Unique Gut Microbiome Signatures Depict Diet-Versus Genetically Induced Obesity in Mice.
ABSTRACT: The gut microbiome plays an important role in obesity and Type 2 diabetes (T2D); however, it remains unclear whether the gut microbiome could clarify the dietary versus genetic origin of these ailments. Moreover, studies examining the gut microbiome in diet- versus genetically induced obesity/T2D in the same experimental set-up are lacking. We herein characterized the gut microbiomes in three of the most widely used mouse models of obesity/T2D, i.e., genetically induced (leptin-deficient i.e., Lepob/ob; and leptin-receptor-deficient i.e., Lepdb/db) and high-fat diet (HFD)-induced obese (DIO)/T2D mice, with reference to their normal chow-fed (NC) and low-fat-diet-fed (LF) control counterparts. In terms of ?-diversity, Lepob/ob and Lepdb/db mice showed similarity to NC mice, whereas DIO and LF mice appeared as distinct clusters. The phylum- and genus-level compositions were relatively similar in NC, Lepob/ob, and Lepdb/db mice, whereas DIO and LF mice demonstrated distinct compositions. Further analyses revealed several unique bacterial taxa, metagenomic functional features, and their correlation patterns in these models. The data revealed that obesity/T2D driven by diet as opposed to genetics presents distinct gut microbiome signatures enriched with distinct functional capacities, and indicated that these signatures can distinguish diet- versus genetically induced obesity/T2D and, if extrapolated to humans, might offer translational potential in devising dietary and/or genetics-based therapies against these maladies.
Project description:This study aimed to determine the association between non-high-fat diet-induced obesity- (non-DIO-) associated gut microbiome dysbiosis with gut abnormalities like cellular turnover of intestinal cells, tight junctions, and mucin formation that can impact gut permeability. We used leptin-deficient (Lepob/ob) mice in comparison to C57BL/6J control mice, which are fed on identical diets, and performed comparative and correlative analyses of gut microbiome composition, gut permeability, intestinal structural changes, tight junction-mucin formation, cellular turnover, and stemness genes. We found that obesity impacted cellular turnover of the intestine with increased cell death and cell survival/proliferation gene expression with enhanced stemness, which are associated with increased intestinal permeability, changes in villi/crypt length, and decreased expression of tight junctions and mucus synthesis genes along with dysbiotic gut microbiome signature. Obesity-induced gut microbiome dysbiosis is also associated with abnormal intestinal organoid formation characterized with decreased budding and higher stemness. Results suggest that non-DIO-associated gut microbiome dysbiosis is associated with changes in the intestinal cell death versus cell proliferation homeostasis and functions to control tight junctions and mucous synthesis-regulating gut permeability.
Project description:The Western dietary pattern can alter the gut microbiome and cause obesity and metabolic disorders. To examine the interactions between diet, the microbiome, and obesity, we transplanted gut microbiota from lean or obese human donors into mice fed one of three diets for 22 weeks: (1) a control AIN93G diet; (2) the total Western diet (TWD), which mimics the American diet; or (3) a 45% high-fat diet-induced obesity (DIO) diet. We hypothesized that a fecal microbiome transfer (FMT) from obese donors would lead to an obese phenotype and aberrant glucose metabolism in recipient mice that would be exacerbated by consumption of the TWD or DIO diets. Prior to the FMT, the native microbiome was depleted using an established broad-spectrum antibiotic protocol. Interestingly, the human donor body type microbiome did not significantly affect final body weight or body composition in mice fed any of the experimental diets. Beta diversity analysis and linear discriminant analysis with effect size (LEfSe) showed that mice that received an FMT from obese donors had a significantly different microbiome compared to mice that received an FMT from lean donors. However, after 22 weeks, diet influenced the microbiome composition irrespective of donor body type, suggesting that diet is a key variable in the shaping of the gut microbiome after FMT.
