Impact of the Injection Site on Growth Characteristics, Phenotype and Sensitivity towards Cytarabine of Twenty Acute Leukaemia Patient-Derived Xenograft Models.
ABSTRACT: Rodent models have contributed significantly to the understanding of haematological malignancies. One important model system in this context are patient-derived xenografts (PDX). In the current study, we examined 20 acute leukaemia PDX models for growth behaviour, infiltration in haemopoietic organs and sensitivity towards cytarabine. PDX were injected intratibially (i.t.), intrasplenicaly (i.s.) or subcutaneously (s.c.) into immune compromised mice. For 18/20 models the engraftment capacity was independent of the implantation site. Two models could exclusively be propagated in one or two specific settings. The implantation site did influence tumour growth kinetics as median overall survival differed within one model depending on the injection route. The infiltration pattern was similar in i.t. and i.s. models. In contrast to the s.c. implantation, only one model displayed circulating leukaemic cells outside of the locally growing tumour mass. Cytarabine was active in all four tested models. Nevertheless, the degree of sensitivity was specific for an individual model and implantation site. In summary, all three application routes turned out to be feasible for the propagation of PDX. Nevertheless, the distinct differences between the settings highlight the need for well characterized platforms to ensure the meaningful interpretation of data generated using those powerful tools.
Project description:1. Chronic systemic treatment of rats with morphine leads to the development of opioid tolerance. This study was designed to examine the effects of intrathecal (i.t.) infusion of a metabotropic glutamate receptor 1 (mGluR1) antisense oligonucleotide, concomitant with chronic morphine treatment, on the development of tolerance to morphine's antinociceptive effects. 2. All rats received chronic (6 day) s.c. administration of morphine to induce opioid tolerance. Additionally, rats were treated with either mGluR1 antisense (AS), missense (MIS) or artificial cerebrospinal fluid (ACSF) by i.t. infusion via chronically implanted i.t. catheters connected to osmotic mini-pumps. The effects of acute i.t. or s.c. morphine on tail-flick latencies were assessed prior to and following chronic s.c. morphine treatment for all chronic i.t. infusion groups. mGluR1 protein level in the spinal cord was determined by Western blot analysis for all treatments, assessing the efficiency of knock-down with AS treatment. 3. Acute i.t. morphine dose-dependently produced antinociception in the tail-flick test in naïve rats. Systemic morphine-treated rats administered i.t. ACSF or MIS developed tolerance to i.t. morphine. Chronic i.t. infusion with mGluR1 AS significantly reduced the development of tolerance to i.t. morphine. 4. In contrast to i.t. morphine, tolerance developed to the antinociceptive effects of s.c. morphine, in all i.t. infusion groups, including the mGluR1 AS group. 5. The spinal mGluR1 protein level was dramatically decreased after mGluR1 AS infusion when compared to control animals (naïve and ACSF-treated animals). 6. These findings suggest that the spinal mGluR1 is involved in the development of tolerance to the antinociceptive effects of morphine. Selective blockade of mGluR1 may be beneficial in preventing the development of opioid analgesic tolerance.
Project description:Tyr-D-Ala-Phe-Leu-Arg psi (CH(2)NH) Arg-NH(2) (SK-9709) is a dynorphin derivative in which the peptide bond was replaced with a psi (CH(2)NH) bond. In the present study, the antinociceptive effects of SK-9709 were determined in an acetic acid-induced writhing test and a hot-plate test. In the acetic acid-induced writhing test, significant antinociceptive effects were observed after subcutaneous (s.c.), intracerebroventricular (i.c.v.) and intrathecal (i.t.) injection of SK-9709, with maximal effects at 120, 30 and 15 min, respectively. The antinociceptive effects were dose-dependent and ED(50) values (range of 95% confidence limits) after s.c., i.c.v. and i.t. injection were 1.36 (0.61 - 3.02) micromol kg(-1), 2.11 (1.18 - 3.79) and 0.79 (0.61 - 1.03) nmol per mouse, respectively. The effects of SK-9709 (s.c., i.c.v. and i.t.) were reversed by the opioid receptor antagonist naloxone (1.36 micromol kg(-1), s.c.). The effects of SK-9709 (s.c.) were also reversed by the selective mu-opioid receptor antagonist beta-funaltrexamine (4.7 nmol per mouse, i.c.v.), and kappa-opioid receptor antagonist nor-binaltorphimine (4.9 nmol per mouse, i.t.). In the hot-plate test, the antinociceptive effect of SK-9709 (s.c., i.c.v. and i.t.) was also dose-dependent with the maximal peak effect at 120, 15 and 15 min similarly to the acetic acid-induced writhing test. The antinociceptive effects were dose-dependent and ED(50) values (range of 95% confidence limits) after s.c., i.c.v. and i.t. injection were 39.1 (5.4 - 283.0) micromol kg(-1), 6.5 (4.0 - 10.7) and 7.4 (5.0 - 11.0) nmol per mouse, respectively. These findings indicated that systemically administered SK-9709 produced long-lasting antinociceptive effects and these effects were mediated by both supra-spinal mu- and spinal kappa-opioid receptors.
