Computational modeling to determine key regulators of hypoxia effects on the lactate production in the glycolysis pathway.
ABSTRACT: In solid tumors, hypoxia can trigger aberrant expression of transcription factors and genes, resulting in abnormal biological functions such as altered energetic pathways in cancer cells. Glucose metabolism is an important part of this phenomenon, which is associated with changes in the functional expression of transporters and enzymes involved in the glycolysis pathway. The latter phenomenon can finally lead to the lactate accumulation and pH dysregulation in the tumor microenvironment and subsequently further invasion and metastasis of cancer cells. Having capitalized on the computational modeling, in this study, for the first time, we aimed to investigate the effects of hypoxia-induced factor-1 (HIF-1) mediated hypoxia on the magnitude of functional expression of all the enzymes and transporters involved in the glycolysis process. The main objective was to establish a quantitative relationship between the hypoxia intensity and the intracellular lactate levels and determine the key regulators of the glycolysis pathway. This model clearly showed an increase in the lactate concentration during the oxygen depletion. The proposed model also predicted that the phosphofructokinase-1 and phosphoglucomutase enzymes might play the most important roles in the regulation of the lactate production.
Project description:Mitochondria evolved from free-living bacteria via endocytosis within eukaryotic host cells millions of year ago. We hypothesized that antibiotics cause mammalian mitochondrial damage while causing bacterial lethality. Mitochondrial toxicity of azithromycin in human mammary epithelia MCF-12A and fibroblasts were tested by fluorescent and transmission electron microscopy. Gene expression and DNA damage were tested by real-time polymerase chain reaction (qPCR) and ELISA. We found azithromycin suppressed the mitochondrial membrane potential gradient of MCF-12A cells and fibroblasts. Ultrastructure exams showed that the antibiotic caused vacuolated and swollen mitochondria with disrupted cristae in MCF-12A cells and fibroblasts compared to the morphology of mitochondria in the cells without antibiotic treatment. Fluorescent microscopy also showed azithromycin-induced mitochondrial reactive oxygen species (ROS), superoxide, after 3 h of culture. The DNA oxidative damage product, 8-hydroxy-2'-deoxyguanosine (8-OHdG, significantly increased in the media after MCF-12A cells and fibroblasts were cultured in the media containing azithromycin for 24 h. Azithromycin upregulated gene expression of hypoxia inducible factor 1 alpha (HIF1a), glycolytic enzymes including hexokinase 2 (HK2), phosphofructokinase 1 (PFKM), pyruvate kinase muscle isozyme M2 (PKM2), and glucose transporters in MCF-12A cells and fibroblasts. Lactate production also increased in the culture media. After treatment with azithromycin, healthy MCF-12A and fibroblast cells increased aerobic glycolysis-the "Warburg Effect"-to generate energy. In summary, azithromycin caused mitochondrial toxicity, ROS overproduction, DNA oxidative damage, upregulation of the HIF1a gene, and aerobic glycolysis in healthy mammalian cells. Over-usage of antibiotics could contribute to tumorigenesis and neurodegeneration and aggravate existing mitochondria-associated diseases.
Project description:Protection of cardiac microvascular endothelial cells (CMECs) against hypoxia injury is an important therapeutic strategy for treating ischaemic cardiovascular disease. In this study, we investigated the effects of qiliqiangxin (QL) on primary rat CMECs exposed to hypoxia and the underlying mechanisms. Rat CMECs were successfully isolated and passaged to the second generation. CMECs that were pre-treated with QL (0.5 mg/mL) and/or HIF-1? siRNA were cultured in a three-gas hypoxic incubator chamber (5% CO2 , 1% O2 , 94% N2 ) for 12 hours. Firstly, we demonstrated that compared with hypoxia group, QL effectively promoted the proliferation while attenuated the apoptosis, improved mitochondrial function and reduced ROS generation in hypoxic CMECs in a HIF-1?-dependent manner. Meanwhile, QL also promoted angiogenesis of CMECs via HIF-1?/VEGF signalling pathway. Moreover, QL improved glucose utilization and metabolism and increased ATP production by up-regulating HIF-1? and a series of glycolysis-relevant enzymes, including glucose transport 1 (GLUT1), hexokinase 2 (HK2), 6-phosphofructokinase 1 (PFK1), pyruvate kinase M2 (PKM2) and lactate dehydrogenase A (LDHA). Our findings indicate that QL can protect CMECs against hypoxia injury via promoting glycolysis in a HIF-1?-dependent manner. Lastly, the results suggested that QL-dependent enhancement of HIF-1? protein expression in hypoxic CMECs was associated with the regulation of AMPK/mTOR/HIF-1? pathway, and we speculated that QL also improved HIF-1? stabilization through down-regulating prolyl hydroxylases 3 (PHD3) expression.
