Understanding the Differentiation, Expansion, Recruitment and Suppressive Activities of Myeloid-Derived Suppressor Cells in Cancers.
ABSTRACT: There has been a great interest in myeloid-derived suppressor cells (MDSCs) due to their biological functions in tumor-mediated immune escape by suppressing antitumor immune responses. These cells arise from altered myelopoiesis in response to the tumor-derived factors. The most recognized function of MDSCs is suppressing anti-tumor immune responses by impairing T cell functions, and these cells are the most important players in cancer dissemination and metastasis. Therefore, understanding the factors and the mechanism of MDSC differentiation, expansion, and recruitment into the tumor microenvironment can lead to its control. However, most of the studies only defined MDSCs with no further characterization of granulocytic and monocytic subsets. In this review, we discuss the mechanisms by which specific MDSC subsets contribute to cancers. A better understanding of MDSC subset development and the specific molecular mechanism is needed to identify treatment targets. The understanding of the specific molecular mechanisms responsible for MDSC accumulation would enable more precise therapeutic targeting of these cells.
Project description:Myeloid-derived suppressor cells (MDSCs) are a heterogeneous population with the ability to suppress immune responses and are currently classified into three distinct MDSC subsets: monocytic, granulocytic and non-monocytic, and non-granulocytic MDSCs. Although NK cells provide an important first-line defense against newly transformed cancer cells, it is unknown whether NK cells can regulate MDSC populations in the context of cancer. In this study, we initially found that the frequency of MDSCs in non-Hodgkin lymphoma (NHL) patients was increased and inversely correlated with that of NK cells, but not that of T cells. To investigate the regulation of MDSC subsets by NK cells, we used an EL4 murine lymphoma model and found the non-monocytic and non-granulocytic MDSC subset, i.e., Gr1(+)CD11b(+)Ly6G(med)Ly6C(med) MDSC, is increased after NK cell depletion. The MDSC population that expresses MHC class II, CD80, CD124, and CCR2 is regulated mainly by CD27(+)CD11b(+)NK cells. In addition, this MDSC subset produces some immunosuppressive cytokines, including IL-10 but not nitric oxide (NO) or arginase. We also examined two subsets of MDSCs (CD14(+)HLA-DR(-) and CD14(-) HLA-DR(-) MDSC) in NHL patients and found that higher IL-10-producing CD14(+)HLA-DR(-)MDSC subset can be seen in lymphoma patients with reduced NK cell frequency in peripheral blood. Our analyses of MDSCs in this study may enable a better understanding of how MDSCs manipulate the tumor microenvironment and are regulated by NK cells in patients with lymphoma.
Project description:Immune evasion is an emerging hallmark of cancer progression. However, functional studies to understand the role of myeloid-derived suppressor cells (MDSCs) in the tumor microenvironment are limited by the lack of available specific cell surface markers. We adapted a competitive peptide phage display platform to identify candidate peptides binding MDSCs specifically and generated peptide-Fc fusion proteins (peptibodies). In multiple tumor models, intravenous peptibody injection completely depleted blood, splenic and intratumoral MDSCs in tumor-bearing mice without affecting proinflammatory immune cell types, such as dendritic cells. Whereas control Gr-1-specific antibody primarily depleted granulocytic MDSCs, peptibodies depleted both granulocytic and monocytic MDSC subsets. Peptibody treatment was associated with inhibition of tumor growth in vivo, which was superior to that achieved with Gr-1-specific antibody. Immunoprecipitation of MDSC membrane proteins identified S100 family proteins as candidate targets. Our strategy may be useful to identify new diagnostic and therapeutic surface targets on rare cell subtypes, including human MDSCs.
Project description:The application of tumor immunotherapy to glioblastoma (GBM) is limited by an unprecedented degree of immune suppression due to factors that include high numbers of immune suppressive myeloid cells, the blood brain barrier, and T cell sequestration to the bone marrow. We previously identified an increase in immune suppressive myeloid-derived suppressor cells (MDSCs) in GBM patients, which correlated with poor prognosis and was dependent on macrophage migration inhibitory factor (MIF). Here we examine the MIF signaling axis in detail in murine MDSC models, GBM-educated MDSCs and human GBM. We found that the monocytic subset of MDSCs (M-MDSCs) expressed high levels of the MIF cognate receptor CD74 and was localized in the tumor microenvironment. In contrast, granulocytic MDSCs (G-MDSCs) expressed high levels of the MIF non-cognate receptor CXCR2 and showed minimal accumulation in the tumor microenvironment. Furthermore, targeting M-MDSCs with Ibudilast, a brain penetrant MIF-CD74 interaction inhibitor, reduced MDSC function and enhanced CD8 T cell activity in the tumor microenvironment. These findings demonstrate the MDSC subsets differentially express MIF receptors and may be leveraged for specific MDSC targeting.
