Oily Wastewater Treatment Using Polyamide Thin Film Composite Membrane Technology.
ABSTRACT: In this study, polyamide (PA) thin film composite (TFC) reverse osmosis (RO) membrane filtration was used in edible oil wastewater emulsion treatment. The PA-TFC membrane was characterized using mechanical, thermal, chemical, and physical tests. Surface morphology and cross-sections of TFCs were characterized using SEM. The effects of edible oil concentrations, average droplets size, and contact angle on separation efficiency and flux were studied in detail. Purification performance was enhanced using activated carbon as a pre-treatment unit. The performance of the RO unit was assessed by chemical oxygen demand (COD) removal and permeate flux. Oil concentration in wastewater varied between 3000 mg/L and 6000 mg/L. Oily wastewater showed a higher contact angle (62.9°) than de-ionized water (33°). Experimental results showed that the presence of activated carbon increases the permeation COD removal from 94% to 99%. The RO membrane filtration coupled with an activated carbon unit of oily wastewater is a convenient hybrid technique for removal of high-concentration edible oil wastewater emulsion up to 99%. Using activated carbon as an adsorption pre-treatment unit improved the permeate flux from 34 L/m2hr to 75 L/m2hr.
Project description:With the blooming of oil and gas industries, oily saline wastewater treatment becomes a viable option to resolve the oily water disposal issue and to provide a source of water for beneficial use. Reverse osmosis (RO) has been touted as a promising technology for oily saline wastewater treatment. However, one great challenge of RO membrane is fouling phenomena, which is caused by the presence of hydrocarbon contents in the oily saline wastewater. This study focuses on the fabrication of antifouling RO membrane for accomplishing simultaneous separation of salt and oil. Thin film nanocomposite (TFN) RO membrane was formed by the layer by layer (LbL) assembly of positively charged TNS (pTNS) and negatively charged TNS (nTNS) on the surface of thin film composite (TFC) membrane. The unique features, rendered by hydrophilic TNS bilayer assembled on TFC membrane in the formation of a hydration layer to enhance the fouling resistance by high concentration oily saline water while maintaining the salt rejection, were discussed in this study. The characterization findings revealed that the surface properties of membrane were improved in terms of surface hydrophilicity, surface roughness, and polyamide(PA) cross-linking. The TFC RO membrane coated with 2-bilayer of TNS achieved >99% and >98% for oil and salt rejection, respectively. During the long-term study, the 2TNS-PA TFN membrane outperformed the pristine TFC membrane by exhibiting high permeability and much lower fouling propensity for low to high concentration of oily saline water concentration (1000 ppm, 5000 ppm and 10,000 ppm) over a 960 min operation. Meanwhile, the average permeability of uncoated TFC membrane could only be recovered by 95.7%, 89.1% and 82.9% for 1000 ppm, 5000 ppm and 10,000 ppm of the oily saline feedwater, respectively. The 2TNS-PA TFN membrane achieved almost 100% flux recovery for three cycles by hydraulic washing.
Project description:Abstract Membrane?based technologies are attractive for remediating oily wastewater because they are relatively energy?efficient and are applicable to a wide range of industrial effluents. For complete treatment of oily wastewater, removing dissolved contaminants from the water phase is typically followed by adsorption onto an adsorbent, which complicates the process. Here, an in?air superhydrophilic and underwater superoleophobic membrane?based continuous separation of surfactant?stabilized oil?in?water emulsions and in situ decontamination of water by visible?light?driven photocatalytic degradation of dissolved organic contaminants is reported. The membrane is fabricated by utilizing a thermally sensitized stainless steel mesh coated with visible light absorbing iron?doped titania nanoparticles. Post annealing of the membrane can enhance the adhesion of nanoparticles to the membrane surface by formation of a bridge between them. An apparatus that enables continuous separation of surfactant?stabilized oil?in?water emulsion and in situ photocatalytic degradation of dissolved organic matter in the water?rich permeate upon irradiation of visible light on the membrane surface with greater than 99% photocatalytic degradation is developed. The membrane demonstrates the recovery of its intrinsic water?rich permeate flux upon continuous irradiation of light after being contaminated with oil. Finally, continuous oil?water separation and in situ water decontamination is demonstrated by photocatalytically degrading model toxins in water?rich permeate. An apparatus enables continuous separation of surfactant?stabilized oil?in?water emulsion and in situ photocatalytic degradation of organic matter in the water?rich permeate upon visible light irradiation. The membrane demonstrates recovery of its intrinsic water?rich permeate flux upon continuous light irradiation after contamination with oil. The predictions using the first?order kinetic model match well with the experimental data of photocatalytic degradation.
