Evaluation of Second-line Anti-VEGF after First-line Anti-EGFR Based Therapy in RAS Wild-Type Metastatic Colorectal Cancer: The Multicenter "SLAVE" Study.
ABSTRACT: : Background: The optimal anti-angiogenic strategy as second-line treatment in RAS wild-type metastatic colorectal cancer (mCRC) treated with anti-EGFR (Epidermal Growth Factor Receptor) based first-line treatment is still debated. METHODS:This multicenter, real-world, retrospective study is aimed at evaluating the effectiveness of second-line Bevacizumab- and Aflibercept-based treatments after an anti-EGFR based first-line regimen. Clinical outcomes measured were: objective response rate (ORR), progression free survival (PFS), overall survival (OS) and adverse events (AEs) profiles. RESULTS:From February 2011 to October 2019, 277 consecutive mCRC patients received Bevacizumab-based (228, 82.3%) or Aflibercept-based (49, 17.7%) regimen. No significant difference was found regarding ORR. The median follow-up was 27.7 months (95%CI: 24.7-34.4). Aflibercept-treated group had a significantly shorter PFS compared to Bevacizumab-treated group (5.6 vs. 7.1 months, respectively) (HR = 1.34 (95%CI: 0.95-1.89); p = 0.0932). The median OS of the Bevacizumab-treated group and Aflibercept-treated group was 16.2 (95%CI: 15.3-18.1) and 12.7 (95%CI: 8.8-17.5) months, respectively (HR= 1.31 (95%CI: 0.89-1.93) p = 0.16). After adjusting for the key covariates (age, gender, performance status, number of metastatic sites and primary tumor side) Bevacizumab-based regimens revealed to be significantly related with a prolonged PFS (HR = 1.44 (95%CI: 1.02-2.03); p = 0.0399) compared to Aflibercept-based regimens, but not with a prolonged OS (HR = 1.47 (95%CI: 0.99-2.17); p = 0.0503). The incidence of G3/G4 VEGF inhibitors class-specific AEs was 7.5% and 26.5% in the Bevacizumab-treated group and the Aflibercept-treated group, respectively (p = 0.0001). CONCLUSION:Our analysis seems to reveal that Bevacizumab-based regimens have a slightly better PFS and class-specific AEs profile compared to Aflibercept-based regimen as second-line treatment of RAS wild-type mCRC patients previously treated with anti-EGFR based treatments. These results have to be taken with caution and no conclusive considerations are allowed.
Project description:<h4>Background</h4>Three vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) inhibitors, Bevacizumab (BEV), ramucirumab (RAM), and aflibercept (AFL), are widely used for metastatic colorectal cancer (mCRC) patients who are treated with second-line chemotherapy. The difference in outcome between the three drugs has not been evaluated. In contrast to epidermal growth factor receptor inhibitors, VEGF inhibitors have few candidate predictors of efficacy.<h4>Methods</h4>Consecutive mCRC patients who were treated with second-line chemotherapy were retrospectively enrolled. Overall response rate (ORR), progression-free survival (PFS), overall survival (OS), and safety were assessed. Subgroup analyses of prognostic and predictive efficacy markers were performed.<h4>Results</h4>A total of 119 (41.2%), 107 (37.0%), and 63 patients (21.8%) were treated with FOLFIRI +BEV, RAM, or AFL, respectively. ORR, PFS, and OS showed no significant differences between three groups. However, the frequency of grade 3 or 4 adverse events (AEs) in the FOLFIRI +AFL group was significantly higher than that in the other groups (p < 0.001). Patients with grade 3 or 4 AEs, especially hypertension and neutropenia within the first four cycles of treatment had significantly longer PFS and OS than those without AEs, irrespective of treatment with VEGF inhibitors (p < 0.001). PFS in patients without prior BEV exposure was also significantly longer than that in patients with prior BEV exposure (p = 0.003).<h4>Conclusions</h4>Chemotherapeutic efficacy did not differ between the groups. Grade 3 or 4 AEs within the first four cycles of treatment and prior BEV exposure may be an effective predictor of treatment efficacy in mCRC patients administered VEGF inhibitors as second-line chemotherapy.
