Canola produced under boreal climatic conditions in Newfoundland and Labrador have a unique lipid composition and expeller press extraction retained the composition for commercial use.
ABSTRACT: The average fatty acid (FA) composition of canola oil is made up of 62% oleic acid (C18:1n9), 19% linoleic acid (C18:2n6), 9% linolenic acid (C18:3n3) and 7% saturated FA (SFA). We investigated whether boreal climate (7.5-17.2 °C) favorably altered the FA composition of canola. Results indicate that canola cultivated in boreal climatic conditions had approximately twice the levels of omega-3 FA (17-20%) compared to canola from other growing areas (9%). The presence of monoacetyldiacylglycerol (MAcDG), a unique class of triglyceride, is reported for the first time in canola cultivated in a boreal climate, and has the potential to reduce the risk of obesity and other health related diseases. We further demonstrated that a non-solvent based extraction method retained the novel lipid composition without reducing the quality of oil being produced. Our results contribute significantly to the understanding of lipid accumulation in the world's second most important oil crop when cultivated in a boreal or northern climate.
Project description:The increasing demand for healthy edible oil has generated the need to identify promising oil crops. Tree peony (Paeonia section Moutan DC.) is a woody oil crop with ?-linolenic acid (ALA) contributing for 45% of the total fatty acid (FA) content in seeds. Molecular and genetic differences that contribute to varied FA content and composition among the wild peony species are, however, poorly understood. Analyses of FA content and composition during seed development in three tree peony species (Paeonia rockii, P. potaninii, and P. lutea) showed varied FA content among them with highest in P. rockii, followed by P. potaninii, and P. lutea. Total FA content among these species increased with seed development and reached its maximum in its final stage. Seed FA composition analysis of the three species also revealed that ALA (C18:3) was the most abundant, followed by oleic (C18:1) and linoleic (C18:2) acids. Additionally, quantitative real-time RT-PCR analyses of 10 key seed oil synthesis genes in the three tree peony species revealed that FAD3, FAD2, ?-PDHC, LPAAT, and Oleosin gene expression levels positively correlate with total FA content and rate of accumulation. Specifically, the abundance of FAD3 transcripts in P. rockii compared with P. potaninii, and P. lutea suggests that FAD3 might play an important role in synthesis of ALA via phosphatidylcholine-derived pathway. Overall, comparative analyses of FA content and composition in three different peony species revealed a correlation between efficient lipid accumulation and lipid gene expression during seed development. Further characterization and metabolic engineering of these key genes from peonies will allow for subsequent improvement of tree peony oil quality and production.
Project description:BACKGROUND: Marker Assisted Selection (MAS) is well suited to a perennial crop like oil palm, in which the economic products are not produced until several years after planting. The use of DNA markers for selection in such crops can greatly reduce the number of breeding cycles needed. With the use of DNA markers, informed decisions can be made at the nursery stage, regarding which individuals should be retained as breeding stock, which are satisfactory for agricultural production, and which should be culled. The trait associated with oil quality, measured in terms of its fatty acid composition, is an important agronomic trait that can eventually be tracked using molecular markers. This will speed up the production of new and improved oil palm planting materials. RESULTS: A map was constructed using AFLP, RFLP and SSR markers for an interspecific cross involving a Colombian Elaeis oleifera (UP1026) and a Nigerian E. guinneensis (T128). A framework map was generated for the male parent, T128, using Joinmap ver. 4.0. In the paternal (E. guineensis) map, 252 markers (199 AFLP, 38 RFLP and 15 SSR) could be ordered in 21 linkage groups (1815 cM). Interval mapping and multiple-QTL model (MQM) mapping (also known as composite interval mapping, CIM) were used to detect quantitative trait loci (QTLs) controlling oil quality (measured in terms of iodine value and fatty acid composition). At a 5% genome-wide significance threshold level, QTLs associated with iodine value (IV), myristic acid (C14:0), palmitic acid (C16:0), palmitoleic acid (C16:1), stearic acid (C18:0), oleic acid (C18:1) and linoleic acid (C18:2) content were detected. One genomic region on Group 1 appears to be influencing IV, C14:0, C16:0, C18:0 and C18:1 content. Significant QTL for C14:0, C16:1, C18:0 and C18:1 content was detected around the same locus on Group 15, thus revealing another major locus influencing fatty acid composition in oil palm. Additional QTL for C18:0 was detected on Group 3. A minor QTL for C18:2 was detected on Group 2. CONCLUSION: This study describes the first successful detection of QTLs for fatty acid composition in oil palm. These QTLs constitute useful tools for application in breeding programmes.
