Transient Expression of Reck Under Hepatic Ischemia/Reperfusion Conditions Is Associated with Mapk Signaling Pathways.
ABSTRACT: In this study, we demonstrated the involvement of matrix metalloproteinases (MMPs) in hepatic ischemia/reperfusion (I/R) injury. Our aim is to evaluate the impact of reperfusion on I/R-related changes in RECK, an MMP modulator, and mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPKs) pathways (ERK, p38, and JNK). Male Wistar rats were either subjected to 60 min partial-hepatic ischemia or sham-operated. After a 60 min or 120 min reperfusion, liver samples were collected for analysis of MMP-2 and MMP-9 by zymography and RECK, TIMP-1, and TIMP-2 content, MAPKs activation (ERK1/2, JNK1/2, and p38), as well as iNOS and eNOS by Western blot. Serum enzymes AST, ALT, and alkaline-phosphatase were quantified. A transitory decrease in hepatic RECK and TIMPs was associated with a transitory increase in both MMP-2 and MMP-9 activity and a robust activation of ERK1/2, JNK1/2, and p38 were detected at 60 min reperfusion. Hepatic expression of iNOS was maximally upregulated at 120 min reperfusion. An increase in eNOS was detected at 120 min reperfusion. I/R evoked significant hepatic injury in a time-dependent manner. These findings provide new insights into the underlying molecular mechanisms of reperfusion in inducing hepatic injury: a transitory decrease in RECK and TIMPs and increases in both MAPK and MMP activity suggest their role as triggering factors of the organ dysfunction.
Project description:BACKGROUND:We have previously shown that obeticholic acid (OCA) upregulates the biliary excretion of asymmetric dimethylarginine (ADMA), an inhibitor of iNOS regulating the activity of matrix metalloproteinases (MMPs). Here, the effects of OCA on MMP-2 and MMP-9 activity in liver, bile and serum were evaluated after hepatic ischemia/reperfusion (I/R) injury. MATERIAL AND METHODS:Male Wistar rats (n = 20) were orally administered 10 mg/kg/day of OCA (5 days) and subjected to a 60-min ischemia and 60-min reperfusion. Bile, serum and tissue were collected for MMP-2 and MMP-9 activity quantification. The MMP regulator tissue reversion-inducing cysteine rich protein with Kazal motifs (RECK), tissue inhibitor of metalloproteinases (TIMPs), iNOS and biliary levels of LDH, ?GT, glucose and ADMA were quantified. RESULTS:In the I/R group, OCA administration reduced MMP-2 and MMP-9 in liver, bile and serum. A downregulation of tissue RECK and TIMPs, observed under I/R, were recovered by OCA. Immunohistochemical staining of hepatic tissue demonstrated that RECK expression is mainly localized in both cholangiocytes and hepatocytes. Hepatic iNOS positively correlated with tissue MMP-2 and MMP-9 activity. Biliary levels of LDH, ?GT and glucose were lower in I/R rats treated with OCA; in bile, MMP levels positively correlated with LDH and ?GT. CONCLUSION:Thus, OCA administration confers protection to cholangiocytes via downregulation of biliary MMPs in livers submitted to I/R. This event is associated with hepatic RECK- and TIMP-mediated MMP decrease.
Project description:BACKGROUND: Metastasis is the main factor responsible for death in breast cancer patients. Matrix metalloproteinases (MMPs) and their inhibitors, known as tissue inhibitors of MMPs (TIMPs), and the membrane-associated MMP inhibitor (RECK), are essential for the metastatic process. We have previously shown a positive correlation between MMPs and their inhibitors expression during breast cancer progression; however, the molecular mechanisms underlying this coordinate regulation remain unknown. In this report, we investigated whether TGF-?1 could be a common regulator for MMPs, TIMPs and RECK in human breast cancer cell models. METHODS: The mRNA expression levels of TGF-? isoforms and their receptors were analyzed by qRT-PCR in a panel of five human breast cancer cell lines displaying different degrees of invasiveness and metastatic potential. The highly invasive MDA-MB-231 cell line was treated with different concentrations of recombinant TGF-?1 and also with pharmacological inhibitors of p38 MAPK and ERK1/2. The migratory and invasive potential of these treated cells were examined in vitro by transwell assays. RESULTS: In general, TGF-?2, T?RI and T?RII are over-expressed in more aggressive cells, except for T?RI, which was also highly expressed in ZR-75-1 cells. In addition, TGF-?1-treated MDA-MB-231 cells presented significantly increased mRNA expression of MMP-2, MMP-9, MMP-14, TIMP-2 and RECK. TGF-?1 also increased TIMP-2, MMP-2 and MMP-9 protein levels but downregulated RECK expression. Furthermore, we analyzed the involvement of p38 MAPK and ERK1/2, representing two well established Smad-independent pathways, in the proposed mechanism. Inhibition of p38MAPK blocked TGF-?1-increased mRNA expression of all MMPs and MMP inhibitors analyzed, and prevented TGF-?1 upregulation of TIMP-2 and MMP-2 proteins. Moreover, ERK1/2 inhibition increased RECK and prevented the TGF-?1 induction of pro-MMP-9 and TIMP-2 proteins. TGF-?1-enhanced migration and invasion capacities were blocked by p38MAPK, ERK1/2 and MMP inhibitors. CONCLUSION: Altogether, our results support that TGF-?1 modulates the mRNA and protein levels of MMPs (MMP-2 and MMP-9) as much as their inhibitors (TIMP-2 and RECK). Therefore, this cytokine plays a crucial role in breast cancer progression by modulating key elements of ECM homeostasis control. Thus, although the complexity of this signaling network, TGF-?1 still remains a promising target for breast cancer treatment.
