Complementary Targeting of Rb Phosphorylation and Growth in Cervical Cancer Cell Cultures and a Xenograft Mouse Model by SHetA2 and Palbociclib.
ABSTRACT: Cervical cancer is caused by high-risk human papillomavirus (HPV) types and treated with conventional chemotherapy with surgery and/or radiation. HPV E6 and E7 proteins increase phosphorylation of retinoblastoma (Rb) by cyclin D1/cyclin dependent kinase (CDK)4/6 complexes. We hypothesized that cyclin D1 degradation by the SHetA2 drug in combination with palbociclib inhibition of CDK4/6 activity synergistically reduces phosphorylated Rb (phospho-Rb) and inhibits cervical cancer growth. The effects of these drugs, alone, and in combination, were evaluated in SiHa and CaSki HPV-positive and C33A HPV-negative cervical cancer cell lines using cell culture, western blots and ELISA, and in a SiHa xenograft model. Endpoints were compared by isobolograms, ANOVA, and Chi-Square. In all cell lines, combination indexes documented synergistic interaction of SHetA2 and palbociclib in association SHetA2 reduction of cyclin D1 and phospho-Rb, palbociclib reduction of phospho-Rb, and enhanced phospho-Rb reduction upon drug combination. Both drugs significantly reduced phospho-Rb and growth of SiHa xenograft tumors as single agents and acted additively when combined, with no evidence of toxicity. Dilated CD31-negative blood vessels adjacent to, or within, areas of necrosis and apoptosis were observed in all drug-treated tumors. These results justify development of the SHetA2 and palbociclib combination for targeting phospho-Rb in cervical cancer treatment.
Project description:In synovial sarcomas alterations in the cyclin D1-CDK4/6-Rb axis have been described. Also, ?-catenin, a cyclin D1 regulator, is often overexpressed. Additionally, studies have shown that the t(X;18) translocation influences tumor behavior partly through cyclin D1 activation. We investigated how alterations in the cyclin D1-CDK4/6-Rb axis impact prognosis and studied effects of targeting this axis with the CDK4/6 inhibitor palbociclib.Synovial sarcoma samples (n = 43) were immunohistochemically stained for ?-catenin, cyclin D1, p16, p21, p27, Rb, and phospho-Rb. Fluorescent in situ hybridization (FISH) was performed to detect CCND1 amplification or translocation. In 4 synovial sarcoma cell lines sensitivity to palbociclib was investigated using cell viability assays, and effects on the sensitive cell lines were evaluated on protein level and by cell cycle arrest.Expression of nuclear phospho-Rb and nuclear ?-catenin in the patient samples was associated with poor survival. FISH showed a sporadic translocation of CCND1 in a subset of tumors. An 8-fold CCND1 amplification was found in 1 cell line, but not in the patient samples investigated. Palbociclib effectively inhibited Rb-phosphorylation in 3 cell lines, resulting in an induction of a G1 arrest and proliferation block.In this series nuclear phospho-Rb and nuclear ?-catenin expression were negative prognostic factors. In vitro data suggest that palbociclib may be a potential treatment for a subset of synovial sarcoma patients. Whether this effect can be enhanced by combination treatment deserves further preclinical investigations.
Project description:Cervical dysplasia induced by the human papilloma virus unpredictably progresses to cervical cancer. Therapeutic options are invasive and affect the patient's quality of life. SHetA2 has demonstrated therapeutic efficacy against human and murine human papilloma virus-induced tumors, but its oral bioavailability is <1%. An optimized vaginal suppository formulation can deliver SHetA2 in sufficient doses to prevent cervical dysplasia. The quality by design approach was employed to optimize the suppository formulation consisting of cocoa butter as base with 5% Kolliphor and 40% SHetA2. The suppository had a content uniformity of 105.44 ± 0.42%, melted in <8 min, and had a complete release of SHetA2 in water. Administration of the suppository to mice-achieved cervix concentrations that were significantly higher than the SHetA2 therapeutic concentration, with the maximum concentration (Cmax-cervix = 336.78 ?g/g) being more than 100-fold the therapeutic SHetA2 concentration. Furthermore, the levels of cyclin D1 protein decreased 9-fold indicating a correlation of drug concentrations with the pharmacodynamic endpoint. These proof-of-concept studies suggest that the SHetA2 optimized vaginal suppository formulation may have a potential use in the prevention of cervical dysplasia, but detailed efficacy studies are required to confirm this assumption.
