Impact of Pus1 Pseudouridine Synthase on Specific Decoding Events in Saccharomyces cerevisiae.
ABSTRACT: Pus1-dependent pseudouridylation occurs in many tRNAs and at multiple positions, yet the functional impact of this modification is incompletely understood. We analyzed the consequences of PUS1 deletion on the essential decoding of CAG (Gln) codons by tRNAGlnCUG in yeast. Synthetic lethality was observed upon combining the modification defect with destabilized variants of tRNAGlnCUG, pointing to a severe CAG-decoding defect of the hypomodified tRNA. In addition, we demonstrated that misreading of UAG stop codons by a tRNAGlnCUG variant is positively affected by Pus1. Genetic approaches further indicated that mildly elevated temperature decreases the decoding efficiency of CAG and UAG via destabilized tRNAGlnCAG variants. We also determined the misreading of CGC (Arg) codons by tRNAHisGUG, where the CGC decoder tRNAArgICG contains Pus1-dependent pseudouridine, but not the mistranslating tRNAHis. We found that the absence of Pus1 increased CGC misreading by tRNAHis, demonstrating a positive role of the modification in the competition against non-synonymous near-cognate tRNA. Part of the in vivo decoding defects and phenotypes in pus1 mutants and strains carrying destabilized tRNAGlnCAG were suppressible by additional deletion of the rapid tRNA decay (RTD)-relevant MET22, suggesting the involvement of RTD-mediated tRNA destabilization.
Project description:The decoding properties of 22 structurally conservative base-pair and base-triple mutations in the anticodon hairpin and tertiary core of Escherichia coli tRNA(Ala)GGC were determined under single turnover conditions using E. coli ribosomes. While all of the mutations were able to efficiently decode the cognate GCC codon, many showed substantial misreading of near-cognate GUC or ACC codons. Although all the misreading mutations were present in the sequences of other E. coli tRNAs, they were never found among bacterial tRNA(Ala)GGC sequences. This suggests that the sequences of bacterial tRNA(Ala)GGC have evolved to avoid reading incorrect codons.
Project description:Decoding of mRNAs is performed by aminoacyl tRNAs (aa-tRNAs). This process is highly accurate, however, at low frequencies (10(-3) - 10(-4)) the wrong aa-tRNA can be selected, leading to incorporation of aberrant amino acids. Although our understanding of what constitutes the correct or cognate aa-tRNA:mRNA interaction is well defined, a functional distinction between near-cognate or single mismatched, and unpaired or non-cognate interactions is lacking.Misreading of several synonymous codon substitutions at the catalytic site of firefly luciferase was assayed in Saccharomyces cerevisiae. Analysis of the results in the context of current kinetic and biophysical models of aa-tRNA selection suggests that the defining feature of near-cognate aa-tRNAs is their potential to form mini-helical structures with A-site codons, enabling stimulation of GTPase activity of eukaryotic Elongation Factor 1A (eEF1A). Paromomycin specifically stimulated misreading of near-cognate but not of non-cognate aa-tRNAs, providing a functional probe to distinguish between these two classes. Deletion of the accessory elongation factor eEF1Bgamma promoted increased misreading of near-cognate, but hyperaccurate reading of non-cognate codons, suggesting that this factor also has a role in tRNA discrimination. A mutant of eEF1Balpha, the nucleotide exchange factor for eEF1A, promoted a general increase in fidelity, suggesting that the decreased rates of elongation may provide more time for discrimination between aa-tRNAs. A mutant form of ribosomal protein L5 promoted hyperaccurate decoding of both types of codons, even though it is topologically distant from the decoding center.It is important to distinguish between near-cognate and non-cognate mRNA:tRNA interactions, because such a definition may be important for informing therapeutic strategies for suppressing these two different categories of mutations underlying many human diseases. This study suggests that the defining feature of near-cognate aa-tRNAs is their potential to form mini-helical structures with A-site codons in the ribosomal decoding center. An aminoglycoside and a ribosomal factor can be used to distinguish between near-cognate and non-cognate interactions.