Project description:The emerging debate between primary tumor location and clinical outcome of bevacizumab treated metastatic colorectal cancer (mCRC) continues. The aim of the present study is to investigate the association between the primary tumor location and clinical outcome of 115 mCRC patients receiving bevacizumab based treatment. A meta-analysis including 21 studies was carried out to confirm the conclusion. In our prospective study, we found that right-sided mCRC commonly occurred in older cases (p = 0.03) with multiple-site metastasis (p = 0.03). Progression-free survival (PFS) of the left-sided patients undergoing bevacizumab plus a FOLFIRI regimen was superior to the right-sided cases (p = 0.03, crude HR = 0.31, 95%CI = 0.11–0.87; adjusted HR = 0.21, 95%CI = 0.06–0.66). The meta-analysis confirmed that efficacy of bevacizumab-based treatment in left-sided mCRC patients was better than the right-sided cases in the overall population (Ph = 0.24, combined OR = 1.36, 95%CI = 1.07–1.72), RAS/BRAF wild-type (Ph = 0.19, combined OR = 1.66, 95%CI = 1.17–2.34), clinical trial (Ph = 0.23, combined OR = 1.42, 95%CI = 1.07–1.88), Caucasian population (Ph = 0.18, combined OR = 1.37, 95%CI = 1.02–1.85) and first-line (Ph = 0.19, combined OR = 1.48, 95%CI = 1.13–1.96) subgroups. Improved survival of bevacizumab plus chemotherapy treated left-sided mCRC patients was observed in the overall population [Ph < 0.01, combined MSR = 1.09, 95%CI = 1.00–1.18 for PFS; Ph < 0.01, combined MSR = 1.24, 95%CI = 1.13–1.36 for overall survival (OS)], especially in the RAS/BRAF wild-type (Ph = 0.09, combined MSR = 1.10, 95%CI = 1.03–1.19 for PFS; Ph = 0.02, combined MSR = 1.34, 95%CI = 1.21–1.49 for OS). These findings indicate that primary tumor sidedness can predict clinical outcome of bevacizumab-treated RAS/BRAF wild-type mCRC patients and the left-sided patients may benefit more from bevacizumab plus FOLFIRI.
Project description:BACKGROUND:Aflibercept (ziv-aflibercept) is an anti-angiogenic agent recently approved in combination with FOLFIRI for the treatment of metastatic colorectal cancer (mCRC) patients previously treated with oxaliplatin. Despite heterogeneity in response to aflibercept, no biomarkers for efficacy or adverse effects have been identified. Here we present biomarker data from the randomised phase II AFFIRM trial assessing aflibercept in combination with mFOLFOX6 first line in mCRC. METHODS:Ninety-six somatic mutations in key oncogenic drivers of mCRC and 133 common single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) pathway genes were analysed, and 27 plasma markers measured at baseline, during and after treatment. We assessed correlations of these three classes of biomarkers with progression-free survival (PFS) and adverse events (AEs). RESULTS:Somatic mutations identified in KRAS, BRAF, NRAS, PIK3CA and PIK3R1 did not significantly correlate with PFS (multiple testing-adjusted false discovery rate (FDR) or multiple testing-adjusted FDR>0.3). None of the individual SNPs correlated with PFS (multiple testing-adjusted FDR>0.22), but at the gene level variability in VEGFB significantly correlated with PFS (multiple testing-adjusted FDR=0.0423). Although none of the plasma markers measured at baseline significantly correlated with PFS, high levels of circulating IL8 at baseline together with increased levels of IL8 during treatment were significantly associated with reduced PFS (multiple testing-adjusted FDR=0.0478). No association was found between biomarkers and AEs. CONCLUSIONS:This represents the first biomarker study in mCRC treated with aflibercept. High IL8 plasma levels at baseline and subsequent increases in IL8 were associated with worse PFS, suggesting that IL8 may act as a potentially predictive biomarker of aflibercept treatment outcome.