Project description:While ER has multiple biological effects, ER-cyclin D1-CDK4/6-RB is a critical pathway for the action of estrogen on the cell cycle, especially for breast cancers that rely on estrogen for growth. The latest and most efficient CDK4/6 inhibitors target the phosphorylation of retinoblastoma (RB) tumor suppressor gene; thus, altering levels of many cell cycle molecules. Estrogen receptor (ER)+/HER2- breast cancers have shown great progression free survival when CDK4/6 inhibitors are combined with endocrine therapies. Here we report the mechanism of antiestrogen (fulvestrant) combination with CDK4/6 inhibitors is due to synergism in the suppression of ER-mediated cell cycle progression. Furthermore, we performed single cell analysis of cells from an estrogen dependent/hormone receptor-positive patient derived xenograft (PDX) tumor model treated with palbociclib. These single cells expressed various levels of ER and RB which are involved in cell cycle regulation; and the response to palbociclib treatment relies not only on the ER-cyclin D1-CDK4/6-RB pathway but it is also dependent on elevated levels of ER and/or RB. Our preclinical studies show that palbociclib response is dependent on cells with ER, which is directly involved in cell cycle progression in hormone receptor positive (HR+) breast cancer.
Project description:Natural products are being extensively explored for their potential to prevent as well as treat cancer due to their ability to target multiple molecular pathways. Ficus religiosa has been shown to exert diverse biological activities including apoptosis in breast cancer cell lines. In the present study, we report the anti-neoplastic potential of aqueous extract of F. religiosa (FRaq) bark in human cervical cancer cell lines, SiHa and HeLa. FRaq altered the growth kinetics of SiHa (HPV-16 positive) and HeLa (HPV-18 positive) cells in a dose-dependent manner. It blocked the cell cycle progression at G1/S phase in SiHa that was characterized by an increase in the expression of p53, p21 and pRb proteins with a simultaneous decrease in the expression of phospho Rb (ppRb) protein. On the other hand, in HeLa, FRaq induced apoptosis through an increase in intracellular Ca(2+) leading to loss of mitochondrial membrane potential, release of cytochrome-c and increase in the expression of caspase-3. Moreover, FRaq reduced the migration as well as invasion capability of both the cervical cancer cell lines accompanied with downregulation of MMP-2 and Her-2 expression. Interestingly, FRaq reduced the expression of viral oncoproteins E6 and E7 in both the cervical cancer cell lines. All these data suggest that F. religiosa could be explored for its chemopreventive potential in cervical cancer.
Project description:We demonstrate that inhibition of cyclin-dependent kinases 4/6 (CDK4/6) leads to senescence in human papillomavirus (HPV)-negative (-) head and neck squamous cell carcinoma (HNSCC), but not in HPV-positive (+) HNSCC. The BCL-2 family inhibitor, navitoclax, has been shown to eliminate senescent cells effectively. We evaluated the efficacy of combining palbociclib and navitoclax in HPV<sup>-</sup> HNSCC. Three HPV<sup>-</sup> HNSCC cell lines (CAL27, HN31, and PCI15B) and three HPV<sup>+</sup> HNSCC cell lines (UPCI-SCC-090, UPCI-SCC-154, and UM-SCC-47) were treated with palbociclib. Treatment drove reduced expression of phosphorylated Rb (p-Rb) and phenotypic evidence of senescence in all HPV<sup>-</sup> cell lines, whereas HPV<sup>+</sup> cell lines did not display a consistent response by Rb or p-Rb and did not exhibit morphologic changes of senescence in response to palbociclib. In addition, treatment of HPV<sup>-</sup> cells with palbociclib increased both β-galactosidase protein expression and BCL-xL protein expression compared with untreated controls in HPV<sup>-</sup> cells. Co-expression of β-galactosidase and BCL-xL occurred consistently, indicating elevated BCL-xL expression in senescent cells. Combining palbociclib with navitoclax led to decreased HPV<sup>-</sup> HNSCC cell survival and led to increased apoptosis levels in HPV<sup>-</sup> cell lines compared with each agent given alone. IMPLICATIONS: This work exploits a key genomic hallmark of HPV<sup>-</sup> HNSCC (<i>CDKN2A</i> disruption) using palbociclib to induce BCL-xL-dependent senescence, which subsequently causes the cancer cells to be vulnerable to the senolytic agent, navitoclax.