Project description:BACKGROUND:Matrix metalloproteinases (Mmps) and their tissue inhibitors (Timps) are widely recognized as crucial factors for extracellular matrix remodeling in the ovary and are involved in follicular growth, ovulation, luteinization, and luteolysis during the estrous cycle. Recently, several genes have been associated to the modulation of Mmps activity, including Basigin (Bsg), which induces the expression of Mmps in rat ovaries; Sparc, a TGF-? modulator that is related to increased expression of Mmps in cancer; and Reck, which is associated with Mmps inhibition. However, the expression pattern of Mmp modulators in ovary dynamics is still largely uncharacterized. METHODS:To characterize the expression pattern of Mmps network members in ovary dynamics, we analyzed the spatio-temporal expression pattern of Reck and Sparc, as well as of Mmp2, Mmp9 and Mmp14 proteins, by immunohistochemistry (IHC), in pre-pubertal rat ovaries obtained from an artificial cycle induced by eCG/hCG, in the different phases of the hormone-induced estrous cycle. We also determined the gene expression profiles of Mmps (2, 9, 13 14), Timps (1, 2, 3), Sparc, Bsg, and Reck to complement this panel. RESULTS:IHC analysis revealed that Mmp protein expression peaks at the early stages of folliculogenesis and ovulation, decreases during ovulation-luteogenesis transition and luteogenesis, increasing again during corpus luteum maintenance and luteolysis. The protein expression patterns of these metalloproteinases and Sparc were inverse relative to the pattern displayed by Reck. We observed that the gene expression peaks of Mmps inhibitors Reck and Timp2 were closely paraleled by Mmp2 and Mmp9 suppression. The opposite was also true: increased Mmp2 and Mmp9 expression was concomitant to reduced Reck and Timp2 levels. CONCLUSION:Therefore, our results generate a spatio-temporal expression profile panel of Mmps and their regulators, suggesting that Reck and Sparc seem to play a role during ovarian dynamics: Reck as a possible inhibitor and Sparc as an inducer of Mmps.
Project description:Sustained inflammation and matrix metalloproteinase (MMP) activation contribute to vascular occlusive/proliferative disorders. Interleukin-17 (IL-17) is a proinflammatory cytokine that signals mainly via TRAF3 Interacting Protein 2 (TRAF3IP2), an upstream regulator of various critical transcription factors, including AP-1 and NF-?B. Reversion inducing cysteine rich protein with kazal motifs (RECK) is a membrane-anchored MMP inhibitor. Here we investigated whether IL-17A/TRAF3IP2 signaling promotes MMP-13-dependent human aortic smooth muscle cell (SMC) proliferation and migration, and determined whether RECK overexpression blunts these responses. Indeed, IL-17A treatment induced (a) JNK, p38 MAPK, AP-1, NF-?B, and CREB activation, (b) miR-21 induction, (c) miR-27b and miR-320 inhibition, (d) MMP-13 expression and activation, (e) RECK suppression, and (f) SMC migration and proliferation, all in a TRAF3IP2-dependent manner. In fact, gain of TRAG3IP2 function, by itself, induced MMP-13 expression and activation, and RECK suppression. Furthermore, treatment with recombinant MMP-13 stimulated SMC migration in part via ERK activation. Importantly, RECK gain-of-function attenuated MMP-13 activity without affecting its mRNA or protein levels, and inhibited IL-17A- and MMP-13-induced SMC migration. These results indicate that increased MMP-13 and decreased RECK contribute to IL-17A-induced TRAF3IP2-dependent SMC migration and proliferation, and suggest that TRAF3IP2 inhibitors or RECK inducers have the potential to block the progression of neointimal thickening in hyperplastic vascular diseases.