Project description:This study was conducted to locate quantitative trait loci (QTL) influencing fatty acid (FA) composition in a large F2 intercross between Landrace and Korean native pigs.Eighteen FA composition traits were measured in more than 960 F2 progeny. All experimental animals were genotyped with 165 microsatellite markers located throughout the pig autosomes.We detected 112 QTLs for the FA composition; Forty seven QTLs reached the genome-wide significant threshold. In particular, we identified a cluster of highly significant QTLs for FA composition on SSC12. QTL for polyunsaturated fatty acid on pig chromosome 12 (F-value = 97.2 under additive and dominance model, nominal p-value 3.6×10-39) accounted for 16.9% of phenotypic variance. In addition, four more QTLs for C18:1, C18:2, C20:4, and monounsaturated fatty acids on the similar position explained more than 10% of phenotypic variance.Our findings of a major QTL for FA composition presented here could provide helpful information to locate causative variants to improve meat quality traits in pigs.
Project description:Filamentous green algae of the genus Zygnema (Zygnematophyceae, Streptophyta) are key components of polar hydro-terrestrial mats where they face various stressors including UV irradiation, freezing, desiccation and osmotic stress. Their vegetative cells can develop into pre-akinetes, i.e. reserve-rich, mature cells. We investigated lipid accumulation and fatty acid (FA) composition upon pre-akinete formation in an Arctic and an Antarctic Zygnema strain using transmission electron microscopy and gas chromatography coupled with mass spectrometry. Pre-akinetes formed after 9 weeks of cultivation in nitrogen-free medium, which was accompanied by massive accumulation of lipid bodies. The composition of FAs was similar in both strains, and ?-linolenic acid (C18:3) dominated in young vegetative cells. Pre-akinete formation coincided with a significant change in FA composition. Oleic (C18:1) and linoleic (C18:2) acid increased the most (up to 17- and 8-fold, respectively). Small amounts of long-chain polyunsaturated FAs were also detected, e.g. arachidonic (C20:4) and eicosapentaenoic (C20:5) acid. Pre-akinetes exposed to desiccation at 86% relative humidity were able to recover maximum quantum yield of photosystem II, but desiccation had no major effect on FA composition. The results are discussed with regard to the capability of Zygnema spp. to thrive in extreme conditions.
Project description:Altering the fatty acid (FA) composition in the skin by dietary fish oil could provide therapeutic benefits. Although it has been shown that fish oil supplementation enhances EPA (eicosapentaenoic acid) and DHA (docosahexaenoic acid) abundance in the skin, comprehensive skin FA profiling is needed. We established a gas chromatography-mass spectrometry method, which allows precise quantification of FA profile using small (<24?mm2 for mice and <12?mm2 for humans) skin specimens that can be readily obtained from live mice and humans. We determined mouse skin FA composition after 2, 4 and 8 weeks of consuming a control diet or a diet supplemented with fish oil. Fish oil markedly enhanced EPA and DHA in mouse skin within 2 weeks, and this increase plateaued after 4 weeks. The FA composition in mouse skin was different from that of serum, indicating that skin has homeostatic control of FA metabolism. Mice fed the control diet designed to simulate Western human diet displayed similar skin FA composition as that of humans. The present study presents a validated method for FA quantification that is needed to investigate the mechanisms of actions of dietary treatments in both mouse and human skin.