Project description:Advanced hepatocarcinoma (HCC) is an aggressive malignancy with poor prognosis and limited treatment options. Alterations of the cyclin D-CDK4/6-Rb pathway occur frequently in HCC, providing the rationale for its targeting at least in a molecular subset of HCC. In a panel of HCC cell lines, we investigated whether the CDK4/6 inhibitor palbociclib might improve the efficacy of regorafenib, a powerful multi-kinase inhibitor approved as second-line treatment for advanced HCC after sorafenib failure and currently under clinical investigation as first-line therapy in combination with immunotherapy. In Rb-proficient cells, the simultaneous drug combination, but not the sequential schedules, inhibited cell proliferation, either in short or in long-term experiments, and induced cell death more strongly than individual treatments. Moreover, the combination significantly reduced spheroid cell growth and inhibited cell migration/invasion. The superior efficacy of palbociclib plus regorafenib emerged also under hypoxia and was associated with a significant down-regulation of CDK4/6-Rb-myc and mTORC1/p70S6K signaling. Moreover, regorafenib suppressed palbociclib-induced expression of cyclin D1 contributing to the cytotoxic effects of the combination. Besides these inhibitory effects on cell viability/proliferation, palbociclib and regorafenib reduced glucose uptake, although this effect was dependent on the cell model and on the oxygen availability (normoxia or hypoxia). Palbociclib and regorafenib combination impaired glucose uptake and utilization, down-regulating basal and hypoxia-induced expression of HIF-1?, HIF-2?, GLUT-1, and MCT4 proteins as well as the activity/expression of glycolytic enzymes (HK2, PFKP, aldolase A, PKM2). In addition, regorafenib alone reduced mitochondrial respiration. The combined treatment impaired glucose metabolism and respiration without enhancing the effects of the single agents. Our findings provide pre-clinical evidence for the effectiveness of palbociclib and regorafenib combination in HCC cell models.
Project description:Inhibition of the PARP superfamily tankyrase enzymes suppresses Wnt/?-catenin signalling in tumour cells. Here, we describe here a novel, drug-like small molecule inhibitor of tankyrase MSC2504877 that inhibits the growth of APC mutant colorectal tumour cells. Parallel siRNA and drug sensitivity screens showed that the clinical CDK4/6 inhibitor palbociclib, causes enhanced sensitivity to MSC2504877. This tankyrase inhibitor-CDK4/6 inhibitor combinatorial effect is not limited to palbociclib and MSC2504877 and is elicited with other CDK4/6 inhibitors and toolbox tankyrase inhibitors. The addition of MSC2504877 to palbociclib enhances G1 cell cycle arrest and cellular senescence in tumour cells. MSC2504877 exposure suppresses the upregulation of Cyclin D2 and Cyclin E2 caused by palbociclib and enhances the suppression of phospho-Rb, providing a mechanistic explanation for these effects. The combination of MSC2504877 and palbociclib was also effective in suppressing the cellular hyperproliferative phenotype seen in Apc defective intestinal stem cells in vivo. However, the presence of an oncogenic Kras p.G12D mutation in mice reversed the effects of the MSC2504877/palbociclib combination, suggesting one molecular route that could lead to drug resistance.