Project description:The efficacy of allogeneic hematopoietic stem cell transplantation (allo-HSCT) is limited by the occurrence of acute and chronic graft-versus-host disease (GVHD). We have recently demonstrated that obesity results in exacerbated acute gastrointestinal GVHD in both mouse models and clinical outcomes due to increased pro-inflammatory cytokine responses and microbiota alterations. We therefore wanted to delineate the role of the various parameters in obesity, adiposity, effects of high-fat (HF) diet, and the role of microbiome on GVHD pathogenesis, by taking advantage of a mouse strain resistant to diet-induced obesity (DIO). Female BALB/c mice are resistant to DIO phenotype with approximately 50% becoming DIO under HF diets. The DIO-susceptible recipients rapidly succumb to acute gut GVHD, whereas the DIO-resistant recipient littermates, which do not become obese, are partially protected from GVHD, indicating that being on HF diet alone contributes to but is not the primary driver of GVHD. Microbiome assessment revealed restricted diversity in both cohorts of mice, but coprophagy normalizes the microbiota in mice housed together. We then individually housed DIO-resistant, DIO-susceptible, and lean control mice. Notably, each of the individually housed groups demonstrates marked restricted diversity that has been shown to occur from the stress of single housing. Despite the restricted microbiome diversity, the GVHD pathogenesis profile remains consistent in the group-housed mice, with the lean control single-housed mice exhibiting no acute GVHD and DIO-resistant recipients showing again partial protection. These results demonstrate that the deleterious effects of obesity on acute gut GVHD are critically dependent on adiposity with the HF diet also playing a lesser role, and the microbiome alterations with obesity instead appear to fuel ongoing acute GVHD processes.
Project description:Disruption of the gut microbiota by high-fat diet (HFD) has been implicated in the development of obesity. It remains to be elucidated whether the HFD-induced shifts occur at the phylum level or whether they can be attributed to specific phylotypes; additionally, it is unclear to what extent the changes are reversible under normal chow (NC) feeding. One group (diet-induced obesity, DIO) of adult C57BL/6J mice was fed a HFD for 12 weeks until significant obesity and insulin resistance were observed, and then these mice were switched to NC feeding for 10 weeks. Upon switching to NC feeding, the metabolic deteriorations observed during HFD consumption were significantly alleviated. The second group (control, CHO) remained healthy under continuous NC feeding. UniFrac analysis of bar-coded pyrosequencing data showed continued structural segregation of DIO from CHO on HFD. At 4 weeks after switching back to NC, the gut microbiota in the DIO group had already moved back to the CHO space, and continued to progress along the same age trajectory and completely converged with CHO after 10 weeks. Redundancy analysis identified 77 key phylotypes responding to the dietary perturbations. HFD-induced shifts of these phylotypes all reverted to CHO levels over time. Some of these phylotypes exhibited robust age-related changes despite the dramatic abundance variations in response to dietary alternations. These findings suggest that HFD-induced structural changes of the gut microbiota can be attributed to reversible elevation or diminution of specific phylotypes, indicating the significant structural resilience of the gut microbiota of adult mice to dietary perturbations.
