The Ralstonia solanacearum effector RipI induces a defence reaction by interacting with the bHLH93 transcription factor in Nicotiana benthamiana.
ABSTRACT: Ralstonia solanacearum releases a set of effectors into plant cells that modify the host defence reaction. The role of the effector protein RipI during infection has not been elucidated. In this study, we demonstrated that transient overexpression of RipI induces the hypersensitive response (HR), up-regulating the HR marker gene hin1, in Nicotiana benthamiana. Deletion of R. solanacearum ripI led to increased virulence in tomato (Solanum lycopersicum) plants. Through yeast two-hybrid and pull-down assays, we identified an interaction between the N. benthamiana transcription factor bHLH93 and RipI, both of which could be localized in the nucleus of Arabidopsis protoplasts. Silencing of bHLH93 markedly attenuated the RipI-induced HR and induced expression of the PDF1.2 defence gene. These data demonstrate that the R. solanacearum effector RipI induces a host defence reaction by interacting with the bHLH93 transcription factor.
Project description:Ralstonia solanacearum is the causal agent of bacterial wilt in solanaceous crops. This pathogen injects approximately 70 effector proteins into plant cells via the Hrp type III secretion system in an early stage of infection. To identify an as-yet-unidentified avirulence factor possessed by the Japanese tobacco-avirulent strain RS1000, we transiently expressed RS1000 effectors in Nicotiana benthamiana leaves and monitored their ability to induce effector-triggered immunity (ETI). The expression of RipB strongly induced the production of reactive oxygen species and the expressions of defence-related genes in N. benthamiana. The ripB mutant of RS1002, a nalixidic acid-resistant derivative of RS1000, caused wilting symptoms in N. benthamiana. A pathogenicity test using R. solanacearum mutants revealed that the two already known avirulence factors RipP1 and RipAA contribute in part to the avirulence of RS1002 in N. benthamiana. The Japanese tobacco-virulent strain BK1002 contains mutations in ripB and expresses a C-terminal-truncated RipB that lost the ability to induce ETI in N. benthamiana, indicating a fine-tuning of the pathogen effector repertoire to evade plant recognition. RipB shares homology with Xanthomonas XopQ, which is recognized by the resistance protein Roq1. The RipB-induced resistance against R. solanacearum was abolished in Roq1-silenced plants. These findings indicate that RipB acts as a major avirulence factor in N. benthamiana and that Roq1 is involved in the recognition of RipB.
Project description:Tandem CCCH zinc finger (TZnF) proteins have been implicated in plant defence, but their role in pepper (Capsicum annuum) is unclear. In the present study, the role of CaC3H14, a pepper TZnF protein, in the immune response of pepper plants to Ralstonia solanacearum infection was characterized. When fused to the green fluorescent protein, CaC3H14 was localized exclusively to the nuclei in leaf cells of Nicotiana benthamiana plants transiently overexpressing CaC3H14. Transcript abundance of CaC3H14 was up-regulated by inoculation with R. solanacearum. Virus-induced silencing of CaC3H14 increased the susceptibility of the plants to R. solanacearum and down-regulated the genes associated with the hypersensitive response (HR), specifically HIR1 and salicylic acid (SA)-dependent PR1a. By contrast, silencing resulted in the up-regulation of jasmonic acid (JA)-dependent DEF1 and ethylene (ET) biosynthesis-associated ACO1. Transient overexpression of CaC3H14 in pepper triggered an intensive HR, indicated by cell death and hydrogen peroxide (H2 O2 ) accumulation, up-regulated PR1a and down-regulated DEF1 and ACO1. Ectopic overexpression of CaC3H14 in tobacco plants significantly decreased the susceptibility of tobacco plants to R. solanacearum. It also up-regulated HR-associated HSR515, immunity-associated GST1 and the SA-dependent marker genes NPR1 and PR2, but down-regulated JA-dependent PR1b and ET-dependent EFE26. The CaC3H14 promoter and was bound and its transcription was up-regulated by CaWRKY40. Collectively, these results indicate that CaC3H14 is transcriptionally targeted by CaWRKY40, is a modulator of the antagonistic interaction between SA and JA/ET signalling, and enhances the defence response of pepper plants to infection by R. solanacearum.
Project description:Ralstonia solanacearum is a Gram-negative soil-borne bacterium that causes bacterial wilt disease in more than 200 plant species, including economically important Solanaceae species. In R. solanacearum, the hypersensitive response and pathogenicity (Hrp) type III secretion system is required for both the ability to induce the hypersensitive response (HR) in nonhost plants and pathogenicity in host plants. Recently, 72 effector genes, called rip (Ralstonia protein injected into plant cells), have been identified in R. solanacearum RS1000. RS1002, a spontaneous nalixidic acid-resistant derivative of RS1000, induced strong HR in the nonhost wild eggplant Solanum torvum in an Hrp-dependent manner. An Agrobacterium-mediated transient expression system revealed that Rip36, a putative Zn-dependent protease effector of R. solanacearum, induced HR in S. torvum. A mutation in the putative Zn-binding motif (E149A) completely abolished the ability to induce HR. In agreement with this result, the RS1002-derived Δrip36 and rip36E149A mutants lost the ability to induce HR in S. torvum. An E149A mutation had no effect on the translocation of Rip36 into plant cells. These results indicate that Rip36 is an avirulent factor that induces HR in S. torvum and that a putative Zn-dependent protease motif is essential for this activity.