Project description:The commercial oil palm (Elaeis guineensis Jacq.) produces a mesocarp oil (commonly called 'palm oil') with approximately equal proportions of saturated and unsaturated fatty acids (FAs). An increase in unsaturated FAs content or iodine value (IV) as a measure of the degree of unsaturation would help to open up new markets for the oil. One way to manipulate the fatty acid composition (FAC) in palm oil is through introgression of favourable alleles from the American oil palm, E. oleifera, which has a more unsaturated oil.In this study, a segregating E. oleifera x E. guineensis (OxG) hybrid population for FAC is used to identify quantitative trait loci (QTLs) linked to IV and various FAs. QTL analysis revealed 10 major and two putative QTLs for IV and six FAs, C14:0, C16:0, C16:1, C18:0, C18:1 and C18:2 distributed across six linkage groups (LGs), OT1, T2, T3, OT4, OT6 and T9. The major QTLs for IV and C16:0 on LGOT1 explained 60.0 - 69.0 % of the phenotypic trait variation and were validated in two independent BC2 populations. The genomic interval contains several key structural genes in the FA and oil biosynthesis pathways such as PATE/FATB, HIBCH, BASS2, LACS4 and DGAT1 and also a relevant transcription factor (TF), WRI1. The literature suggests that some of these genes can exhibit pleiotropic effects in the regulatory networks of these traits. Using the whole genome sequence data, markers tightly linked to the candidate genes were also developed. Clustering trait values according to the allelic forms of these candidate markers revealed significant differences in the IV and FAs of the palms in the mapping and validation crosses.The candidate gene approach described and exploited here is useful to identify the potential causal genes linked to FAC and can be adopted for marker-assisted selection (MAS) in oil palm.
Project description:A high-carbohydrate diet (HCD) is a well-established experimental model of accelerated liver fatty acid (FA) deposition and inflammation. In this study, we evaluated whether canola oil can prevent these physiopathological changes. We evaluated hepatic FA accumulation and inflammation in mice fed with a HCD (72.1% carbohydrates) and either canola oil (C group) or soybean oil (S group) as a lipid source for 0, 7, 14, 28, or 56 days. Liver FA compositions were analyzed by gas chromatography. The mRNA expression of acetyl-CoA carboxylase 1 (ACC1) was measured as an indicator of lipogenesis. The mRNA expression of F4/80, tumor necrosis factor-? (TNF-?), interleukin (IL)-1?, IL-6, and IL-10, as mediators of liver inflammation, were also measured. The C group stored less n-6 polyunsaturated FAs (n-6 PUFAs) and had more intense lipid deposition of monounsaturated FAs (MUFAs), n-3 PUFAs, and total FAs. The C group also showed higher ACC1 expression. Moreover, on day 56, the C group showed higher expressions of the inflammatory genes F4/80, TNF-?, IL-1?, and IL-6, as well as the anti-inflammatory IL-10. In conclusion, a diet containing canola oil as a lipid source does not prevent the fatty acid accumulation and inflammation induced by a HCD.
Project description:Most common plant oils have little α-linolenic acid (C18:3(Δ9,12,15), ALA) and an unhealthy ω6/ω3 ratio. Here, fatty acids (FAs) in the seeds of 11 species of Paeonia L., including 10 tree peony and one herbaceous species, were explored using gas chromatograph-mass spectrometer. Results indicated that all Paeonia had a ω6/ω3 ratio less than 1.0, and high amounts of ALA (26.7-50%), oleic acid (C18:1(Δ9), OA) (20.8-46%) and linoleic acid (C18:2(Δ9,12), LA) (10-38%). ALA was a dominant component in oils of seven subsection Vaginatae species, whereas OA was predominant in two subsection Delavayanae species. LA was a subdominant oil component in P. ostii and P. obovata. Moreover, the FA composition and distribution of embryo (22 FAs), endosperm (14 FAs) and seed coat (6 FAs) in P. ostii, P. rockii and P. ludlowii were first reported. Peony species, particularly P. decomposita and P. rockii, can be excellent plant resources for edible oil because they provide abundant ALA to balance the ω6/ω3 ratio. The differences in the ALA, LA and OA content proportion also make the peony species a good system for detailed investigation of FA biosynthesis pathway and ALA accumulation.
