Crosstalk Between Prostate Cancer Cells and Tumor-Associated Fibroblasts Enhances the Malignancy by Inhibiting the Tumor Suppressor PLZF.
ABSTRACT: Although prostate cancer is clinically manageable during the early stages of progression, metastatic progression severely compromises the prognosis and leads to mortality. Constitutive activation of STAT3 has been connected to prostate cancer malignancy, and abolishing the STAT3 activity may diminish tumor growth and metastasis. However, its suppressor genes and pathways have not been well established. In this study, we show that promyelocytic leukemia zinc finger (PLZF) has a putative tumor-suppressor function in prostate cancer by inhibiting phosphorylation of STAT3. Compared with a benign prostate, high-grade prostate cancer patient tissue was negatively correlated with PLZF expression. PLZF depletion accelerated proliferation and survival, migration, and invasion in human prostate cancer cells. Mechanistically, we demonstrated a novel role of PLZF as the transcriptional regulator of the tyrosine phosphatase SHP-1 that inhibits the oncogenic JAKs-STAT3 pathway. These results suggest that the collapse of PLZF expression by the CCL3 derived from fibroblasts accelerates the cell migration and invasion properties of prostate cancer cells. Our results suggest that increasing PLZF could be an attractive strategy for suppressing prostate cancer metastasis as well as for tumor growth.
Project description:BACKGROUND:4%-9% of prostate cancers harbor homozygous deletions of the androgen-induced tumor suppressor gene, promyelocytic leukemia zinc finger (PLZF, ZBTB16). PLZF loss induces an in vitro phenotype of castration resistance and enzalutamide resistance. The association of low expression of PLZF and clinical outcomes is unclear. METHODS:We assessed PLZF mRNA expression in patients diagnosed with primary prostate cancer during prospective follow-up of the Health Professionals Follow-up Study (HPFS; n = 254) and the Physicians' Health Study (PHS; n = 150), as well as in The Cancer Genome Atlas (n = 333). We measured PTEN status (using copy numbers and IHC) and transcriptional activation of the MAPK pathway. Patients from HPFS and PHS were followed for metastases and prostate cancer-specific mortality (median, 15.3 years; 113 lethal events). RESULTS:PLZF mRNA expression was lower in tumors with PLZF deletions. There was a strong, positive association between intratumoral androgen receptor (AR) signaling and PLZF expression. PLZF expression was also lower in tumors with PTEN loss. Low PLZF expression was associated with higher MAPK signaling. Patients in the lowest quartile of PLZF expression compared with those in the highest quartile were more likely to develop lethal prostate cancer, independent of clinicopathologic features, Gleason score, and AR signaling (odds ratio, 3.17; 95% confidence interval, 1.32-7.60). CONCLUSIONS:Low expression of the tumor suppressor gene PLZF is associated with a worse prognosis in primary prostate cancer. IMPACT:Suppression of PLZF as a consequence of androgen deprivation may be undesirable. PLZF should be tested as a predictive marker for resistance to androgen deprivation therapy.
Project description:Whole-exome sequencing of metastatic castration-resistant prostate cancer (mCRPC) reveals that 5% to 7% of tumors harbor promyelocytic leukemia zinc finger (PLZF) protein homozygous deletions. PLZF is a canonical androgen-regulated putative tumor suppressor gene whose expression is inhibited by androgen deprivation therapy (ADT). Here, we demonstrate that knockdown of PLZF expression promotes a CRPC and enzalutamide-resistant phenotype in prostate cancer cells. Reintroduction of PLZF expression is sufficient to reverse androgen-independent growth mediated by PLZF depletion. PLZF loss enhances CRPC tumor growth in a xenograft model. Bioinformatic analysis of the PLZF cistrome shows that PLZF negatively regulates multiple pathways, including the MAPK pathway. Accordingly, our data support an oncogenic program activated by ADT. This acquired mechanism together with the finding of genetic loss in CRPC implicates PLZF inactivation as a mechanism promoting ADT resistance and the CRPC phenotype.
