Chemoembolization Plus Radiotherapy Versus Chemoembolization Plus Sorafenib for the Treatment of Hepatocellular Carcinoma Invading the Portal Vein: A Propensity Score Matching Analysis.
ABSTRACT: A combination of transarterial chemoembolization (TACE) plus sorafenib or radiotherapy (RT) has demonstrated efficacy in patients with advanced hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC). Here, the two combined treatment approaches were compared in patients with HCC and portal vein tumor thrombus (PVTT). Data from 307 patients treated with TACE plus RT (n = 203) or TACE plus sorafenib (n = 104) as first-line treatment for HCC with PVTT were retrospectively evaluated. Using the propensity model to correct selection bias, 87 patients were included from each treatment group. During follow up (median, 12 months) in the entire study population, the median progression-free survival (PFS) and overall survival (OS) were significantly longer in the TACE plus RT group than in the TACE plus sorafenib group (6.5 vs. 4.3 months, respectively; p = 0.017 and 16.4 vs. 12 months, respectively; p = 0.007). Following propensity score matching, the median PFS and OS in the two groups showed no statistically significant difference. Multivariable analysis found no significant association between PFS or OS and the treatment type. In conclusion, this retrospective study of data from patients with advanced HCC with PVTT shows that PFS and OS did not differ significantly in patients treated with TACE plus RT and TACE plus sorafenib.
Project description:Sorafenib is used in patients with intermediate or advanced stage hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) before or after of transarterial chemoembolization (TACE). However, the survival outcomes of TACE combined with sorafenib versus TACE alone remain controversial. Thus, we conducted a meta-analysis to evaluate the efficacy and safety of the combination therapy of TACE plus sorafenib in patients with intermediate or advanced stage of HCC.Pubmed and Embase databases were systematically reviewed for studies published up to November 2013, that compared TACE alone or in combination with sorafenib. Pooled hazard ratios (HRs) with 95% confidence intervals (95%CIs) were calculated for overall survival (OS), time to progression (TTP), objective response rate (ORR), and progression free survival (PFS) using random-effects or fixed-effects model, depending on the heterogeneity between the included studies.Six studies published from 2011 to 2013, with a total of 1254 patients, were included in this meta-analysis. The pooled results showed that TACE combined with sorafenib significantly improved OS (HR = 0.65; 95% CI: 0.47-0.89, P = 0.007), TTP (HR = 0.68; 95% CI: 0.52-0.87, P = 0.003), ORR (HR = 1.06; 95% CI: 1.01-1.12, P = 0.021), but did not affect PFS (HR = 0.84; 95% CI: 0.62-1.14, P = 0.267). The incidence of grade III/IV adverse reaction was higher in the TACE plus sorafenib group than in the TACE group.The meta-analysis confirmed that the combination therapy of TACE plus sorafenib in patients with intermediate or advanced stage of HCC, can improve the OS, TTP, and ORR. This combination therapy was also associated with a significantly increased risk of adverse reactions.
Project description:The optimal treatment for hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) with portal vein tumor thrombus (PVTT) remains controversial. We aimed to investigate the best treatment for patients with HCC with PVTT. From January 2002 to January 2014, the data from all consecutive patients with HCC with PVTT who underwent surgical treatment (ST),TACE,TACE combined with sorafenib (TACE-Sor), or TACE combined with radiotherapy (TACE-RT) in the 4 largest tertiary hospitals in China were analyzed retrospectively. The patients were divided into 3 subtypes according to the extent of PVTT in the portal vein (type I-III). The primary endpoint was overall survival (OS). A total of 1580 patients with HCC with PVTT were included in the study. The median survival times (MST) for ST (n?=?745) for type I, II, and III patients (95% CI) were 15.9 (13.3-18.5), 12.5 (10.7-14.3), and 6.0 (4.3-7.7) months, respectively. The corresponding figures for patients after TACE (n?=?604) were 9.3 (5.6-12.9), 4.9 (4.1-5.7), and 4.0 (3.1-4.9), respectively; for patients after TACE-Sor (n?=?113) 12.0 (6.6-17.4), 8.9 (6.7-11.1), and 7.0 (3.0-10.9), respectively; and for patients after TACE-RT (n?=?118) 12.2 (0-24.7), 10.6 (6.8-14.5), and 8.9 (5.2-12.6), respectively. Comparison among the different treatments for the 3 subtypes of PVTT patients after propensity score (PS) matching showed the effectiveness of ST to be the best for type I and type II PVTT patients, and TACE-RT was most beneficial for type III patients. Treatment was an independent risk factor of OS. ST was the best treatment for type I and II PVTT patients with Child-Pugh A and selected B liver function. TACE-RT should be given to type III PVTT patients.