Project description:PURPOSE:Targeted alpha therapy (TAT) is a promising treatment for micrometastatic and minimal residual cancer. We evaluated systemic ?-radioimmunotherapy (?-RIT) of metastatic castration-resistant prostate cancer (mCRPC) using the ?-particle emitter 211At-labeled to the anti-PSCA A11 minibody. A11 is specific for prostate stem cell antigen (PSCA), a cell surface glycoprotein which is overexpressed in more than 90% of both localized prostate cancer and bone metastases. METHODS:PC3-PSCA cells were implanted subcutaneously (s.c.) and intratibially (i.t) in nude mice. Efficacy of ?-RIT (two fractions-14-day interval) was studied on s.c. macrotumors (0, 1.5 and 1.9?MBq) and on i.t. microtumors (~100-200??m; 0, 0.8 or 1.5?MBq) by tumor-volume measurements. The injected activities for therapies were estimated from separate biodistribution and myelotoxicity studies. RESULTS:Tumor targeting of 211At-A11 was efficient and the effect on s.c. macrotumors was strong and dose-dependent. At 6?weeks, the mean tumor volumes for the treated groups, compared with controls, were reduced by approximately 85%. The separate myelotoxicity study following one single fraction showed reduced white blood cells (WBC) for all treated groups on day 6 after treatment. For the 0.8 and 1.5?MBq, the WBC reductions were transient and followed by recovery at day 13. For 2.4?MBq, a clear toxicity was observed and the mice were sacrificed on day 7. In the long-term follow-up of the 0.8 and 1.5?MBq-groups, blood counts on day 252 were normal and no signs of radiotoxicity observed. Efficacy on i.t. microtumors was evaluated in two experiments. In experiment 1, the tumor-free fraction (TFF) was 95% for both treated groups and significantly different (p < 0.05) from the controls at a TFF of 66%). In experiment 2, the difference in TFF was smaller, 32% for the treated group versus 20% for the controls. However, the difference in microtumor volume in experiment 2 was highly significant, 0.010 ± 0.003?mm3 versus 3.79 ± 1.24?mm3 (treated versus controls, respectively), i.e., a 99.7% reduction (p < 0.001). The different outcome in experiment 1 and 2 is most likely due to differences in microtumor sizes at therapy, or higher tumor-take in experiment 2 (where more cells were implanted). CONCLUSION:Evaluating fractionated ?-RIT with 211At-labeled anti-PSCA A11 minibody, we found clear growth inhibition on both macrotumors and intratibial microtumors. For mice treated with multiple fractions, we also observed radiotoxicity manifested by progressive loss in body weight at 30 to 90?days after treatment. Our findings are conceptually promising for a systemic TAT of mCRPC and warrant further investigations of 211At-labeled PSCA-directed vectors. Such studies should include methods to improve the therapeutic window, e.g., by implementing a pretargeted regimen of ?-RIT or by altering the size of the targeting vector.
Project description:Plague, which is caused by Yersinia pestis, is one of the most dangerous infectious diseases. No FDA-approved vaccine against plague is available for human use at present. To improve the immune safety of Y. pestis EV76 based live attenuated vaccine and to explore the feasibility of aerosolized intratracheal inoculation (i.t.) route for vaccine delivery, a plasminogen activator protease (pla) gene deletion mutant of the attenuated Y. pestis strain EV76-B-SHU was constructed, and its residual virulence and protective efficacy were evaluated in a mouse model via aerosolized intratracheal inoculation (i.t.) or via subcutaneous injection (s.c.). The residual virulence of EV76-B-SHU?pla was significantly reduced compared to that of the parental strain EV76-B-SHU following i.t. and s.c. infection. The EV76-B-SHU?pla induced higher levels of mucosal antibody sIgA in the bronchoalveolar lavage fluid of mice immunized by i.t. but not by s.c.. Moreover, after lethal challenge with Y. pestis biovar Microtus strain 201 (avirulent in humans), the protective efficacy and bacterial clearance ability of the EV76-B-SHU?pla-i.t. group were comparable to those of the EV76-B-SHU?pla-s.c. and EV76-B-SHU immunized groups. Thus, the EV76-B-SHU?pla represents an excellent live-attenuated vaccine candidate against pneumonic plague and aerosolized i.t. represents a promising immunization route in mouse model.