Project description:The addition of aflibercept to FOLFIRI has been demonstrated to improve survival in patients with metastatic colorectal cancer (mCRC) who progressed after receiving a standard oxaliplatin-based regimen. In this retrospective, single-institution, observational study we collected clinical data from mCRC patients who received aflibercept in combination with FOLFIRI in routine clinical practice from October 2012 to March 2021 to describe feasibility and efficacy of this regimen in a real-world population. Forty-nine patients receiving aflibercept-FOLFIRI as second-line treatment were identified, 40.8% of whom were aged over 65 years. The majority of patients had multi-organ metastases (73.5%), and had previously received bevacizumab in combination with chemotherapy (CT) as first-line treatment (79.6%). Median overall survival (OS) and progression-free survival (PFS) were 13 and 6 months, respectively; overall response rate (ORR) and disease control rate (DCR) were 12.3% and 49.1%, respectively. Several factors were associated with survival in univariate analysis, including PFS in first-line therapy, number of metastatic sites, bone metastases and others. However, in multivariate analysis, only PFS in first-line CT over 12 months was significantly associated with better OS (HR 0.32; 95% CI 0.13-0.79; <i>p</i> = 0.01). Hypertension was the most commonly reported grade (G) 3-4 adverse event (AE), affecting 18.4% of the overall population. Thromboembolic events were observed in 16.3% of patients, hemorrhagic events in 10.2%, and proteinuria in 8.2%. Neutropenia was the most frequently observed hematological G3-4 AE with an incidence of 10.2%. Aflibercept-FOLFIRI has been confirmed as a feasible second-line treatment for mCRC in a re-al-life setting, and PFS in first-line therapy >12 months resulted as the only predictive marker of better survival.
Project description:<h4>Background</h4>Metastatic colorectal cancer (mCRC) has low survival rates. We assessed if addition of veliparib, concurrent to FOLFIRI, improves survival in patients with previously untreated mCRC.<h4>Methods</h4>This study compared veliparib (200 mg BID for 7 days of each 14-day cycle) to placebo, each with FOLFIRI. Bevacizumab was allowed in both arms. The primary endpoint was progression-free survival (PFS).<h4>Results</h4>Patients were randomised to receive veliparib (n = 65) or placebo (n = 65) in combination with FOLFIRI. Median PFS was 12 vs 11 months (veliparib vs placebo) [HR = 0.94 (95% CI: 0.60, 1.48)]. Median OS was 25 vs 27 months [HR = 1.26 (95% CI: 0.74, 2.16)]. Response rate was 57% vs 62%. Median DOR was 11 vs 9 months [HR = 0.73 (95% CI: 0.38, 1.40)]. AEs with significantly higher frequency (p < 0.05) in the veliparib group were anaemia (39% vs 19%, p = 0.019) and neutropenia (66% vs 37%, p = 0.001) for common AEs (≥20%); neutropenia (59% vs 22%, p < 0.001) for common Grade 3/4 AEs (≥5%); none in serious AEs. Haematopoietic cytopenias were more common with veliparib (79% vs 52%, p = 0.003). Fourteen percent of patients on veliparib and 15% on placebo discontinued treatment due to AEs.<h4>Conclusion</h4>Veliparib added to FOLFIRI ± bevacizumab demonstrated similar efficacy as FOLFIRI ± bevacizumab in frontline mCRC patients. No unexpected safety concerns occurred.
Project description:It is not well determined whether primary tumor resection is associated with better outcomes in metastatic colorectal cancer (mCRC) patients treated with bevacizumab. In this meta-analysis, we aimed to assess the prognostic role of primary tumor resection in mCRC treated with bevacizumab. Electronic databases including the Cochrane library, Embase, and Pubmed were searched until April 2018. Clinical studies assessing the influence of primary tumor resection on the efficacy of bevacizumab in patients with mCRC were identified. The primary endpoint was overall survival (OS), and the secondary endpoint was progression-free survival (PFS). Seven studies including 2760 mCRC patients were finally included. The results of the meta-analysis were in favor of bevacizumab to patients with resected primary tumor in terms of OS (HR?=?0.50, 95%CI: 0.39-0.64; p?<?0.01), and PFS (HR?=?0.65, 95%CI: 0.51-0.81; p?<?0.01). Administration of bevacizumab in mCRC patients with resected primary tumor had a better OS (HR?=?0.65, 95%CI: 0.56-0.74; p?<?0.01), when compared to chemotherapy(CT). Adding bevacizumab to mCRC patients without resection of primary tumor also had a better OS (HR?=?0.78, 95%CI: 0.65-0.94; p?<?0.01) and PFS (HR?=?0.71, 95%CI: 0.57-0.88; p?<?0.01) compared to chemotherapy alone. In conclusion, mCRC patients with resected primary tumor have better survival than those without surgery of primary tumor when treated with bevacizumab. Primary tumor resection status should be taken into consideration when using bevacizumab in mCRC.