Project description:BACKGROUND:Fatty acids (FA) in bovine milk derive through body mobilization, de novo synthesis or from the feed via the blood stream. To be able to digest feedstuff, the cow depends on its rumen microbiome. The relative abundance of the microbes has been shown to differ between cows. To date, there is little information on the impact of the microbiome on the formation of specific milk FA. Therefore, in this study, our aim was to investigate the impact of the rumen bacterial microbiome on milk FA composition. Furthermore, we evaluated the predictive value of the rumen microbiome and the host genetics on the composition of individual FA in milk. RESULTS:Our results show that the proportion of variance explained by the rumen bacteria composition (termed microbiability or [Formula: see text]) was generally smaller than that of the genetic component (heritability), and that rumen bacteria influenced most C15:0, C17:0, C18:2 n-6, C18:3 n-3 and CLA cis-9, trans-11 with estimated [Formula: see text] ranging from 0.26 to 0.42. For C6:0, C8:0, C10:0, C12:0, C16:0, C16:1 cis-9 and C18:1 cis-9, the variance explained by the rumen bacteria component was close to 0. In general, both the rumen microbiome and the host genetics had little value for predicting FA phenotype. Compared to genetic information only, adding rumen bacteria information resulted in a significant improvement of the predictive value for C15:0 from 0.22 to 0.38 (P = 9.50e-07) and C18:3 n-3 from 0 to 0.29 (P = 8.81e-18). CONCLUSIONS:The rumen microbiome has a pronounced influence on the content of odd chain FA and polyunsaturated C18 FA, and to a lesser extent, on the content of the short- and medium-chain FA in the milk of Holstein cattle. The accuracy of prediction of FA phenotypes in milk based on information from either the animal's genotypes or rumen bacteria composition was very low.
Project description:Low birth weight may negatively affect energy storage and nutrient metabolism, and impair fetal growth and development. We analyzed effects of body weight (BW) and gestational period on nutrient composition in fetal Huanjiang mini-pigs. Fetuses with the lowest BW (LBW), middle BW (MBW), and highest BW (HBW) were collected at days 45, 75, and 110 of gestation. Crude protein (CP), crude fat, amino acid (AA), and fatty acid (FA) concentrations were determined. The BW gain, carcass weight, fat percentage, and uterus weight of sows increased as gestation progressed, as did litter weight, average individual fetal weight, fetal body weight, and dry matter (DM). The concentrations of Ala, Arg, crude fat, Gly, Pro, Tyr, C14:0, C16:0, C16:1, C18:1n9c, C18:2n6c, C18:3n3, C18:3n6, C20:0, C20:3n6, saturated FA (SFA), and monounsaturated FA (MUFA) increased significantly as gestation progressed. The percentage of skeleton, and the ratio of the liver, lung, and stomach to BW decreased as gestation progressed. There were also significant reductions in the concentrations of CP, Asp, Glu, His, Ile, Leu, Lys, Phe, Ser, Thr, essential AA (EAA), acidic AA, C17:0, C20:4n6, C22:6n3, unsaturated FA (UFA), polyunsaturated FA (PUFA), n-3PUFA, n-6PUFA as gestation progressed, and reductions in EAA/total AA (TAA), PUFA/SFA, and n-3/n-6 PUFA. The LBW fetuses exhibited the lowest BW and crude fat, C14:0, C16:1, C17:0, C18:2n6c, and MUFA concentrations at days 75 and 110 of gestation. They also exhibited lower Tyr concentration at day 45 of gestation and lower Glu concentration at day 75 of gestation than HBW fetuses. These findings suggest that LBW fetuses exhibit lower amounts of crude fat and several FAs during mid-gestation and late-gestation, which may in turn affect adaptability, growth, and development.