Project description:Myeloid-derived suppressor cells (MDSCs) comprise immature myeloid populations produced in diverse pathologies, including neoplasia. Because MDSCs can impair antitumor immunity, these cells have emerged as a significant barrier to cancer therapy. Although much research has focused on how MDSCs promote tumor progression, it remains unclear how MDSCs develop and why the MDSC response is heavily granulocytic. Given that MDSCs are a manifestation of aberrant myelopoiesis, we hypothesized that MDSCs arise from perturbations in the regulation of interferon regulatory factor-8 (IRF-8), an integral transcriptional component of myeloid differentiation and lineage commitment. Overall, we demonstrated that (a) Irf8-deficient mice generated myeloid populations highly homologous to tumor-induced MDSCs with respect to phenotype, function, and gene expression profiles; (b) IRF-8 overexpression in mice attenuated MDSC accumulation and enhanced immunotherapeutic efficacy; (c) the MDSC-inducing factors G-CSF and GM-CSF facilitated IRF-8 downregulation via STAT3- and STAT5-dependent pathways; and (d) IRF-8 levels in MDSCs of breast cancer patients declined with increasing MDSC frequency, implicating IRF-8 as a negative regulator in human MDSC biology. Together, our results reveal a previously unrecognized role for IRF-8 expression in MDSC subset development, which may provide new avenues to target MDSCs in neoplasia.
Project description:Myeloid derived Suppressor cells (MDSC) are heterogenous popluation of cells consists of two major subsets namely the monocytic Gr-1dull/int. and granulocytic (Gr-1high). These distinct two subsets use different mechanism to inhibit T cell response. In addition, how the function of these subsets is regulated is not known yet. The Gr-1dull/int. MDSC are suppressing T cells through IFNg dependent nitric oxide dependent manner. However, the exact suppressive mechanism of Gr-1high MDSC is not clear. Here we studied the role of a cytokine IFNg on the suppressive function of Gr-1high MDSC by comparing the gene expression of Gr-1high cells cultured alone versus those cultured with T cells which donot produce IFNgamma. CD11b+Gr-1high cells were purified from the splenocyte of CT-26 colon tumor bearing mice. The purified CD11b+Gr-1high MDSCs were cultured with IFNg-/- antigen specific T cells and re- sorted after 48h and RNA was extracted and gene expression was analyzed using topic-defined PIQORTM Immunology Microarrays.
Project description:Asthma is a complex and heterogeneous inflammatory response characterized by various immune cells, including myeloid-derived suppressor cells (MDSCs) and CD4+ T-cell subsets. However, few studies on MDSC subsets and the association between MDSCs and CD4+ T-cell subsets in asthma are reported. In the present study, we detected CD4+ T cells and MDSC subsets and evaluated the relationship of these cells in mice with ovalbumin-induced asthma. We found that asthmatic mice showed severe airway inflammatory response and inflammatory cell infiltration in the lungs and bronchoalveolar lavage fluid. We also noted increased numbers of Th2, Th17, and MDSCs; decreased proportion of Th1 and Treg cells in the splenocytes and lungs; and increased expression of pro-inflammatory cytokines in splenocytes and lungs. Granulocytic MDSCs (G-MDSCs) and Th17 cells were closely related. Gemcitabine treatment reduced the G-MDSC level and the iNOS expression, alleviated the inflammatory response, and decreased the proportion and number of Th2 and Th17 cells in asthmatic mice. Besides the increase in Th2 and Th17 cells, the findings indicate that G-MDSC elevation plays a crucial role in asthmatic mice.
Project description:It has been shown recently that MCs are required for differential regulation of the immune response by granulocytic versus monocytic MDSCs. Granulocytic MDSCs promoted parasite clearance, whereas monocytic MDSCs enhanced tumor progression; both activities were abrogated in MC-deficient mice. Herein, we demonstrate that the lack of MCs also influences MDSC trafficking. Preferential trafficking to the liver was not seen in MC-deficient mice. In addition, evidence that the MC mediator histamine was important in MDSC trafficking and activation is also shown. MDSCs express HR1-3. Blockade of these receptors by HR1 or HR2 antagonists reversed the histamine enhancement of MDSC survival and proliferation observed in cell culture. In addition, histamine differentially influenced Arg1 and iNOS gene expression in MDSCs and greatly enhanced IL-4 and IL-13 message, especially in granulocytic MDSCs. Evidence that histamine influenced activity seen in vitro translated to in vivo when HR1 and HR2 antagonists blocked the effect of MDSCs on parasite expulsion and tumor metastasis. All of these data support the MDSC-mediated promotion of Th2 immunity, leading to the suggestion that allergic-prone individuals would have elevated MDSC levels. This was directly demonstrated by looking at the relative MDSC levels in allergic versus control patients. Monocytic MDSCs trended higher, whereas granulocytic MDSCs were increased significantly in allergic patients. Taken together, our studies indicate that MCs and MC-released histamine are critical for MDSC-mediated immune regulation, and this interaction should be taken into consideration for therapeutic interventions that target MDSCs.
