA were associated with later puberty in girls and earlier puberty in boys included in the CHAMACOS cohort study. Childhood overweight/obesity may modify these associations. https://doi.org/10.1289/EHP3424.
Project description:The optimal approach to estrogen replacement in girls with Turner syndrome has not been determined.The aim of the study was to assess the effects of an individualized regimen of low-dose ethinyl estradiol (EE2) during childhood from as early as age 5, followed by a pubertal induction regimen starting after age 12 and escalating to full replacement over 4 years.This study was a prospective, randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled clinical trial.The study was conducted at two US pediatric endocrine centers.Girls with Turner syndrome (n = 149), aged 5.0-12.5 years, were enrolled; data from 123 girls were analyzable for pubertal onset.Interventions comprised placebo or recombinant GH injections three times a week, with daily oral placebo or oral EE2 during childhood (25 ng/kg/d, ages 5-8 y; 50 ng/kg/d, ages >8-12 y); after age 12, all patients received escalating EE2 starting at a nominal dosage of 100 ng/kg/d. Placebo/EE2 dosages were reduced by 50% for breast development before age 12 years, vaginal bleeding before age 14 years, or undue advance in bone age.The main outcome measures for this report were median ages at Tanner breast stage ?2, median age at menarche, and tempo of puberty (Tanner 2 to menarche). Patterns of gonadotropin secretion and impact of childhood EE2 on gonadotropins also were assessed.Compared with recipients of oral placebo (n = 62), girls who received childhood low-dose EE2 (n = 61) had significantly earlier thelarche (median, 11.6 vs 12.6 y, P < 0.001) and slower tempo of puberty (median, 3.3 vs 2.2 y, P = 0.003); both groups had delayed menarche (median, 15.0 y). Among childhood placebo recipients, girls who had spontaneous breast development before estrogen exposure had significantly lower median FSH values than girls who did not.In addition to previously reported effects on cognitive measures and GH-mediated height gain, childhood estrogen replacement significantly normalized the onset and tempo of puberty. Childhood low-dose estrogen replacement should be considered for girls with Turner syndrome.