Project description:<h4>Background</h4>Diet-induced obesity (DIO) is a significant health concern which has been linked to structural and functional changes in the gut microbiota. Exercise (Ex) is effective in preventing obesity, but whether Ex alters the gut microbiota during development with high fat (HF) feeding is unknown.<h4>Objective</h4>Determine the effects of voluntary Ex on the gastrointestinal microbiota in LF-fed mice and in HF-DIO.<h4>Methods</h4>Male C57BL/6 littermates (5 weeks) were distributed equally into 4 groups: low fat (LF) sedentary (Sed) LF/Sed, LF/Ex, HF/Sed and HF/Ex. Mice were individually housed and LF/Ex and HF/Ex cages were equipped with a wheel and odometer to record Ex. Fecal samples were collected at baseline, 6 weeks and 12 weeks and used for bacterial DNA isolation. DNA was subjected both to quantitative PCR using primers specific to the 16S rRNA encoding genes for Bacteroidetes and Firmicutes and to sequencing for lower taxonomic identification using the Illumina MiSeq platform. Data were analyzed using a one or two-way ANOVA or Pearson correlation.<h4>Results</h4>HF diet resulted in significantly greater body weight and adiposity as well as decreased glucose tolerance that were prevented by voluntary Ex (p<0.05). Visualization of Unifrac distance data with principal coordinates analysis indicated clustering by both diet and Ex at week 12. Sequencing demonstrated Ex-induced changes in the percentage of major bacterial phyla at 12 weeks. A correlation between total Ex distance and the ?Ct Bacteroidetes: ?Ct Firmicutes ratio from qPCR demonstrated a significant inverse correlation (r2?=?0.35, p?=?0.043).<h4>Conclusion</h4>Ex induces a unique shift in the gut microbiota that is different from dietary effects. Microbiota changes may play a role in Ex prevention of HF-DIO.
Project description:Type 2 diabetes (T2D) is a global epidemic that affects more than 8% of the world's population and is a leading cause of death in Mexico. Diet and lifestyle are known to contribute to the onset of T2D. However, the role of the gut microbiome in T2D progression remains uncertain. Associations between microbiome composition and diabetes are confounded by medication use, diet, and obesity. Here we present data on a treatment-naive cohort of 405 Mexican individuals across varying stages of T2D severity. Associations between gut bacteria and more than 200 clinical variables revealed a defined set of bacterial genera that were consistent biomarkers of T2D prevalence and risk. Specifically, gradual increases in blood glucose levels, beta cell dysfunction, and the accumulation of measured T2D risk factors were correlated with the relative abundances of four bacterial genera. In a cohort of 25 individuals, T2D treatment-predominantly metformin-reliably returned the microbiome to the normoglycemic community state. Deep clinical characterization allowed us to broadly control for confounding variables, indicating that these microbiome patterns were independent of common T2D comorbidities, like obesity or cardiovascular disease. Our work provides the first solid evidence for a direct link between the gut microbiome and T2D in a critically high-risk population. In particular, we show that increased T2D risk is reflected in gradual changes in the gut microbiome. Whether or not these T2D-associated changes in the gut contribute to the etiology of T2D or its comorbidities remains to be seen.
Project description:We have investigated the interrelationship between diet, gut microbial ecology, and energy balance using a mouse model of obesity produced by consumption of a prototypic Western diet. Diet-induced obesity (DIO) produced a bloom in a single uncultured clade within the Mollicutes class of the Firmicutes, which was diminished by subsequent dietary manipulations that limit weight gain. Microbiota transplantation from mice with DIO to lean germ-free recipients promoted greater fat deposition than transplants from lean donors. Metagenomic and biochemical analysis of the gut microbiome together with sequencing and metabolic reconstructions of a related human gut-associated Mollicute (Eubacterium dolichum) revealed features that may provide a competitive advantage to members of the bloom in the Western diet nutrient milieu, including import and processing of simple sugars. Our study illustrates how combining comparative metagenomics with gnotobiotic mouse models and specific dietary manipulations can disclose the niches of previously uncharacterized members of the gut microbiota.