Project description:Alterations in myelopoiesis are common across various tumor types, resulting in immature populations termed myeloid-derived suppressor cells (MDSCs). MDSC burden correlates with poorer clinical outcomes, credited to their ability to suppress antitumor immunity. MDSCs consist of two major subsets, monocytic and polymorphonuclear (PMN). Intriguingly, the latter subset predominates in many patients and tumor models, although the mechanisms favoring PMN-MDSC responses remain poorly understood. Ordinarily, lineage-restricted transcription factors regulate myelopoiesis that collectively dictate cell fate. One integral player is IFN regulatory factor (IRF)-8, which promotes monocyte/dendritic cell differentiation while limiting granulocyte development. We recently showed that IRF8 inversely controls MDSC burden in tumor models, particularly the PMN-MDSC subset. However, where IRF8 acts in the pathway of myeloid differentiation to influence PMN-MDSC production has remained unknown. In this study, we showed that: 1) tumor growth was associated with a selective expansion of newly defined IRF8lo granulocyte progenitors (GPs); 2) tumor-derived GPs had an increased ability to form PMN-MDSCs; 3) tumor-derived GPs shared gene expression patterns with IRF8-/- GPs, suggesting that IRF8 loss underlies GP expansion; and 4) enforced IRF8 overexpression in vivo selectively constrained tumor-induced GP expansion. These findings support the hypothesis that PMN-MDSCs result from selective expansion of IRF8lo GPs, and that strategies targeting IRF8 expression may limit their load to improve immunotherapy efficacy.
Project description:Myeloid-derived suppressor cells (MDSCs) promote tumor immune evasion and favor tumorigenesis by activating various tumor-promoting downstream signals. MDSC expansion is evident in the circulation and tumor microenvironment of many solid tumors including colorectal cancer (CRC). We have recently reported the transcriptomic profiles of tumor-infiltrating MDSCs in CRC patients and uncovered pathways, which could potentially assist tumor progression. In this study, we sorted different subsets of circulating MDSCs in CRC patients and investigated their transcriptomic profiles in order to disclose pathways, which could potentially contribute to disease progression. The sorted subsets included polymorphonuclear/granulocytic MDSCs (PMN-MDSCs), immature MDSCs (I-MDSCs), and monocytic MDSCs (M-MDSCs). Our functional annotation analyses revealed that multiple pathways including DNA damage-, chemotaxis-, apoptosis-, mitogen-activated protein kinase-, transforming growth factor ?-, and myeloid differentiation-related transcripts were higher in PMN-MDSCs, compared with monocytic antigen-presenting cells (APCs) or I-MDSCs. Furthermore, genes related to Janus kinase (JAK)-signal transducer and activator of transcription (STAT) were also elevated in PMN-MDSCs. These data suggest that upregulation of JAK-STAT pathway could trigger multiple downstream targets in PMN-MDSCs, which favor tumor progression. Additionally, we found that pathways including phosphatidyl inositol 3-kinase (PI3K), interleukin 6, and TGF-? in M-MDSCs and cell cycle-related pathways in I-MDSCs were upregulated, compared with monocytic APCs. Moreover, acetylation-related genes were upregulated in both PMN-MDSCs and M-MDSCs. This latter finding implicates that epigenetic modifications could also play a role in the regulation of multiple tumor-promoting genes in PMN-MDSCs and M-MDSCs. Taken together, this study reveals various signaling pathways, which regulate the function of MDSC subsets in the circulation of CRC patients. However, functional studies are warranted to support these findings.
Project description:Multiple myeloma (MM) is a plasma cell malignancy characterized by the accumulation of tumor cells in the bone marrow (BM) and is associated with immunosuppression, angiogenesis and osteolysis. Myeloid-derived suppressor cells (MDSCs) represent a heterogeneous population of immature, immunosuppressive myeloid cells that promote tumor progression through different mechanisms.In this work, we studied the contribution of MDSC subsets to different disease-promoting aspects in MM. We observed an expansion of polymorphonuclear/granulocytic (PMN-)MDSCs in two immunocompetent murine MM models, while this was not observed for monocytic (MO-)MDSCs. Both MDSC subpopulations from MM-bearing mice were immunosuppressive, but PMN-MDSCs displayed a higher suppressive potential. Soluble factors secreted by MM cells increased the viability of MDSCs, whereas the presence of MDSCs did not affect the proliferation of MM cells in vitro or in vivo. Interestingly, we observed a pro-angiogenic effect of PMN-MDSCs in the context of MM using the chick chorioallantoic membrane assay. Consistently, MM-derived PMN-MDSCs showed an up-regulation of angiogenesis-related factors and reduced PMN-MDSC levels were associated with less angiogenesis in vivo. Finally, we identified MO-MDSCs as osteoclast precursors.These results suggest that MDSC subpopulations play diverging roles in MM. We show for the first time that PMN-MDSCs exert a pro-angiogenic role in MM.