Project description:We have recently shown that intratumor (i.t.) injection of syngenic dendritic cells (DC) engineered to express the transcription factor Tbet (TBX21) promotes protective type-1 T cell-mediated immunity via a mechanism that is largely interleukin (IL)-12p70-independent. Since IL-12 is a classical promoter of type-1 immunity, the current study was undertaken to determine whether gene therapy using combined Tbet and IL-12 complementary DNA (cDNA) would yield improved antitumor efficacy based on the complementary/synergistic action of these biologic modifiers. Mice bearing established subcutaneous (s.c.) tumors injected with DC concomitantly expressing ectopic Tbet and IL12 (i.e., DC.Tbet/IL12) displayed superior (i) rates of tumor rejection and extended overall survival, (ii) cross-priming of Tc1 reactive against antigens expressed within the tumor microenvironment, and (iii) infiltration of CD8(+) T cells into treated tumors in association with elevated locoregional production of CXCR3 ligand chemokines. In established bilateral tumor models, i.t. delivery of DC.Tbet/IL12 into a single lesion led to slowed growth or regression at both tumor sites. Furthermore, DC.Tbet/IL12 pulsed with tumor antigen-derived peptides and injected as a therapy distal to the tumor site prevented tumor growth and activated robust antigen-specific Tc1 responses. These data support the translation use of combined Tbet and IL-12p70 gene therapy in the cancer setting.
Project description:BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE: Exogenously administered thyrotropin-releasing hormone (TRH) is known to exert potent but short-acting centrally-mediated antinociceptive effects. We sought to investigate the mechanisms underlying these effects using the synthetic TRH analogue taltirelin, focusing on the descending monoaminergic systems in mice. EXPERIMENTAL APPROACH: The mice received systemic or local injections of taltirelin combined with either central noradrenaline (NA) or 5-hydroxytryptamine (5-HT) depletion by 6-hydroxydopamine (6-OHDA) or DL-p-chlorophenylalanine (PCPA), respectively, or blockade of their receptors. The degree of antinociception was determined using the tail flick and tail pressure tests. KEY RESULTS: Subcutaneously (s.c.) administered taltirelin exhibited dose-dependent antinociceptive effects in the tail flick and tail pressure tests. These effects appeared to be primarily supraspinally mediated, since intracerebroventricularly (i.c.v.) but not intrathecally (i.t.) injected taltirelin generated similar effects. Depletion of central NA abolished only the analgesic effect of taltirelin (s.c. and i.c.v.) on mechanical nociception. By contrast, depletion of central 5-HT abolished only its analgesic effect on thermal nociception. Intraperitoneal (i.p.) and i.t. injection of the alpha2-adrenoceptor antagonist yohimbine respectively reduced the analgesic effect of taltirelin (s.c. and i.c.v.) on mechanical nociception. By contrast, the 5-HT1A receptor antagonist WAY-100635 (i.p. and i.t.) reduced the effect of taltirelin (s.c. and i.c.v.) on thermal nociception. Neither the 5-HT2 receptor antagonist ketanserin nor the opioid receptor antagonist naloxone altered the antinociceptive effect of taltirelin. CONCLUSIONS AND IMPLICATIONS: These findings suggest that taltirelin activates the descending noradrenergic and serotonergic pain inhibitory systems, respectively, to exert its analgesic effects on mechanical and thermal nociception.