Project description:Ralstonia solanacearum is the causal agent of bacterial wilt disease. To better understand the molecular mechanisms involved in interaction between Nicotiana benthamiana and R. solanacearum, we focused on Hsp90, RAR1 and SGT1. Appearances of wilt symptom were significantly suppressed in Hsp90, RAR1 and SGT1-silenced plants compared with control plants. In RAR1-silenced plants, population of R. solanacearum increased in a similar manner to control plants. In contrast, multiplication of R. solanacearum was significantly suppressed in Hsp90 and SGT1-silenced plants. In addition, expression of PR genes were increased in Hsp90 and SGT1-silenced plants challenged with R. solanacearum. Therefore, RAR1 might be required for disease development or suppression of disease tolerance. These results also suggested that Hsp90 and/or SGT1 might play an important role in suppression of plant defenses leading to disease susceptibility and disease development.
Project description:Bacterial wilt caused by Ralstonia solanacearum is a ruinous soilborne disease affecting more than 450 plant species. Efficient control methods for this disease remain unavailable to date. This study characterized a novel nucleotide-binding site-leucine-rich repeat resistance gene AhRRS5 from peanut, which was up-regulated in both resistant and susceptible peanut cultivars in response to R. solanacearum. The product of AhRRS5 was localized in the nucleus. Furthermore, treatment with phytohormones such as salicylic acid (SA), abscisic acid (ABA), methyl jasmonate (MeJA) and ethephon (ET) increased the transcript level of AhRRS5 with diverse responses between resistant and susceptible peanuts. Abiotic stresses such as drought and cold conditions also changed AhRRS5 expression. Moreover, transient overexpression induced hypersensitive response in Nicotiana benthamiana. Overexpression of AhRRS5 significantly enhanced the resistance of heterogeneous tobacco to R. solanacearum, with diverse resistance levels in different transgenic lines. Several defence-responsive marker genes in hypersensitive response, including SA, JA and ET signals, were considerably up-regulated in the transgenic lines as compared with the wild type inoculated with R. solanacearum. Nonexpressor of pathogenesis-related gene 1 (NPR1) and non-race-specific disease resistance 1 were also up-regulated in response to the pathogen. These results indicate that AhRRS5 participates in the defence response to R. solanacearum through the crosstalk of multiple signalling pathways and the involvement of NPR1 and R gene signals for its resistance. This study may guide the resistance enhancement of peanut and other economic crops to bacterial wilt disease.
Project description:Ralstonia solanacearum is the causative agent of bacterial wilt in many plants. To identify R. solanacearum effectors that suppress pattern-triggered immunity (PTI) in plants, we transiently expressed R. solanacearum RS1000 effectors in Nicotiana benthamiana leaves and evaluated their ability to suppress the production of reactive oxygen species (ROS) triggered by flg22. Out of the 61 effectors tested, 11 strongly and five moderately suppressed the flg22-triggered ROS burst. Among them, RipE1 shared homology with the Pseudomonas syringae cysteine protease effector HopX1. By yeast two-hybrid screening, we identified jasmonate-ZIM-domain (JAZ) proteins, which are transcriptional repressors of the jasmonic acid (JA) signaling pathway in plants, as RipE1 interactors. RipE1 promoted the degradation of JAZ repressors and induced the expressions of JA-responsive genes in a cysteine-protease-activity-dependent manner. Simultaneously, RipE1, similarly to the previously identified JA-producing effector RipAL, decreased the expression level of the salicylic acid synthesis gene that is required for the defense responses against R. solanacearum. The undecuple mutant that lacks 11 effectors with a strong PTI suppression activity showed reduced growth of R. solanacearum in Nicotiana plants. These results indicate that R. solanacearum subverts plant PTI responses using multiple effectors and manipulates JA signaling at two different steps to promote infection.
