PurposePatients with B-cell acute lymphoblastic leukemia who experience relapse after or are resistant to CD19-targeted immunotherapies have limited treatment options. Targeting CD22, an alternative B-cell antigen, represents an alternate strategy. We report outcomes on the largest patient cohort treated with CD22 chimeric antigen receptor (CAR) T cells.
Patients and methodsWe conducted a single-center, phase I, 3 + 3 dose-escalation trial with a large expansion cohort that tested CD22-targeted CAR T cells for children and young adults with relapsed/refractory CD22+ malignancies. Primary objectives were to assess the safety, toxicity, and feasibility. Secondary objectives included efficacy, CD22 CAR T-cell persistence, and cytokine profiling.
ResultsFifty-eight participants were infused; 51 (87.9%) after prior CD19-targeted therapy. Cytokine release syndrome occurred in 50 participants (86.2%) and was grade 1-2 in 45 (90%). Symptoms of neurotoxicity were minimal and transient. Hemophagocytic lymphohistiocytosis-like manifestations were seen in 19/58 (32.8%) of subjects, prompting utilization of anakinra. CD4/CD8 T-cell selection of the apheresis product improved CAR T-cell manufacturing feasibility as well as heightened inflammatory toxicities, leading to dose de-escalation. The complete remission rate was 70%. The median overall survival was 13.4 months (95% CI, 7.7 to 20.3 months). Among those who achieved a complete response, the median relapse-free survival was 6.0 months (95% CI, 4.1 to 6.5 months). Thirteen participants proceeded to stem-cell transplantation.
ConclusionIn the largest experience of CD22 CAR T-cells to our knowledge, we provide novel information on the impact of manufacturing changes on clinical outcomes and report on unique CD22 CAR T-cell toxicities and toxicity mitigation strategies. The remission induction rate supports further development of CD22 CAR T cells as a therapeutic option in patients resistant to CD19-targeted immunotherapy.