Project description:PLZF is a transcription repressor, which plays a critical role in development, spermatogenesis and oncogenesis. Down-regulation of PLZF has been found in various tumor cell lines. There has been virtually no tissue study on the expression of PLZF in prostate cancer (PCa). PCa is a heterogeneous disease, most of which are indolent and non-lethal. Currently there are no biomarkers that distinguish indolent from aggressive PCa; therefore there is an urgent need for such markers to provide clinical decision support. This study aimed to investigate the expression of PLZF by immunohistochemistry in different grade as well as metastatic PCa and to correlate the alteration of PLZF expression with PCa aggressiveness. We studied a total of 83 primary PCa from biopsies, 43 metastatic PCa and 8 paired primary and metastatic PCa from radical prostatectomies with lymph node dissection. Our results demonstrated that PLZF was strongly expressed in almost all (~100%) benign luminal cells (n=77) and low grade (Gleason pattern 3) PCa (n=70) and weak or absent (100%) in basal cells (n=70). Decreased or lost expression of PLZF was evidenced in 26% of high-grade (Gleason 4 and 5) primary PCa (n=70) and 84% metastatic PCa (n=43). The primary high grade PCa in the prostatectomies shared similar PLZF loss/decrease and histomorphology to that of paired parallel lymph node metastases. These data demonstrated that down-regulation of PLZF is an important molecular process for tumor progression and loss of PLZF expression detected by routine immunohistochemistry is a promising and valuable biomarker for PCa aggressiveness and metastasis in the personalized care of PCa.
Project description:Gallbladder cancer (GBC) is a malignant cancer with very poor prognosis. Although promyelocytic leukemia zinc-finger protein (PLZF) was reported to be deregulated in numerous cancers and also relevant to clinical prognosis, its role in GBC progression has been little known. In this study, we found PLZF expression was decreased in GBC, correlating to advanced TNM stage, distant metastasis, and shorter overall survival. Moreover, ectopic PLZF expression in GBC cells (NOZ and GBC-SD) significantly reduced the cell proliferation, migration, and invasion. Consistently, overexpression of PLZF in xenograft mice model could suppress tumor growth and liver metastasis. Mechanical investigations verified PLZF could regulate the expression of cell cycle arrest-associated gene p21 and epithelial-mesenchymal transition (EMT)-related genes (E-cadherin and N-cadherin) in GBC cell lines. Importantly, PLZF remarkably increased the mRNA transcription of interferon-induced protein with tetratricopeptide repeat 2 (IFIT2) by increasing STAT1 protein level, a known factor involved in tumor progression. Furthermore, ablation of IFIT2 in PLZF overexpression cells abrogated the tumor-suppressive function of PLZF, at least partially, leading to impaired tumor growth and EMT program. These studies indicated PLZF inhibited the proliferation and metastasis via regulation of IFIT2. In conclusion, our study demonstrated PLZF could be a promising tumor biomarker for GBC, and also be a potential therapeutic target.
Project description:Promyelocytic leukemia zinc finger (PLZF) protein expression is closely related to the progression of human cancers, including prostate cancer (PCa). However, the according context of a signaling pathway for PLZF to suppress prostate tumorigenesis remains greatly unknown. Here we report that PLZF is a downstream mediator of the PTEN signaling pathway in PCa. We found that PLZF expression is closely correlated with PTEN expression in a cohort of prostate cancer specimens. Interestingly, both PTEN rescue and phosphoinositide 3-kinase (PI3K) inhibitor LY294002 treatment increase the PLZF expression in prostate cancer cell lines. Further, luciferase reporter assay and chromatin immunoprecipitation assay demonstrate that FOXO3a, a transcriptional factor phosphorylated by PI3K/AKT, could directly bind to the promoter of PLZF gene. These results indicate that PTEN regulates PLZF expression by AKT/FOXO3a. Moreover, our animal experiments also demonstrate that PLZF is capable of inhibiting prostate tumorigenesis in vivo. Taken together, our study defines a PTEN/PLZF pathway and would shed new lights for developing therapeutic strategy of prostate cancer.