Project description:A hollow fibre membrane was fabricated by blending polyvinylidene fluoride (PVDF) with a triblock copolymer additive polymer that has both hydrophilic and oleophobic surface properties. The novel membrane was characterized and examined for oil/water separation under various system conditions, including different cross-flow rate, feed temperature, trans-membrane pressure, and its rejection and cleaning efficiency, etc. By applying the membrane into the filtration of synthesized oil/water emulsion, the membrane constantly achieved an oil rejection rate of above 99%, with a relatively constant permeate flux varied in the range of 68.9-59.0 l m-2 h-1. More importantly, the fouling of the used membrane can be easily removed by simple water flushing. The membrane also demonstrated a wide adaptability for different types of real oily wastewater, even at very high feed oil concentration (approx. 115 000 mg l-1 in terms of chemical oxygen demand (COM)). Hence, the novel triblock copolymer additive-modified PVDF membrane can have a great prospect in the continuing effort to expand the engineering application of polymeric membranes for oily wastewater treatment.
Project description:In this study, modification of polysulfone (PSf)/sulfonated polysulfone (SPSf) blended porous ultrafiltration (UF) support membranes was proposed to improve the reverse osmosis (RO) performance of aromatic polyamide thin film composite (TFC) membranes. The synergistic effects of solvent, polymer concentration, and SPSf doping content in the casting solution were investigated systematically on the properties of both porous supports and RO membranes. SEM and AFM were combined to characterize the physical properties of the membranes, including surface pore natures (porosity, mean pore radius), surface morphology, and section structure. A contact angle meter was used to analyze the membrane surface hydrophilicity. Permeate experiments were carried out to evaluate the separation performances of the membranes. The results showed that the PSf/SPSf blended porous support modified with 6 wt % SPSf in the presence of DMF and 14 wt % PSf had higher porosity, bigger pore diameter, and a rougher and more hydrophilic surface, which was more beneficial for fabrication of a polyamide TFC membrane with favorable reverse osmosis performance. This modified PSf/SPSf support endowed the RO membrane with a more hydrophilic surface, higher water flux (about 1.2 times), as well as a slight increase in salt rejection than the nascent PSf support. In a word, this work provides a new facile method to improve the separation performance of polyamide TFC RO membranes via the modification of conventional PSf porous support with SPSf.
Project description:Measuring bacterial growth potential (BGP) involves sample pre-treatment and inoculation, both of which may introduce contaminants in ultra-low nutrient water (e.g., remineralized RO permeate). Pasteurization pre-treatment may lead to denaturing of nutrients, and membrane filtration may leach/remove nutrients into/from water samples. Inoculating remineralized RO permeate samples with natural bacteria from conventional drinking water leads to undesired nutrient addition, which could be avoided by using the remineralized RO permeate itself as inoculum. Therefore, this study examined the effect of pasteurization and membrane filtration on the BGP of remineralized RO permeate. In addition, the possibility of using bacteria from remineralized RO permeate as inoculum was investigated by evaluating their ability to utilize organic carbon that is readily available (acetate, glucose) or complex (laminarin, gelatin, and natural dissolved organic carbon), as compared with bacteria from conventional drinking water. The results showed that membrane filtration pre-treatment increased (140-320%) the BGP of remineralized RO permeate despite the extensive soaking and flushing of filters (>350 h), whereas no effect was observed on the BGP of conventional drinking water owing to its high nutrient content. Pasteurization pre-treatment had insignificant effects on the BGP of both water types. Remineralized RO permeate bacteria showed limitations in utilizing complex organic carbon compared with bacteria from conventional drinking water. In conclusion, the BGP bioassay for ultra-low nutrient water (e.g., remineralized RO permeate) should consider pasteurization pre-treatment. However, an inoculum comprising bacteria from remineralized RO permeate is not recommended as the bacterial consortium was shown to be limited in terms of the compounds they could utilize for growth.
Project description:Nanostructured materials with desired wettability and optical property can play an important role in reducing the energy consumption of oily water treatment technologies. For effective oily water treatment, membrane materials with high strength, sunlight-sensitive anti-fouling, relative low fabrication cost, and controllable wettability are being explored. In the proposed oily water treatment approach, nanostructured TiO2-coated copper (TNS-Cu) meshes are used. These TNS-Cu meshes exhibit robust superhydrophilicity and underwater oleophobicity (high oil intrusion pressure) as well as excellent chemical and thermal stability (?250?°C). They have demonstrated high separation efficiency (oil residue in the filtrate ?21.3?ppm), remarkable filtration flux (?400?kL h(-1?)m(-2)), and sunlight-sensitive anti-fouling properties. Both our theoretical analysis and experimental characterization have confirmed the enhanced light absorption property of TNS-Cu meshes in the visible region (40% of the solar spectrum) and consequently strong anti-fouling capability upon direct solar light illumination. With these features, the proposed approach promises great potential in treating produced oily wastewater from industry and daily life.