Project description:In Saccharomyces cerevisiae, the SUP70 gene encodes the CAG-decoding tRNA(Gln)(CUG). A mutant allele, sup70-65, induces pseudohyphal growth on rich medium, an inappropriate nitrogen starvation response. This mutant tRNA is also a UAG nonsense suppressor via first base wobble. To investigate the basis of the pseudohyphal phenotype, 10 novel sup70 UAG suppressor alleles were identified, defining positions in the tRNA(Gln)(CUG) anticodon stem that restrict first base wobble. However, none conferred pseudohyphal growth, showing altered CUG anticodon presentation cannot itself induce pseudohyphal growth. Northern blot analysis revealed the sup70-65 tRNA(Gln)(CUG) is unstable, inefficiently charged, and 80% reduced in its effective concentration. A stochastic model simulation of translation predicted compromised expression of CAG-rich ORFs in the tRNA(Gln)(CUG)-depleted sup70-65 mutant. This prediction was validated by demonstrating that luciferase expression in the mutant was 60% reduced by introducing multiple tandem CAG (but not CAA) codons into this ORF. In addition, the sup70-65 pseudohyphal phenotype was partly complemented by overexpressing CAA-decoding tRNA(Gln)(UUG), an inefficient wobble-decoder of CAG. We thus show that introducing codons decoded by a rare tRNA near the 5' end of an ORF can reduce eukaryote translational expression, and that the mutant tRNA(CUG)(Gln) constitutive pseudohyphal differentiation phenotype correlates strongly with reduced CAG decoding efficiency.
Project description:Variations in the genetic code are found frequently in mitochondrial decoding systems. Four non-universal genetic codes are employed in ascidian mitochondria: AUA for Met, UGA for Trp, and AGA/AGG(AGR) for Gly. To clarify the decoding mechanism for the non-universal genetic codes, we isolated and analyzed mitochondrial tRNAs for Trp, Met, and Gly from an ascidian, Halocynthia roretzi. Mass spectrometric analysis identified 5-taurinomethyluridine (τm(5)U) at the anticodon wobble positions of tRNA(Met)(AUR), tRNA(Trp)(UGR), and tRNA(Gly)(AGR), suggesting that τm(5)U plays a critical role in the accurate deciphering of all four non-universal codes by preventing the misreading of pyrimidine-ending near-cognate codons (NNY) in their respective family boxes. Acquisition of the wobble modification appears to be a prerequisite for the genetic code alteration.
Project description:In most bacteria, two tRNAs decode the four arginine CGN codons. One tRNA harboring a wobble inosine (tRNA(Arg)ICG) reads the CGU, CGC and CGA codons, whereas a second tRNA harboring a wobble cytidine (tRNA(Arg)CCG) reads the remaining CGG codon. The reduced genomes of Mycoplasmas and other Mollicutes lack the gene encoding tRNA(Arg)CCG. This raises the question of how these organisms decode CGG codons. Examination of 36 Mollicute genomes for genes encoding tRNA(Arg) and the TadA enzyme, responsible for wobble inosine formation, suggested an evolutionary scenario where tadA gene mutations first occurred. This allowed the temporary accumulation of non-deaminated tRNA(Arg)ACG, capable of reading all CGN codons. This hypothesis was verified in Mycoplasma capricolum, which contains a small fraction of tRNA(Arg)ACG with a non-deaminated wobble adenosine. Subsets of Mollicutes continued to evolve by losing both the mutated tRNA(Arg)CCG and tadA, and then acquired a new tRNA(Arg)UCG. This permitted further tRNA(Arg)ACG mutations with tRNA(Arg)GCG or its disappearance, leaving a single tRNA(Arg)UCG to decode the four CGN codons. The key point of our model is that the A-to-I deamination activity had to be controlled before the loss of the tadA gene, allowing the stepwise evolution of Mollicutes toward an alternative decoding strategy.
Project description:Deciphering the genetic code is a fundamental process in all living organisms. In many bacteria, AUA codons are deciphered by tRNA(Ile2) bearing lysidine (L) at the wobble position. L is a modified cytidine introduced post-transcriptionally by tRNA(Ile)-lysidine synthetase (TilS). Some bacteria, including Mycoplasma mobile, do not carry the tilS gene, indicating that they have established a different system to decode AUA codons. In this study, tRNA(Ile2) has been isolated from M. mobile and was found to contain a UAU anticodon without any modification. Mycoplasma mobile isoleucyl-tRNA synthetase (IleRS) recognized the UAU anticodon, whereas Escherichia coli IleRS did not efficiently aminoacylate tRNA(Ile2)(UAU). In M. mobile IleRS, a single Arg residue at position 865 was critical for specificity for the UAU anticodon and, when the corresponding site (W905) in E. coli IleRS was substituted with Arg, the W905R mutant efficiently aminoacylated tRNA with UAU anticodon. Mycoplasma mobile tRNA(Ile2) cannot distinguish between AUA and AUG codon on E. coli ribosome. However, on M. mobile ribosome, M. mobile tRNA(Ile2)(UAU) specifically recognized AUA codon, and not AUG codon, suggesting M. mobile ribosome has a property that prevents misreading of AUG codon. These findings provide an insight into the evolutionary reorganization of the AUA decoding system.