Project description:The viability of Lactobacillus bulgaricus in freeze-drying is of significant commercial interest to dairy industries. In the study, L.bulgaricus demonstrated a significantly improved (p < 0.05) survival rate during freeze-drying when subjected to a pre-stressed period under the conditions of 2% (w/v) NaCl for 2 h in the late growth phase. The main energy source for the life activity of lactic acid bacteria is related to the glycolytic pathway. To investigate the phenomenon of this stress-related viability improvement in L. bulgaricus, the activities and corresponding genes of key enzymes in glycolysis during 2% NaCl stress were studied. NaCl stress significantly enhanced (p < 0.05) glucose utilization. The activities of glycolytic enzymes (phosphofructokinase, pyruvate kinase, and lactate dehydrogenase) decreased during freeze-drying, and NaCl stress were found to improve activities of these enzymes before and after freeze-drying. However, a transcriptional analysis of the corresponding genes suggested that the effect of NaCl stress on the expression of the pfk2 gene was not obvious. The increased survival of freeze-dried cells of L. bulgaricus under NaCl stress might be due to changes in only the activity or translation level of these enzymes in different environmental conditions but have no relation to their mRNA transcription level.
Project description:1. Intracellular concentrations of intermediates and cofactors of glycolysis were measured in guinea-pig cerebral cortex slices incubated under varying conditions. 2. Comparison of mass-action ratios with apparent equilibrium constants for the reactions of glycolysis showed that hexokinase, phosphofructokinase and pyruvate kinase catalyse reactions generally far from equilibrium, whereas phosphoglucose isomerase, aldolase, phosphoglycerate kinase, phosphoglycerate mutase, enolase, adenlyate kinase and creatine phosphokinase are generally close to equilibrium. The possibility that glyceraldehyde 3-phosphate dehydrogenase may catalyse a ;non-equilibrium' reaction is discussed. 3. Correlation of changes in concentrations of substrates for enzymes catalysing ;non-equilibrium' reactions with changes in rates of glycolysis caused by alteration of the conditions of incubation showed that hexokinase, phosphofructokinase, pyruvate kinase and possibly glyceraldehyde 3-phosphate dehydrogenase are subject to metabolic control in cerebral cortex slices. 4. It is suggested that the glycolysis is controlled by two regulatory systems, the hexokinase-phosphofructokinase system and the glyceraldehyde 3-phosphate dehydrogenase-pyruvate kinase system. These are discussed. 5. It is concluded that the rate of glycolysis in guinea-pig cerebral cortex slices is limited either by the rate of glucose entry into the slices or by the hexokinase-phosphofructokinase system. 6. It is concluded that addition of 0.1mm-ouabain to guinea-pig cerebral cortex slices causes inhibition of either glyceraldehyde 3-phosphate dehydrogenase or phosphoglycerate kinase or both, in a manner independent of the known action of ouabain on the sodium- and potassium-activated adenosine triphosphatase.
Project description:Ability to adapt to conditions of limited nutrient supply requires a reorganization of the metabolic pathways to balance energy generation and production of biosynthetic intermediates. Several fast-growing cells overexpress the P2X7 receptor (P2X7R) for extracellular ATP. A feature of this receptor is to allow growth in the absence of serum. We show here that transfection of P2X7R allows proliferation of P2X7R-transfected HEK293 (HEK293-P2X7) cells not only in the absence of serum but also in low (4?mM) glucose, and increases lactate output compared with mock-transfected HEK293 (HEK293-mock) cells. In HEK293-P2X7, lactate output is further stimulated upon addition of exogenous ATP or the mitochondrial uncoupler carbonylcyanide p-trifluoromethoxyphenylhydrazone (FCCP). In the human neuroblastoma cell line ACN, lactate output is also dependent on P2X7R function. P2X7R-expressing cells upregulate (a) the glucose transporter Glut1, (b) the glycolytic enzymes glyceraldehyde 3-phosphate dehydrogenase (G3PDH), (c) phosphofructokinase (PFK), (d) pyruvate kinase M2 (PKM2) and (e) pyruvate dehydrogenase kinase 1 (PDHK1); furthermore, P2X7R expression (a) inhibits pyruvate dehydrogenase (PDH) activity, (b) increases phosphorylated Akt/PKB and hypoxia-inducible factor 1? (HIF-1?) expression and (c) enhances intracellular glycogen stores. In HEK293-P2X7 cells, glucose deprivation increases lactate production, expression of glycolytic enzymes and ph-Akt/PKB level. These data show that the P2X7R has an intrinsic ability to reprogram cell metabolism to meet the needs imposed by adverse environmental conditions.