Project description:2-Chloroethanol (2-CE) is one of the reactive metabolites of 1,2-DCE in vivo, which might contribute to brain edema formation induced by 1,2-dichloroethane (1,2-DCE) poisoning. Thus, the purpose of this study was to explore the roles of mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) signal pathways in upregulation of matrix metalloproteinase-9 (MMP-9) in 2-CE exposed rat astrocytes. Expression of p38 MAPK (p38), extracellular signal regulated protein kinase (ERK), c-Jun N-terminal kinase (JNK) and MMP-9 at both protein and gene levels in rat astrocytes were determined using western blot and real-time RT-PCR methods. The results showed that both protein and mRNA levels of MMP-9 in 2-CE exposed astrocytes significantly increased. Meanwhile, protein levels of phosphorylated p38 (p-p38), ERK1/2 (p-ERK1/2) and JNK1/2 (p-JNK1/2) in 2-CE exposed astrocytes also significantly increased. In addition, both protein and mRNA levels of MMP-9 significantly decreased in response to reduced protein levels of p-p38, p-ERK1/2 and p-JNK1/2 achieved by supplement with their specific inhibitors, indicating that activation of MAPK signal pathways might play an important role in upregulation of MMP-9 expression at the transcriptional level in 2-CE exposed astrocytes. Furthermore, since pretreatment of n-acetyl-l-cysteine (NAC), a powerful antioxidant amino acid, could attenuate the elevated levels of MMP-9, p-p38, p-ERK2 and p-JNK1/2 in 2-CE exposed astrocytes, activation of MAPK signal pathways in 2-CE exposed astrocytes could be mediated partially by reactive oxygen species (ROS), which was most likely generated in the metabolism of 2-CE.
Project description:Warm hepatic ischemia-reperfusion (I/R) injury can lead to multiorgan dysfunction. The aim of the present study was to investigate whether acute liver I/R does affect the function and/or structure of remote organs such as lung, kidney, and heart via modulation of extracellular matrix remodelling.Male Sprague-Dawley rats were subjected to 30 min partial hepatic ischemia by clamping the hepatic artery and the portal vein. After a 60 min reperfusion, liver, lung, kidney, and heart biopsies and blood samples were collected. Serum hepatic enzymes, creatinine, urea, Troponin I and TNF-alpha, and tissue matrix metalloproteinases (MMP-2, MMP-9), myeloperoxidase (MPO), malondialdehyde (MDA), and morphology were monitored.Serum levels of hepatic enzymes and TNF-alpha were concomitantly increased during hepatic I/R. An increase in hepatic MMP-2 and MMP-9 activities was substantiated by tissue morphology alterations. Notably, acute hepatic I/R affect the lung inasmuch as MMP-9 activity and MPO levels were increased. No difference in MMPs and MPO was observed in kidney and heart.Although the underlying mechanism needs further investigation, this is the first study in which the MMP activation in a distant organ is reported; this event is probably TNF-alpha-mediated and the lung appears as the first remote organ to be involved in hepatic I/R injury.
Project description:<h4>Background</h4>The metastatic disease rather than the primary tumor itself is responsible for death in most solid tumors, including breast cancer. The role of matrix metalloproteinases (MMPs), tissue inhibitors of MMPs (TIMPs) and Reversion-inducing cysteine-rich protein with Kazal motifs (RECK) in the metastatic process has previously been established. However, in all published studies only a limited number of MMPs/MMP inhibitors was analyzed in a limited number of cell lines. Here, we propose a more comprehensive approach by analyzing the expression levels of several MMPs (MMP-2, MMP-9 and MMP-14) and MMP inhibitors (TIMP-1, TIMP-2 and RECK) in different models (five human breast cancer cell lines, 72 primary breast tumors and 30 adjacent normal tissues).<h4>Methods</h4>We analyzed the expression levels of MMP-2, MMP-9 and MMP-14 and their inhibitors (TIMP-1, TIMP-2 and RECK) by quantitative RT-PCR (qRT-PCR) in five human breast cancer cell lines presenting increased invasiveness and metastatic potential, 72 primary breast tumors and 30 adjacent normal tissues. Moreover, the role of cell-extracellular matrix elements interactions in the regulation of expression and activity of MMPs and their inhibitors was analyzed by culturing these cell lines on plastic or on artificial ECM (Matrigel).<h4>Results</h4>The results demonstrated that MMPs mRNA expression levels displayed a positive and statistically significant correlation with the transcriptional expression levels of their inhibitors both in the cell line models and in the tumor tissue samples. Furthermore, the expression of all MMP inhibitors was modulated by cell-Matrigel contact only in highly invasive and metastatic cell lines. The enzyme/inhibitor balance at the transcriptional level significantly favors the enzyme which is more evident in tumor than in adjacent non-tumor tissue samples.<h4>Conclusion</h4>Our results suggest that the expression of MMPs and their inhibitors, at least at the transcriptional level, might be regulated by common factors and signaling pathways. Therefore, the multi-factorial analysis of these molecules could provide new and independent prognostic information contributing to the determination of more adequate therapy strategies for each patient.