Project description:Microorganisms have universally adapted their RNAs and proteins to survive at a broad range of temperatures and growth conditions. However, for RNAs, there is little quantitative understanding of the effects of mutations on function at high temperatures. To understand how variant tRNA function is affected by temperature change, we used the tRNA nonsense suppressor SUP4oc of the yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae to perform a high-throughput quantitative screen of tRNA function at two different growth temperatures. This screen yielded comparative values for 9243 single and double variants. Surprisingly, despite the ability of S. cerevisiae to grow at temperatures as low as 15°C and as high as 39°C, the vast majority of variants that could be scored lost half or more of their function when evaluated at 37°C relative to 28°C. Moreover, temperature sensitivity of a tRNA variant was highly associated with its susceptibility to the rapid tRNA decay (RTD) pathway, implying that RTD is responsible for most of the loss of function of variants at higher temperature. Furthermore, RTD may also operate in a met22Δ strain, which was previously thought to fully inhibit RTD. Consistent with RTD acting to degrade destabilized tRNAs, the stability of a tRNA molecule can be used to predict temperature sensitivity with high confidence. These findings offer a new perspective on the stability of tRNA molecules and their quality control at high temperature.
Project description:Cellular health and growth requires protein synthesis to be both efficient to ensure sufficient production, and accurate to avoid producing defective or unstable proteins. The background of misreading error frequency by individual tRNAs is as low as 2 × 10(-6) per codon but is codon-specific with some error frequencies above 10(-3) per codon. Here we test the effect on error frequency of blocking post-transcriptional modifications of the anticodon loops of four tRNAs in Escherichia coli. We find two types of responses to removing modification. Blocking modification of tRNA(UUC)(Glu) and tRNA(QUC)(Asp) increases errors, suggesting that the modifications act at least in part to maintain accuracy. Blocking even identical modifications of tRNA(UUU)(Lys) and tRNA(QUA)(Tyr) has the opposite effect of decreasing errors. One explanation could be that the modifications play opposite roles in modulating misreading by the two classes of tRNAs. Given available evidence that modifications help preorder the anticodon to allow it to recognize the codons, however, the simpler explanation is that unmodified 'weak' tRNAs decode too inefficiently to compete against cognate tRNAs that normally decode target codons, which would reduce the frequency of misreading.
Project description:The wobble base of Escherichia coli elongator tRNA(Met) is modified to N(4)-acetylcytidine (ac(4)C), which is thought to ensure the precise recognition of the AUG codon by preventing misreading of near-cognate AUA codon. By employing genome-wide screen of uncharacterized genes in Escherichia coli ('ribonucleome analysis'), we found the ypfI gene, which we named tmcA (tRNA(Met) cytidine acetyltransferase), to be responsible for ac(4)C formation. TmcA is an enzyme that contains a Walker-type ATPase domain in its N-terminal region and an N-acetyltransferase domain in its C-terminal region. Recombinant TmcA specifically acetylated the wobble base of E. coli elongator tRNA(Met) by utilizing acetyl-coenzyme A (CoA) and ATP (or GTP). ATP/GTP hydrolysis by TmcA is stimulated in the presence of acetyl-CoA and tRNA(Met). A mutation study revealed that E. coli TmcA strictly discriminates elongator tRNA(Met) from the structurally similar tRNA(Ile) by mainly recognizing the C27-G43 pair in the anticodon stem. Our findings reveal an elaborate mechanism embedded in tRNA(Met) and tRNA(Ile) for the accurate decoding of AUA/AUG codons on the basis of the recognition of wobble bases by the respective RNA-modifying enzymes.
Project description:Mutating the rare A32-U38 nucleotide pair at the top of the anticodon loop of Escherichia coli tRNA(Ala)(GGC) to a more common U32-A38 pair results in a tRNA that performs almost normally on cognate codons but is unusually efficient in reading near-cognate codons. Pre-steady state kinetic measurements on E. coli ribosomes show that, unlike the wild-type tRNA(Ala)(GGC), the misreading mutant tRNA(Ala)(GGC) shows rapid GTP hydrolysis and no detectable proofreading on near-cognate codons. Similarly, tRNA(Ala)(GGC) mutated to contain C32-G38, a pair that is found in some bacterial tRNA(Ala)(GGC) sequences, was able to decode only the cognate codons, whereas tRNA(Ala)(GGC) containing a more common C32-A38 pair was able to decode all cognate and near-cognate codons tested. We propose that many of the phylogenetically conserved sequence elements present in each tRNA have evolved to suppress translation of near-cognate codons.