Project description:Both sunitinib, a multi-target tyrosine kinase inhibitor (TKI) and propranolol, a non-selective ?-blocker, have proven therapeutic effects on malignant melanoma (MM). This study reports a synergistic effect of propranolol and sunitinib upon A375, P8 MM cell lines and mice xenografts. Cell viability assays detected a significant decrease of sunitinib IC50 in combination with propranolol, which was confirmed by a colony formation assay. Western blot showed that propranolol and sunitinib combination significantly down-regulated phospho-Rb, phospho-ERK, Cyclin D1, and Cyclin E, but had no effect on Bax, Bcl-2, or cleaved PARP expression. The average tumor size of propranolol and low-dose sunitinib (Sun L) combination treated mice was reduced and similar to high-dose sunitinib treated A375 xenografts. The Ki67 index was significantly reduced in propranolol and Sun L combination treated group compared with single Sun L treated group. This synergistic effect between propranolol and sunitinib to inhibit MM proliferation was through suppressing ERK/Cyclin D1/Rb/Cyclin E pathways and inducing G0/G1/S phase arrest, rather than by inducing tumor cell apoptosis.
Project description:In this study, we for the first time, investigated the potential anti-cancer effects of a novel analogue of cucurbitacin (Cucurbitacin D) against cervical cancer in vitro and in vivo. Cucurbitacin D inhibited viability and growth of cervical cancer cells (CaSki and SiHa) in a dose-dependent manner. IC50 of Cucurbitacin D was recorded at 400?nM and 250?nM in CaSki and SiHa cells, respectively. Induction of apoptosis was observed in Cucurbitacin D treated cervical cancer cells as measured by enhanced Annexin V staining and cleavage in PARP protein. Cucurbitacin D treatment of cervical cancer cells arrested the cell cycle in G1/S phase, inhibited constitutive expression of E6, Cyclin D1, CDK4, pRb, and Rb and induced the protein levels of p21 and p27. Cucurbitacin D also inhibited phosphorylation of STAT3 at Ser727 and Tyr705 residues as well as its downstream target genes c-Myc, and MMP9. Cucurbitacin D enhanced the expression of tumor suppressor microRNAs (miR-145, miRNA-143, and miRNA34a) in cervical cancer cells. Cucurbitacin D treatment (1 mg/kg body weight) effectively inhibited growth of cervical cancer cells derived orthotopic xenograft tumors in athymic nude mice. These results demonstrate the potential therapeutic efficacy of Cucurbitacin D against cervical cancer.
Project description:The functional inactivation of TP53 and Rb tumor suppressor proteins by the HPV-derived E6 and E7 oncoproteins is likely an important step in cervical carcinogenesis. We have previously shown siRNA technology to selectively silence both E6/E7 oncogenes and demonstrated that the synthetic siRNAs could specifically block its expression in HPV-positive cervical cancer cells. Herein, we investigated the potentiality of E6/E7 siRNA candidates as radiosensitizers of radiotherapy for the human cervical carcinomas. HeLa and SiHa cells were transfected with HPV E6/E7 siRNA; the combined cytotoxic effect of E6/E7 siRNA and radiation was assessed by using the cell viability assay, flow cytometric analysis and the senescence-associated ?-galactosidase (SA-?-Gal) assay. In addition, we also investigated the effect of combined therapy with irradiation and E6/E7 siRNA intravenous injection in an in vivo xenograft model. Combination therapy with siRNA and irradiation efficiently retarded tumor growth in established tumors of human cervical cancer cell xenografted mice. In addition, the chemically-modified HPV16 and 18 E6/E7 pooled siRNA in combination with irradiation strongly inhibited the growth of cervical cancer cells. Our results indicated that simultaneous inhibition of HPV E6/E7 oncogene expression with radiotherapy can promote potent antitumor activity and radiosensitizing activity in human cervical carcinomas.