Project description:Patients with hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) accompanying portal vein tumor thrombosis (PVTT) have relatively few therapeutic options and an extremely poor prognosis. These patients are classified into barcelona clinic liver cancer stage C and sorafenib is suggested as the standard therapy of care. However, overall survival (OS) gain from sorafenib is unsatisfactory and better treatment modalities are urgently required. Therefore, we critically appraised recent data for the various treatment strategies for patients with HCC accompanying PVTT. In suitable patients, even surgical resection can be considered a potentially curative strategy. Transarterial chemoembolization (TACE) can be performed effectively and safely in a carefully chosen population of patients with reserved liver function and sufficient collateral blood flow nearby the blocked portal vein. A recent meta-analysis demonstrated that TACE achieved a substantial improvement of OS in HCC patients accompanying PVTT compared with best supportive care. In addition, transarterial radioembolization (TARE) using yttrium-90 microspheres achieves quality-of-life advantages and is as effective as TACE. A large proportion of HCC patients accompanying PVTT are considered to be proper for TARE. Moreover, TACE or TARE achieved comparable outcomes to sorafenib in recent studies and it was also reported that the combination of radiotherapy with TACE achieved a survival gain compared to sorafenib in HCC patients accompanying PVTT. Surgical resection-based multimodal treatments, transarterial approaches including TACE and TARE, and TACE-based appropriate combination strategies may improve OS of HCC patients accompanying PVTT.
Project description:To investigate the value of changes in alpha-fetoprotein (AFP) levels for the prediction of radiologic response and survival outcomes in hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) patients with portal vein tumor thrombus (PVTT) who received combined treatment of 3-dimensional conformal radiotherapy (3D-CRT) and transarterial chemoembolization (TACE).A database of 154 HCC patients with PVTT and elevated AFP levels (>20 ng/mL) treated with 3D-CRT and TACE as an initial treatment between August 2002 and August 2008 was retrospectively reviewed. AFP levels were determined 1 month after radiotherapy, and AFP response was defined as an AFP level reduction of >20% from the initial level. Radiologic response, overall survival (OS), and progression-free survival (PFS) rates were compared between AFP responders and non-responders. Propensity-score based matching analysis was performed to minimize the effect of potential confounding bias.The median follow-up period was 11.1 months (range, 3.1-82.7 months). In the propensity-score matching cohort (92 pairs), a best radiologic response of CR or PR occurred in more AFP responders than AFP non-responders (41.3% vs. 10.9%, p < 0.001). OS and PFS were also longer in AFP responders than in non-responders (median OS 13.2 months vs. 5.6 months, p < 0.001; median PFS 8.7 months vs. 3.5 months, p < 0.001).AFP response is a significant predictive factor for radiologic response. Furthermore, AFP response is significant for OS and PFS outcomes. AFP evaluation after combined radiotherapy and TACE appears to be a useful predictor of clinical outcomes in HCC patients with PVTT.