Project description:KLF5 is frequently deleted and downregulated in prostate cancer, and recently it has been reported that KLF5 loss is enriched in the aggressive branches of prostate cancer evolution. However, why KLF5 loss is associated with prostate cancer aggressiveness is still not clear. Herein, we analyzed KLF5 expression in TCGA and GEO database, as well as prostate cancer tissue microarray, and found that KLF5 expression significantly decreased in prostate cancer accompanying with tumor progression; moreover, KLF5 downregulation was associated with shorter survival of patients. Interestingly, we also found that KLF5 expression was obviously lower in prostate cancer metastases than in localized tissues, indicating that KLF5 downregulation is associated with prostate cancer invasion and metastasis. To assess this effect of KLF5, we knocked down KLF5 in prostate cancer cells and found that KLF5 knockdown promoted invasive ability of prostate cancer cells in vitro and in vivo. Moreover, we found that KLF5 downregulation enhanced the expression of IGF1 and STAT3 phosphorylation, while block of IGF1 with antibody decreased the enhancement of STAT3 activity and prostate cancer cell invasive ability by KLF5 knockdown, indicating that KLF5 inhibits prostate cancer invasion through suppressing IGF1/STAT3 pathway. Mechanistically, we found that KLF5 interacted with deacetylase HDAC1 and KLF5 is necessary for the binding of HDAC1 on IGF1 promoter to suppress IGF1 transcription. Taken together, our results indicate that KLF5 could be an important suppressor of prostate cancer invasion and metastasis, because KLF5 could suppress the transcription of IGF1, a tumor cell autocrine cytokine, and its downstream cell signaling to inhibit cell invasive ability, and reveal a novel mechanism for STAT3 activation in prostate cancer. These findings may provide evidence for the precision medicine in prostate cancer.
Project description:Prostate cancer stem cells (PCSCs) play a critical role in prostate cancer progression and metastasis, which remains an obstacle for successful prostate cancer treatment. Tumor-associated macrophages (TAMs) are the most abundant immune cell population within the tumor microenvironment (TME). Systematic investigation of the interaction and network signaling between PCSCs and TAMs may help in searching for the critical target to suppress PCSCs and metastasis. Herein, we demonstrated that TAMs-secreted CCL5 could significantly promote the migration, invasion, epithelial-mesenchymal transition (EMT) of prostate cancer cells as well as the self-renewal of PCSCs in vitro. QPCR screening validated STAT3 as the most significant response gene in prostate cancer cells following CCL5 treatment. RNA-sequencing and mechanistic explorations further revealed that CCL5 could promote PCSCs self-renewal and prostate cancer metastasis via activating the ?-catenin/STAT3 signaling. Notably, CCL5 knockdown in TAMs not only significantly suppressed prostate cancer xenografts growth and bone metastasis but also inhibited the self-renewal and tumorigenicity of PCSCs in vivo. Finally, clinical investigations and bioinformatic analysis suggested that high CCL5 expression was significantly correlated with high Gleason grade, poor prognosis, metastasis as well as increased PCSCs activity in prostate cancer patients. Taken together, TAMs/CCL5 could promote PCSCs self-renewal and prostate cancer metastasis via activating ?-catenin/STAT3 signaling. This study provides a novel rationale for developing TAMs/CCL5 as a potential molecular target for PCSCs elimination and metastatic prostate cancer prevention.