Project description:Penta-O-galloyl-?-D-glucose (PGG) is a gallotannin polyphenolic compound that occurs naturally in fermented Rhus verniciflua. The present study aimed to examine the effect of PGG on UVB-induced skin aging and its molecular mechanisms in HaCaT human keratinocytes and SKH-1 hairless mice models. PGG suppressed UVB-induced matrix metalloproteinase-1 (MMP-1) expression in HaCaT cells by inhibiting phosphorylation of RAF/MEK/ERK, MKK3/6/p38, and c-Jun. UVB-induced ERK and p38 signaling pathways that induce the MMP-1 expression were mediated by PAK1 in HaCaT cells. PGG suppressed PAK1 and JNK1 kinase activities, and directly bound both PAK1 in an ATP-competitive manner and JNK1 in an ATP-noncompetitive manner. Consistently, PGG decreased UVB-induced wrinkle formation, epidermal thickness, type 1 collagen and MMP-13 expression in mouse skin. Overall, these results indicate that PGG exhibits anti-photoaging effects in vitro and in vivo by the suppression of PAK1 and JNK1 kinase activities, and may be useful for the prevention of skin aging.
Project description:Proximal tubular epithelial cells (PTEC) in the S1 segment of the kidney abundantly express sodium-glucose co-transporters (SGLT) that play a critical role in whole body glucose homeostasis. We recently reported suppression of RECK (Reversion Inducing Cysteine Rich Protein with Kazal Motifs), a membrane anchored endogenous MMP inhibitor and anti-fibrotic mediator, in the kidneys of db/db mice, a model of diabetic kidney disease (DKD), as well as in high glucose (HG) treated human kidney proximal tubule cells (HK-2). We further demonstrated that empagliflozin (EMPA), an SGLT2 inhibitor, reversed these effects. Little is known regarding the mechanisms underlying RECK suppression under hyperglycemic conditions, and its rescue by EMPA. Consistent with our previous studies, HG (25 mM) suppressed RECK expression in HK-2 cells. Further mechanistic investigations revealed that HG induced superoxide and hydrogen peroxide generation, oxidative stress-dependent TRAF3IP2 upregulation, NF-κB and p38 MAPK activation, inflammatory cytokine expression (IL-1β, IL-6, TNF-α, and MCP-1), miR-21 induction, MMP2 activation, and RECK suppression. Moreover, RECK gain-of-function inhibited HG-induced MMP2 activation and HK-2 cell migration. Similar to HG, advanced glycation end products (AGE) induced TRAF3IP2 and suppressed RECK, effects that were inhibited by EMPA. Importantly, EMPA treatment ameliorated all of these deleterious effects, and inhibited epithelial-to-mesenchymal transition (EMT) and HK-2 cell migration. Collectively, these findings indicate that hyperglycemia and associated AGE suppress RECK expression via oxidative stress/TRAF3IP2/NF-κB and p38 MAPK/miR-21 induction. Furthermore, these results suggest that interventions aimed at restoring RECK or inhibiting SGLT2 have the potential to treat kidney inflammatory response/fibrosis and nephropathy under chronic hyperglycemic conditions, such as DKD.
Project description:Background:MT1-MMP is a cell-surface enzyme whose regulation of pro-MMP-2 and ERK activation position it as a key facilitator of ECM remodelling and cell migration. These processes are modulated by endogenous MMP inhibitors, such as RECK, a GPI-anchored protein which has been shown to inhibit both MT1-MMP and MMP-2 activity. Our previous studies have revealed a link between MT1-MMP levels, and pro-MMP-2 and ERK activation in mammalian cells, as well as MT1-MMP and RECK co-localization in Xenopus embryos. We here investigated how modulation of RECK would impact MT1-MMP and MMP-2 levels, as well as ERK signalling in Xenopus A6 cells. Results:We used a Morpholino approach to knockdown RECK, plasmid transfection to overexpress RECK, and PI-PLC treatment to shed RECK from the cell surface of Xenopus A6 cells. RECK reduction did not alter pERK or MT1-MMP levels, nor MMP-2 activity as measured by zymography; thus RECK-knockdown cells maintained the ability to remodel the ECM. RECK overexpression and PI-PLC treatment both increased ECM remodelling potential through increased MT1-MMP protein and relative MMP-2 activation levels. Conclusions:RECK changes that reduce the ability of the cell to remodel the ECM (overexpression and cell surface shedding) are compensated for by increases in MT1-MMP, and MMP-2 levels as seen by zymography.