Project description:BACKGROUND: Pseudomonas syringae pv. tabaci (Pstab) is the causal agent of wildfire disease in tobacco plants. Several pathovars of Pseudomonas syringae produce a phytotoxic extracellular metabolite called coronatine (COR). COR has been shown to suppress plant defense responses. Interestingly, Pstab does not produce COR but still actively suppresses early plant defense responses. It is not clear if Pstab produces any extracellular metabolites that actively suppress early defense during bacterial pathogenesis. RESULTS: We found that the Pstab extracellular metabolite extracts (Pstab extracts) remarkably suppressed stomatal closure and nonhost hypersensitive response (HR) cell death induced by a nonhost pathogen, P. syringae pv. tomato T1 (Pst T1), in Nicotiana benthamiana. We also found that the accumulation of nonhost pathogens, Pst T1 and P. syringae pv. glycinea (Psgly), was increased in N. benthamiana plants upon treatment with Pstab extracts . The HR cell death induced by Pathogen-Associated Molecular Pattern (INF1), gene-for-gene interaction (Pto/AvrPto and Cf-9/AvrCf-9) and ethanol was not delayed or suppressed by Pstab extracts. We performed metabolite profiling to investigate the extracellular metabolites from Pstab using UPLC-qTOF-MS and identified 49 extracellular metabolites from the Pstab supernatant culture. The results from gene expression profiling of PR-1, PR-2, PR-5, PDF1.2, ABA1, COI1, and HSR203J suggest that Pstab extracellular metabolites may interfere with SA-mediated defense pathways. CONCLUSIONS: In this study, we found that Pstab extracts suppress plant defense responses such as stomatal closure and nonhost HR cell death induced by the nonhost bacterial pathogen Pst T1 in N. benthamiana.
Project description:Active oxygen species (AOS) are central components of the defence reactions of plants against pathogens. Plant respiratory burst oxidase homologues (RBOH) of gp91(phox), a plasma membrane protein of the neutrophil nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide phosphate (NADPH) oxidase, play a prominent role in AOS production. The role of two RBOH from Nicotiana benthamiana, NbrbohA and NbrbohB that encode plant NADPH oxidase in the process of elicitor-induced stomatal closure and hypersensitive cell death is described here. NbrbohA was constitutively expressed at a low level, whereas NbrbohB was induced when protein elicitors exist (such as boehmerin, harpin, or INF1). The virus-induced gene-silencing (VIGS) method was used to produce single-silenced (NbrbohA or NbrbohB) and double-silenced (NbrbohA and NbrbohB) N. benthamiana plants. The hypersensitive response (HR) of cell death and pathogenesis-related (PR) gene expression of these gene-silenced N. benthamiana plants, induced by various elicitors, are examined. The HR cell death and transcript accumulation of genes related to the defence response (PR1) were slightly affected, suggesting that RBOH are not essential for elicitor-induced HR and activation of these genes. Interestingly, gene-silenced plants impaired elicitor-induced stomatal closure and elicitor-promoted nitric oxide (NO) production, but not elicitor-induced cytosolic calcium ion accumulation and elicitor-triggered AOS production in guard cells. These results indicate that RBOH from N. benthamiana function in elicitor-induced stomatal closure, but not in elicitor-induced HR.
Project description:The subversion of plant cellular functions is essential for bacterial pathogens to proliferate in host plants and cause disease. Most bacterial plant pathogens employ a type III secretion system to inject type III effector (T3E) proteins inside plant cells, where they contribute to the pathogen-induced alteration of plant physiology. In this work, we found that the Ralstonia solanacearum T3E RipAY suppresses plant immune responses triggered by bacterial elicitors and by the phytohormone salicylic acid. Further biochemical analysis indicated that RipAY associates in planta with thioredoxins from Nicotiana benthamiana and Arabidopsis. Interestingly, RipAY displays ?-glutamyl cyclotransferase (GGCT) activity to degrade glutathione in plant cells, which is required for the reported suppression of immune responses. Given the importance of thioredoxins and glutathione as major redox regulators in eukaryotic cells, RipAY activity may constitute a novel and powerful virulence strategy employed by R. solanacearum to suppress immune responses and potentially alter general redox signalling in host cells.
Project description:We report the identification, characterization, and gene cloning of a novel protein elicitor (PeBL1) secreted from Brevibacillus laterosporus strain A60. Through a purification process consisting of ion-exchange chromatography and high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC), we isolated a protein that was identified by electrospray ionization quadrupole time of flight tandem mass spectrometry (ESI-Q-TOF-MS-MS). The 351-bp PeBL1 gene produces a 12,833-Da protein with 116 amino acids that contains a 30-residue signal peptide. The PeBL1 protein was expressed in Escherichia coli. The recombinant protein can induce a typical hypersensitive response (HR) and systemic resistance in Nicotiana benthamiana, like the endogenous protein. PeBL1-treated N. benthamiana exhibited strong resistance to the infection of tobacco mosaic virus-green fluorescent protein (TMV-GFP) and Pseudomonas syringae pv. tabaci compared to control N. benthamiana. In addition, PeBL1 triggered a cascade of events that resulted in defense responses in plants, including reactive oxygen species (ROS) production, extracellular-medium alkalization, phenolic-compound deposition, and expression of several defense-related genes. Real-time quantitative-PCR analysis indicated that the known defense-related genes PR-1, PR-5, PDF1.2, NPR1, and PAL were upregulated to varying degrees by PeBL1. This research not only provides insights into the mechanism by which beneficial bacteria activate plant systemic resistance, but also sheds new light on a novel strategy for biocontrol using strain A60.