Project description:1. Measurements were made of the activities of the four key enzymes involved in gluconeogenesis, pyruvate carboxylase (EC 18.104.22.168), phosphoenolpyruvate carboxylase (EC 22.214.171.124), fructose 1,6-diphosphatase (EC 126.96.36.199) and glucose 6-phosphatase (EC 188.8.131.52), of serine dehydratase (EC 184.108.40.206) and of the four enzymes unique to glycolysis, glucokinase (EC 220.127.116.11), hexokinase (EC 18.104.22.168), phosphofructokinase (EC 22.214.171.124) and pyruvate kinase (EC 126.96.36.199), in livers from starved rats perfused with glucose, fructose or lactate. Changes in perfusate concentrations of glucose, fructose, lactate, pyruvate, urea and amino acid were monitored for each perfusion. 2. Addition of 15mm-glucose at the start of perfusion decreased the activity of pyruvate carboxylase. Constant infusion of glucose to maintain the concentration also decreased the activities of phosphoenolpyruvate carboxylase, fructose 1,6-diphosphatase and serine dehydratase. Addition of 2.2mm-glucose initially to give a perfusate sugar concentration similar to the blood sugar concentration of starved animals had no effect on the activities of the enzymes compared with zero-time controls. 3. Addition of 15mm-fructose initially decreased glucokinase activity. Constant infusion of fructose decreased activities of glucokinase, phosphofructokinase, pyruvate carboxylase, phosphoenolpyruvate carboxylase, glucose 6-phosphatase and serine dehydratase. 4. Addition of 7mm-lactate initially elevated the activity of pyruvate carboxylase, as also did constant infusion; maintenance of a perfusate lactate concentration of 18mm induced both pyruvate carboxylase and phosphoenolpyruvate carboxylase activities. 5. Addition of cycloheximide had no effect on the activities of the enzymes after 4h of perfusion at either low or high concentrations of glucose or at high lactate concentration. Cycloheximide also prevented the loss or induction of pyruvate carboxylase and phosphoenolpyruvate carboxylase activities with high substrate concentrations. 6. Significant amounts of glycogen were deposited in all perfusions, except for those containing cycloheximide at the lowest glucose concentration. Lipid was found to increase only in the experiments with high fructose concentrations. 7. Perfusion with either fructose or glucose decreased the rates of ureogenesis; addition of cycloheximide increased urea efflux from the liver.
Project description:BACKGROUND:Contraction of hepatic stellate cells (HSCs) plays an important role in the pathogenesis of liver fibrosis by regulating sinusoidal blood flow and extracellular matrix remodeling. Here, we investigated how HSC contraction was affected by the natural compound oroxylin A, and elucidated the underlying mechanism. METHODS:Cell contraction and glycolysis were examined in cultured human HSCs and mouse liver fibrosis model upon oroxylin A intervention using diversified cellular and molecular assays, as well as genetic approaches. RESULTS:Oroxylin A limited HSC contraction associated with inhibiting myosin light chain 2 phosphorylation. Oroxylin A blocked aerobic glycolysis in HSCs evidenced by reduction in glucose uptake and consumption and lactate production. Oroxylin A also decreased extracellular acidification rate and inhibited the expression and activity of glycolysis rate-limiting enzymes (hexose kinase 2, phosphofructokinase 1 and pyruvate kinas type M2) in HSCs. Then, we identified that oroxylin A blockade of aerobic glycolysis contributed to inhibition of HSC contraction. Furthermore, oroxylin A inhibited the expression and activity of lactate dehydrogenase-A (LDH-A) in HSCs, which was required for oroxylin A blockade of glycolysis and suppression of contraction. Oral administration of oroxylin A at 40 mg/kg reduced liver injury and fibrosis, and inhibited HSC glycolysis and contraction in mice with carbon tetrachloride-induced hepatic fibrosis. However, adenovirus-mediated overexpression of LDH-A significantly counteracted the oroxylin A's effects in fibrotic mice. CONCLUSIONS:Blockade of aerobic glycolysis by oroxylin A via inhibition of LDH-A reduced HSC contraction and attenuated liver fibrosis, suggesting LDH-A as a promising target for intervention of hepatic fibrosis.