Project description:Stereotactic body radiotherapy (SBRT) has shown promising results in the control of macroscopic vascular invasion in patients with hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC); however, its efficacy in comparison to sorafenib when combined with transarterial chemoembolization (TACE) remains to be determined. Between 2009 and 2017, 77 HCC patients with macroscopic vascular invasion receiving TACE?SBRT or TACE?sorafenib combination therapies were enrolled. The best treatment responses, overall survival (OS), and progression-free survival (PFS) of the two treatment arms were compared. Of the patients enrolled, 26 patients (33.8%) received TACE?SBRT treatment, and 51 (66.2%) received TACE?sorafenib treatment. The patients in the TACE?SBRT group were more frequently classified as elder in age (p = 0.012), having recurrent disease (p = 0.026), and showing lower rates of multiple hepatic lesions (p = 0.005) than patients in TACE?sorafenib group. After propensity score matching (PSM), 26 pairs of well-matched HCC patients were selected; patients in the TACE?SBRT group showed better overall response rates in trend compared to those in the TACE?sorafenib group. The hazard ratio (HR) of OS to PFS for the TACE?SBRT approach and the TACE?sorafenib approach was 0.36 (95% CI, 0.17?0.75; p = 0.007) and 0.35 (95% CI, 0.20?0.62; p < 0.001), respectively. For HCC patients with macrovascular invasion, TACE plus SBRT could provide improved OS and PFS compared to TACE?sorafenib therapy.
Project description:<h4>Aims</h4>The purpose of the present study was to compare the efficacies of transarterial chemoembolization (TACE) combined with sorafenib versus TACE monotherapy for treating patients with advanced hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC).<h4>Methods</h4>We enrolled 321 patients and selected 280 with advanced HCC (Barcelona Clinic Liver Cancer stage C) who underwent TACE therapy between February 2009 and February 2013. TACE alone (monotherapy group) was administered to 198 patients (70.7%), and the remaining 82 (29.3%) underwent repeat combined TACE and sorafenib therapy (combined group). To minimize selection bias, these latter 82 patients were matched using propensity-score matching at a 1?2 ratio with 164 patients who received TACE monotherapy. The primary endpoints were overall survival (OS) and related subgroup analysis. The secondary endpoints were time to progression (TTP) and treatment-related adverse events.<h4>Results</h4>Of the respective patients in the combined and monotherapy groups, 64.6% and 49.2% had vascular invasion, 87.8% and 91.1% had extrahepatic metastasis, and 54.3% and 47.1% had both. In the propensity-score-matched cohort, the OS survival of the combined group was significantly higher compared with the monotherapy group (7.0 months vs. 4.9 months, respectively, P?=?0.003). The TTP was significantly longer in the combined group (2.6 months vs. 1.9 months, respectively, P?=?0.001). Subgroup analysis showed that the outcomes of patients with advanced HCC without main portal vein invasion who were treated with combined therapy were significantly better compared with those who received monotherapy (P<0.05). Univariate and subsequent multivariate analyses revealed that the addition of sorafenib was an independent predictor of favorable OS and TTP (adjusted hazard ratios, 0.63 and 0.62, respectively; P<0.05 for both).<h4>Conclusion</h4>Sorafenib plus TACE was more effective than TACE monotherapy for treating patients with advanced HCC without main portal vein invasion. Future trials with larger samples are required to validate these preliminary findings.
Project description:Background:The potential advantages of Jiedu granule (a compound Chinese herbal medicine) combined therapeutic strategies compared with non-Jiedu granule therapeutic strategies for hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) with portal vein tumor thrombosis (PVTT) remain unclear. Thus, the purpose of the study was to investigate the safety and efficacy of Jiedu granule for HCC with PVTT. Methods:We retrospectively reviewed the clinical data of 190 patients (94 for non-Jiedu and 96 for Jiedu) with HCC and PVTT from March 2012 to October 2016. Patients were followed up by outpatient examination and telephone till November 2018. Results:It was statistically insignificant between the two groups in baseline characteristics. Procedure-related adverse events (AEs) were observed and compared and most of them were not serious which were easily controlled or subsided naturally. No AE-induced death happened. The median overall survival (OS) rates in the single TACE plus GKR and Jiedu granule combined group were 11.3 months (95% CI: 9.168-13.435) and 15.8 months (95% CI: 13.244-18.339), respectively (p = 0.00047). Conclusions:Jiedu granule combined with TACE plus GKR is safe in HCC patients with PVTT and this Chinese herbal medicine is worthy to be promoted because of better prognosis which needs further research.