Project description:Activation of the NF?B pathway is often associated with advanced cancer and has thus been regarded as a rational therapeutic target. Wedelia chinensis is rich in luteolin, apigenin, and wedelolactone that act synergistically to suppress androgen receptor activity in prostate cancer. Interestingly, our evaluation of a standardized Wedelia chinensis herbal extract (WCE) concluded its efficacy on hormone-refractory prostate cancer through systemic mechanisms. Oral administration of WCE significantly attenuated tumor growth and metastasis in orthotopic PC-3 and DU145 xenografts. Genome-wide transcriptome analysis of these tumors revealed that WCE suppressed the expression of IKK?/? phosphorylation and downstream cytokines/chemokines, e.g., IL6, CXCL1, and CXCL8. Through restraining the cytokines expression, WCE reduced tumor-elicited infiltration of myeloid-derived suppressor cells (MDSCs), tumor-associated macrophages (TAMs) and endothelial cells into the tumors, therefore inhibiting angiogenesis, tumor growth, and metastasis. In MDSCs, WCE also reduced STAT3 activation, downregulated S100A8 expression and prevented their expansion. Use of WCE in combination with docetaxel significantly suppressed docetaxel-induced NF?B activation, boosted the therapeutic effect and reduced the systemic toxicity caused by docetaxel monotherapy. These data suggest that a standardized preparation of Wedelia chinensis extract improved prostate cancer therapy through immunomodulation and has potential application as an adjuvant agent for castration-resistant prostate cancer.
Project description:PLZF is a transcription factor that confers aberrant self-renewal in leukemogenesis, and the PLZF-RARA fusion gene causes acute promyelocytic leukemia (APL) through differentiation block. However, the molecular mechanisms of aberrant self-renewal underlying PLZF-mediated leukemogenesis are poorly understood. To investigate these mechanisms, comprehensive expression profiling of mouse hematopoietic stem/progenitor cells transduced with Plzf was performed, which revealed the involvement of a key transcriptional coactivator, Eya2, a target molecule shared by Plzf and PLZF-RARA, in the aberrant self-renewal. Indeed, PLZF-RARA as well as Plzf rendered those cells immortalized through upregulation of Eya2. Eya2 also led to immortalization without differentiation block, while depletion of Eya2 suppressed clonogenicity in cells immortalized by PLZF-RARA without influence on differentiation and apoptosis. Interestingly, cancer outlier profile analysis of human samples of acute myeloid leukemia (AML) in The Cancer Genome Atlas (TCGA) revealed a subtype of AML that strongly expressed EYA2 In addition, gene set enrichment analysis of human AML samples, including TCGA data, showed that this subtype of AML was more closely associated with the properties of leukemic stem cells in its gene expression signature than other AMLs. Therefore, EYA2 may be a target for molecular therapy in this subtype of AML, including PLZF-RARA APL.
Project description:Annexin A7 (ANXA7) is a suppressor of tumorigenesis and metastasis in prostate cancer. Activated ANXA7 GTPase promotes prostate cancer cell apoptosis. However, the role and underlying mechanism of ANXA7 GTPase in prostate cancer metastasis have not been established. RKIP is a metastatic suppressor and downregulated in prostate cancer metastases. The binding of RKIP and its target proteins could inhibit the activation of its interactive partners. However, the effect of RKIP on ANXA7 GTPase activation is not clear. Here, we report that activation of ANXA7 GTPase by a small molecule SEC ((S)-ethyl 1-(3-(4-chlorophenoxy)-2-hydroxypropyl)-3- (4-methoxyphenyl)-1H-pyrazole-5-carboxylate) effectively inhibited prostate cancer metastasis. Mechanistically, activated ANXA7 promoted AMPK phosphorylation, leading to decreased mTORC1 activity, suppressed STAT3 nuclear translocation, and downregulation of pro-metastatic genes, including CCL2, APLN, and IL6ST. Conversely, RKIP interacted with ANXA7 and impaired activation of ANXA7 GTPase by SEC and its downstream signaling pathway. Notably, SEC treatment suppressed metastasis of prostate cancer cells in in vivo orthotopic analysis. Together, our findings provide a novel insight into how metastasis of prostate cancer with low RKIP expression is suppressed by SEC-induced activation of ANXA7 GTPase via the AMPK/mTORC1/STAT3 signaling pathway.