Project description:Dairy industries have a high environmental impact, with very high energy and water consumption and polluting effluents. To increase the sustainability of these industries it is urgent to implement technologies for wastewater treatment allowing water recycling and energy savings. In this study, dairy wastewater was processed by ultrafiltration and nanofiltration or ultrafiltration and reverse osmosis (UF/RO) and retentates from the second membrane separation processes were assessed for bioenergy production. Lactose-fermenting yeasts were tested in direct conversion of the retentates (lactose-rich streams) into bioethanol. Two Kluyveromyces strains efficiently fermented all the lactose, with ethanol yields higher than 90% (>0.47 g/g yield). Under severe oxygen-limiting conditions, the K. marxianus PYCC 3286 strain reached 70 g/L of ethanol, which is compatible with energy-efficient distillation processes. In turn, the RO permeate is suitable for recycling into the cleaning process. The proposed integrated process, using UF/RO membrane technology, could allow water recycling (RO permeate) and bioenergy production (from RO retentate) for a more sustainable dairy industry.
Project description:The oil and gas industry generates a large volume of contaminated water (produced water) which must be processed to recover oil before discharge. Here, we evaluated the performance and fouling behavior of commercial ceramic silicon carbide membranes in the treatment of oily wastewaters. In this context, microfiltration and ultrafiltration ceramic membranes were used for the separation of oil during the treatment of tank dewatering produced water and oily model solutions, respectively. We also tested a new online oil-in-water sensor (OMD-32) based on the principle of light scattering for the continuous measurement of oil concentrations in order to optimize the main filtration process parameters that determine membrane performance: the transmembrane pressure and cross-flow velocity. Using the OMD-32 sensor, the oil content of the feed, concentrate and permeate streams was measured continuously and fell within the range 0.0-200 parts per million (ppm) with a resolution of 1.0 ppm. The ceramic membranes achieved an oil-recovery efficiency of up to 98% with less than 1.0 ppm residual oil in the permeate stream, meeting environmental regulations for discharge in most areas.
Project description:Managing the wastewater discharged from oil and shale gas fields is a big challenge, because this kind of wastewater is normally polluted by high contents of both oils and salts. Conventional pressure-driven membranes experience little success for treating this wastewater because of either severe membrane fouling or incapability of desalination. In this study, we designed a new nanocomposite forward osmosis (FO) membrane for accomplishing simultaneous oil/water separation and desalination. This nanocomposite FO membrane is composed of an oil-repelling and salt-rejecting hydrogel selective layer on top of a graphene oxide (GO) nanosheets infused polymeric support layer. The hydrogel selective layer demonstrates strong underwater oleophobicity that leads to superior anti-fouling capability under various oil/water emulsions, and the infused GO in support layer can significantly mitigate internal concentration polarization (ICP) through reducing FO membrane structural parameter by as much as 20%. Compared with commercial FO membrane, this new FO membrane demonstrates more than three times higher water flux, higher removals for oil and salts (>99.9% for oil and >99.7% for multivalent ions) and significantly lower fouling tendency when investigated with simulated shale gas wastewater. These combined merits will endorse this new FO membrane with wide applications in treating highly saline and oily wastewaters.
Project description:In the production of acrylic acid, the concentration of acrylic acid solution from the adsorption tower was low, which would lead to significant energy consumption in the distillation process to purify acrylic acid, along with the production of a large amount of wastewater. Reverse osmosis (RO) was proposed to concentrate the acrylic acid aqueous solution taken from a specific tray in the absorption tower. The effects of operating conditions on the permeate flux and acid retention were studied with two commercial RO membranes (SWC5 and SWC6). When the operating pressure was 4 MPa and the temperature was 25 °C, the permeate fluxes of two membranes were about 20 L·m-2·h-1. The acrylic acid and acetic acid retentions were about 80% and 78%, respectively. After being immersed in the acid solutions for several months, the characteristics of the two membranes were tested to evaluate their acid resistance. After six months of exposure to the acid solution containing 2.5% acrylic acid and 2.5% acetic acid, the retentions of acrylic acid and acetic acid were decreased by 5.7% and 4.1% for SWC5 and 4.9% and 2.2% for SWC6, respectively. The changes of membrane surface morphology and chemical composition showed the hydrolysis of some amide bonds.