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Intronic Alternative Polyadenylation in the Middle of the DMD Gene Produces Half-Size N-Terminal Dystrophin with a Potential Implication of ECG Abnormalities of DMD Patients.

ABSTRACT: The DMD gene is one of the largest human genes, being composed of 79 exons, and encodes dystrophin Dp427m which is deficient in Duchenne muscular dystrophy (DMD). In some DMD patient, however, small size dystrophin reacting with antibody to N-terminal but not to C-terminal has been identified. The mechanism to produce N-terminal small size dystrophin remains unknown. Intronic polyadenylation is a mechanism that produces a transcript with a new 3' terminal exon and a C-terminal truncated protein. In this study, intronic alternative polyadenylation was disclosed to occur in the middle of the DMD gene and produce the half-size N-terminal dystrophin Dp427m, Dpm234. The 3'-rapid amplification of cDNA ends revealed 421 bp sequence in the downstream of DMD exon 41 in U-251 glioblastoma cells. The cloned sequence composing of the 5' end sequence of intron 41 was decided as the terminal exon, since it encoded poly (A) signal followed by poly (A) stretch. Subsequently, a fragment from DMD exon M1 to intron 41 was obtained by PCR amplification. This product was named Dpm234 after its molecular weight. However, Dpm234 was not PCR amplified in human skeletal and cardiac muscles. Remarkably, Dpm234 was PCR amplified in iPS-derived cardiomyocytes. Accordingly, Western blotting of cardiomyocyte proteins showed a band of 234 kDa reacting with dystrophin antibody to N-terminal, but not C-terminal. Clinically, DMD patients with mutations in the Dpm234 coding region were found to have a significantly higher likelihood of two ECG abnormal findings. Intronic alternative splicing was first revealed in Dp427m to produce small size dystrophin.


PROVIDER: S-EPMC7278912 | BioStudies | 2020-01-01

REPOSITORIES: biostudies

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