Project description:Obesity-induced adipocyte apoptosis promotes inflammation and insulin resistance. Src homology domain-containing inositol 5'-phosphatase 1 (SHIP1) is a key factor of apoptosis and inflammation. However, the role of SHIP1 in obesity-induced adipocyte apoptosis and autophagy is unclear. We found that diet-induced obesity (DIO) mice have significantly greater crown-like structures and terminal deoxynucleotidyl transferase deoxyuridine triphosphate (dUTP) nick-end labeling (TUNEL)-positive cells than ob/ob or control mice. Using RNA sequencing (RNA-seq) analysis, we identified that the apoptosis- and inflammation-related gene Ship1 is upregulated in DIO and ob/ob mice compared with control mice. In particular, DIO mice had more SHIP1-positive macrophages and lysosomal-associated membrane protein 1 (LAMP1) as well as a higher B-cell lymphoma 2 (Bcl-2)-associated X protein (Bax)/Bcl-2 ratio compared with ob/ob or control mice. Furthermore, caloric restriction attenuated adipose tissue inflammation, apoptosis, and autophagy by reversing increases in SHIP1-associated macrophages, Bax/Bcl2-ratio, and autophagy in DIO and ob/ob mice. These results demonstrate that DIO, not ob/ob, aggravates adipocyte inflammation, apoptosis, and autophagy due to differential SHIP1 expression. The evidence of decreased SHIP1-mediated inflammation, apoptosis, and autophagy indicates new therapeutic approaches for obesity-induced chronic inflammatory diseases.
Project description:Estrogens protect against diet-induced obesity in women and female rodents. For example, a lack of estrogens in postmenopausal women is associated with an increased risk of weight gain, cardiovascular diseases, low-grade inflammation, and cancer. Estrogens act with leptin to regulate energy homeostasis in females. Leptin-deficient mice (ob/ob) exhibit morbid obesity and insulin resistance. The gut microbiome is also critical in regulating metabolism. The present study investigates whether estrogens and leptin modulate gut microbiota in ovariectomized ob/ob (obese) or heterozygote (lean) mice fed high-fat diet (HFD) that received either 17β-Estradiol (E2) or vehicle implants. E2 attenuated weight gain in both genotypes. Moreover, both obesity (ob/ob mice) and E2 were associated with reduced gut microbial diversity. ob/ob mice exhibited lower species richness than control mice, while E2-treated mice had reduced evenness compared with vehicle mice. Regarding taxa, E2 was associated with an increased abundance of the S24-7 family, while leptin was associated with increases in Coriobacteriaceae, Clostridium and Lactobacillus. Some taxa were affected by both E2 and leptin, suggesting these hormones alter gut microbiota of HFD-fed female mice. Understanding the role of E2 and leptin in regulating gut microbiota will provide important insights into hormone-dependent metabolic disorders in women.
Project description:The arcuate nucleus (ARC) of the hypothalamus plays a key role in sensing metabolic feedback and regulating energy homeostasis. Recent studies revealed activation of microglia in mice with high-fat diet (HFD)-induced obesity (DIO), suggesting a potential pathophysiological role for inflammatory processes within the hypothalamus. To further investigate the metabolic causes and molecular underpinnings of such glial activation, we analyzed the microglial activity in wild-type (WT), monogenic obese ob/ob (leptin deficient), db/db (leptin-receptor mutation), and Type-4 melanocortin receptor knockout (MC4R KO) mice on either a HFD or on standardized chow (SC) diet. Following HFD exposure, we observed a significant increase in the total number of ARC microglia, immunoreactivity of ionized calcium binding adaptor molecule 1 (iba1-ir), cluster of differentiation 68 (CD68-ir), and ramification of microglial processes. The ob/ob mice had significantly less iba1-ir and ramifications. Leptin replacement rescued these phenomena. The db/db mice had similar iba1-ir comparable with WT mice but had significantly lower CD68-ir and more ramifications than WT mice. After 2 weeks of HFD, ob/ob mice showed an increase of iba1-ir, and db/db mice showed increase of CD68-ir. Obese MC4R KO mice fed a SC diet had comparable iba1-ir and CD68-ir with WT mice but had significantly more ramifications than WT mice. Intriguingly, treatment of DIO mice with glucagon-like peptide-1 receptor agonists reduced microglial activation independent of body weight. Our results show that diet type, adipokines, and gut signals, but not body weight, affect the presence and activity levels of hypothalamic microglia in obesity.