Project description:As prognosis of patients with metastatic hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) is mainly determined by intrahepatic HCC progression, local treatment with TACE may result in improved OS, although it is not recommended. The purpose of this study was to analyze retrospectively the efficacy of TACE and its impact on OS in patients with metastatic hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC).Two hundred and fifteen patients with metastatic HCC who were treated at our Liver Center between 2003 and 2014 were included in this retrospective analysis. Medical records, laboratory parameters and imaging studies were analyzed. Treatment of metastatic HCC and OS were assessed RESULTS: One hundred and two patients (47.4%) did not receive any HCC specific treatment while 48 patients (22.3%) were treated with sorafenib, 42 patients (19.5%) with TACE and 23 patients (10.7%) received treatment with TACE and sorafenib in combination. Survival analyses and Cox regression models revealed that TACE and a combination therapy of TACE and sorafenib were significant prognostic factors in metastatic HCC. However, further analyses revealed that there was no additional prognostic effect of adding sorafenib to TACE treatment in this patient cohort.In metastatic HCC, treatment of intrahepatic tumor by TACE may be associated with improved survival. These results support the prognostic importance of treating intrahepatic HCC even in patients with metastatic disease. Therefore, we suggest evaluating the technical feasibility of TACE in all metastatic patients.
Project description:Sorafenib is the recommended treatment for advanced hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC), but transarterial chemoembolization (TACE) is performed in individual cases with limited extrahepatic spread. The aim of this study was to compare the outcome of patients with HCC and extrahepatic disease (EHD) treated with sorafenib and TACE.A total of 172 patients with HCC and EHD treated with sorafenib (n?=?98) or TACE (n?=?74) at three German referral centers (Hannover, Mainz and Hamburg) were included in this study. In order to reduce selection bias, patients were matched for significant demographic differences using a propensity score analysis.Patients with liver cirrhosis, higher extrahepatic tumor burden and/or infiltration of adjacent organs/structures were significantly more often treated with sorafenib. Median overall survival (OS) was similar for sorafenib- and TACE-treated patients (7 versus 8 months, p?=?0.312). In a propensity score analysis matched for demographic differences, median OS remained similar with 4 versus 8 months for sorafenib versus TACE (p?=?0.613).Treatment with TACE is not inferior to treatment with sorafenib in patients with limited EHD of HCC. TACE represents an effective therapeutic option in selected patients with EHD.
Project description:<b>Purpose:</b> The study aims to retrospectively investigate the efficacy and safety of sorafenib combined with transarterial chemoembolization (TACE) (TACE+Sor) vs. TACE combined with sorafenib plus immune checkpoint inhibitors (TACE+Sor+ICIs) in treating intermediate and advanced TACE-refractory hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC). <b>Materials and Methods:</b> This study was approved by the ethics committee of Lisui Hospital, Zhejiang University, China. From January 2016 to June 2020, 51 eligible patients with intermediate or advanced TACE-refractory HCC received TACE+Sor (<i>n</i> = 29) or TACE+Sor+ICIs (<i>n</i> = 22). The differences in tumor response, adverse events (AEs), progression-free survival (PFS), and overall survival (OS) were compared between the two groups. Factors affecting PFS and OS were determined by Cox regression. <b>Results:</b> The disease control rate was higher in the TACE+Sor+ICIs group than in the TACE+Sor group (81.82 vs. 55.17%, <i>P</i> = 0.046). Compared with the TACE+Sor group, PFS and OS were prolonged in the TACE+Sor+ICIs group (median PFS: 16.26 vs. 7.30 months, <i>P</i> < 0.001; median OS: 23.3 vs. 13.8 months, <i>P</i> = 0.012). Multivariate analysis showed that BCLC stage, alpha-fetoprotein and treatment were independent factors of PFS; BCLC, Child-Pugh class, ablation after disease progression and treatment were independent predictive factors of OS. Four patients in the TACE+Sor+ICIs group and three patients in the TACE+Sor group suffered from dose reduction or interruption (18.18 vs. 10.34%, <i>P</i> = 0.421). The incidence of ICI-related AEs in the TACE+Sor+ICIs group was well-controlled. <b>Conclusion:</b> The therapeutic schedule of TACE+Sor+ICIs demonstrated efficacy and safety in intermediate and advanced TACE-refractory HCC.