Project description:Cancer cells typically display altered glucose metabolism characterized by a preference of aerobic glycolysis, known as the Warburg effect, which facilitates cell proliferation. Hypoxia-inducible factor (HIF) and oncoprotein Myc are two prominent transcription factors that drive glycolysis. Previously, we reported that the estrogen-related receptors (ERRs) act as cofactors of HIF and enhance HIF-dependent transcription of glycolytic genes under hypoxia. ERRs are orphan nuclear receptors and key regulators of energy metabolism by orchestrating mitochondrial biogenesis, fatty acid oxidation (FAO) and oxidative phosphorylation. Here, we show that ERRs also stimulate glycolysis under normoxia. ERRs directly bind to and activate promoters of many genes encoding glycolytic enzymes, and the ERR-binding sites in such promoters are essential for ERR-mediated transcriptional activation. ERRs interact with Myc, and the two factors synergistically activate transcription of glycolytic genes. Furthermore, overexpression of ERRs increases glycolytic gene expression and lactate production. Conversely, depletion of ERRs in cancer cells reduces expression of glycolytic genes and glucose uptake, resulting in decreased aerobic glycolysis and cell growth. Taken together, these results suggest that ERRs are important transcriptional activators of the glycolytic pathway and contribute to the Warburg effect in cancer cells.
Project description:Cancer cells use glucose and glutamine as the major sources of energy and precursor intermediates, and enhanced glycolysis and glutamimolysis are the major hallmarks of metabolic reprogramming in cancer. Oncogene activation and tumor suppressor gene inactivation alter multiple intracellular signaling pathways that affect glycolysis and glutaminolysis. N-Myc downstream regulated gene 2 (NDRG2) is a tumor suppressor gene inhibiting cancer growth, metastasis and invasion. However, the role and molecular mechanism of NDRG2 in cancer metabolism remains unclear. In this study, we discovered the role of the tumor suppressor gene NDRG2 in aerobic glycolysis and glutaminolysis of cancer cells. NDRG2 inhibited glucose consumption and lactate production, glutamine consumption and glutamate production in colorectal cancer cells. Analysis of glucose transporters and the catalytic enzymes involved in glycolysis revealed that glucose transporter 1 (GLUT1), hexokinase 2 (HK2), pyruvate kinase M2 isoform (PKM2) and lactate dehydrogenase A (LDHA) was significantly suppressed by NDRG2. Analysis of glutamine transporter and the catalytic enzymes involved in glutaminolysis revealed that glutamine transporter ASC amino-acid transporter 2 (ASCT2) and glutaminase 1 (GLS1) was also significantly suppressed by NDRG2. Transcription factor c-Myc mediated inhibition of glycolysis and glutaminolysis by NDRG2. More importantly, NDRG2 inhibited the expression of c-Myc by suppressing the expression of ?-catenin, which can transcriptionally activate C-MYC gene in nucleus. In addition, the growth and proliferation of colorectal cancer cells were suppressed significantly by NDRG2 through inhibition of glycolysis and glutaminolysis. Taken together, these findings indicate that NDRG2 functions as an essential regulator in glycolysis and glutaminolysis via repression of c-Myc, and acts as a suppressor of carcinogenesis through coordinately targeting glucose and glutamine transporter, multiple catalytic enzymes involved in glycolysis and glutaminolysis, which fuels the bioenergy and biomaterials needed for cancer proliferation and progress.
Project description:1. Glycolysis by the supernatant fraction of homogenates of liver from guinea pigs and rats at various stages of development (foetal, newborn and adult) has been examined in a suitably fortified medium by measurement of inorganic phosphate uptake and production of lactate and glycerol 1-phosphate. 2. Starting with glucose as substrate, two rate-determining steps in glycolysis occur at the stages of glucose phosphorylation and the phosphofructokinase reaction in liver tissue from animals of all ages. Effects of the post-natal development of glucokinase are recorded. 3. The appearance of microsomal glucose 6-phosphatase activity around birth has an effect on glycolysis owing to competition for glucose 6-phosphate. 4. A stimulating effect of the nuclear fraction, especially from foetal liver, on glycolysis by the supernatant fraction is interpreted as being due to stimulation by adenosine-triphosphatase activity at the 3-phosphoglycerate-kinase stage.