Project description:Rhabdoid tumors are highly aggressive pediatric tumors that are usually refractory to available treatments. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the therapeutic potential of two oncolytic viruses, myxoma virus (MV) and an attenuated vesicular stomatitis virus (VSV(DeltaM51)), in experimental models of human rhabdoid tumor.Four human rhabdoid tumor cell lines were cultured in vitro and treated with live or inactivated control virus. Cytopathic effect, viral gene expression, infectious viral titers, and cell viability were examined at various time points after infection. To study viral oncolysis in vivo, human rhabdoid tumor cells were implanted s.c. in the hind flank or intracranially in CD-1 nude mice and treated with intratumoral (i.t.) or i.v. injections of live or UV-inactivated virus. Viral distribution and effects on tumor size and survival were assessed.All rhabdoid tumor cell lines tested in vitro were susceptible to productive lethal infections by MV and VSV(DeltaM51). I.t. injection of live MV or VSV(DeltaM51) dramatically reduced the size of s.c. rhabdoid tumor xenografts compared with control animals. I.v. administration of VSV(DeltaM51) or i.t. injection of MV prolonged the median survival of mice with brain xenografts compared with controls (VSV(DeltaM51): 25 days versus 21 days, log-rank test, P = 0.0036; MV: median survival not reached versus 21 days, log-rank test, P = 0.0007). Most of the MV-treated animals (4 of 6; 66.7%) were alive and apparently "cured" when the experiment was arbitrarily ended (>180 days).These results suggest that VSV(DeltaM51) and MV could be novel effective therapies against human rhabdoid tumor.
Project description:BACKGROUND: This study aims to identify that intrathecal (i.t.) injection of dexmedetomidine (Dex) and ropivacaine (Ropi) induces synergistic analgesia on chronic inflammatory pain and is accompanied with corresponding "neuron-astrocytic" alterations. METHODS: Male, adult Sprague-Dawley rats were randomly divided into sham, control and i.t. medication groups. The analgesia profiles of i.t. Dex, Ropi, and their combination detected by Hargreaves heat test were investigated on the subcutaneous (s.c.) injection of complete Freund adjuvant (CFA) induced chronic pain in rat and their synergistic analgesia was confirmed by using isobolographic analysis. During consecutive daily administration, pain behavior was daily recorded, and immunohistochemical staining was applied to investigate the number of Fos-immunoreactive (Fos-ir) neurons on hour 2 and day 1, 3 and 7, and the expression of glial fibrillary acidic protein (GFAP) within the spinal dorsal horn (SDH) on day 1, 3, 5 and 7 after s.c. injection of CFA, respectively, and then Western blot to examine spinal GFAP and ?-actin levels on day 3 and 7. RESULTS: i.t. Dex or Ropi displayed a short-term analgesia in a dose-dependent manner, and consecutive daily administrations of their combination showed synergistic analgesia and remarkably down-regulated neuronal and astrocytic activations indicated by decreases in the number of Fos-ir neurons and the GFAP expression within the SDH, respectively. CONCLUSION: i.t. co-delivery of Dex and Ropi shows synergistic analgesia on the chronic inflammatory pain, in which spinal "neuron-astrocytic activation" mechanism may play an important role.
Project description:Specific T cell responses are central for protection against infection with M. tuberculosis. Here we show that mycobacteria-specific CD4 and CD8 T cells accumulated in the lung but not in the mediastinal lymph node (MLN) at different time points after M. tuberculosis infection or BCG immunization. Proliferating specific T cells were found in the lung after infection and immunization. Pulmonary, but not MLN-derived CD4 and CD8 T cells, from M. tuberculosis-infected mice secreted IFN-? after stimulation with different mycobacterial peptides. Mycobacteria-specific resident memory CD4 and CD8 T cells (TRM) expressing PD-1 accumulated in the lung after aerosol infection and intratracheal (i.t.) -but not subcutaneous (s.c.)- BCG immunization. Chemical inhibition of recirculation indicated that TRM were generated in the lung after BCG i.t. immunization. In summary, mycobacteria specific-TRM accumulate in the lung during i.t. but not s.c. immunization or M. tuberculosis infection. Collectively our data suggests that priming, accumulation and/or expansion of specific T cells during BCG immunization and M. tuberculosis infection occurs in the lung.
Project description:Surgery and radiation are the current standard treatments for cervical cancer. However, there is no effective therapy for metastatic or recurrent cases, necessitating the identification of therapeutic targets. In order to create preclinical models for screening potential therapeutic targets, we established 14 patient-derived xenograft (PDX) models of cervical cancers using subrenal implantation methods. Serially passaged PDX tumors retained the histopathologic and genomic features of the original tumors. Among the 9 molecularly profiled cervical cancer patient samples, a HER2-amplified tumor was detected by array comparative genomic hybridization and targeted next-generation sequencing. We confirmed HER2 overexpression in the tumor and serially passaged PDX. Co-administration of trastuzumab and lapatinib in the HER2-overexpressed PDX significantly inhibited tumor growth compared to the control. Thus, we established histopathologically and genomically homologous PDX models of cervical cancer using subrenal implantation. Furthermore, we propose HER2 inhibitor-based therapy for HER2-amplified cervical cancer refractory to conventional therapy.