Project description:<b>Background:</b> There are no clinical studies comparing the efficacy of bevacizumab vs.aflibercept in association with folfiri in RAS mutated (RAS-M) metastatic colorectal cancer patients (mCRC) pretreated with folfox and bevacizumab. <b>Patients and Methods:</b> Consecutive RAS-M unresectable mCRC patients progressing to first-line folfox/bevacizumab were treated with 12 cycles of folfiri/bevacizumab (arm A) or folfiri/aflibercept (arm B) at Oncologist discretion. Differences in overall survival between the two schedules were analyzed. Responses and toxicities were described with RECIST and NCI-CTC v4.0, respectively. <b>Results:</b> Seventy-four patients were treated from January 2014 to January 2018; 31 with arm A, 43 with arm B. Among clinical factors there was a predominance of more extended disease (>2 metastatic sites) in arm B (26/43 [60.5%] vs. 10/31 [32.2%] arm A; <i>p</i> = 0.0414). Fifty-nine patients were evaluable for response: arm A, 5 PR (Partial Response), 15 SD (Stable Disease), 8 PD (Progressive Disease); arm B, 5 PR, 16 SD, 10 PD. There were no grade 4 toxic events. Duration of first-line chemotherapy was significantly shorter in patients treated in arm B (12 pts <6 months, 16 pts ?6, and <12, 15 pts ?12) vs. arm A (1 pts <6 months, 14 pts ?6, and <12, 16 pts ?12) (<i>p</i> = 0.0210); these patients were excluded from survival analysis to avoid prognostic interferences. No maintenance treatment with aflibercept was done in arm B while in arm A bevacizumab with or without fluorouracil and folinic acid were allowed. Median OS were 8.9 months in arm A vs. 12.1 months in arm B (+3.2 months; <i>p</i> = 0.9331, HR: 1.02; 95% CI: 0.57-1.84). Six-months survivals were 65% in arm A and 80% in arm B. <b>Conclusions:</b> Folfiri/bevacizumab and folfiri/aflibercept are equally effective second-line therapies in RAS-M mCRC patients. Although not significant, folfiri/aflibercept was associated with a lower risk of death particularly during the 6-months induction phase.
Project description:Panitumumab and bevacizumab have been widely used in combination with chemotherapy for patients with wild type RAS metastatic colorectal cancer (mCRC). Whether panitumumab or bevacizumab was the optimal option remained controversial. Thus, we conducted a meta-anaylsis to evaluate chemotherapy plus panitumumab (C?+?P) versus chemotherapy plus bevacizumab (C?+?B) in wild type RAS mCRC. Electronic databases including PubMed, Embase, and Web of Science, Cochrane Library, ClinicalTrials.gov, were searched. This meta-analysis estimated the progression-free survival (PFS), overall survival (OS), overall response rate (ORR) and adverse events (AEs). Three randomized controlled trials with a total number of 577 patients were included. In wild type RAS population, PFS [hazard ratio (HR)?=?0.96; 95% confidence interval (CI), 0.76 to 1.15] and OS (HR?=?0.90; 95% CI, 0.54 to 1.27) and ORR [relative ratio (RR)?=?2.06; 95% CI, 0.86 to 4.90] appeared similar between the two treatments, the incidence of AEs slightly increased (RR?=?1.16; 95% CI 1.08 to 1.26). In conclusion, there was insufficient evidence to precisely conclude that combination treatment of C?+?P had an improved efficacy compared with C?+?B. Further large-scale and better-designed clinical trials are still needed to evaluate the combination treatment of C?+?P in patients with wild type RAS mCRC.
Project description:Background: Beta-adrenergic signalling plays an important role in several cancer-related processes, including angiogenesis. The impact of beta-blocker use on prognosis of cancer patients treated with antiangiogenic agents is unclear. The aim of this study was to evaluate the association between the incidental use of beta-blockers and the outcomes of patients with metastatic colorectal cancer (mCRC) treated with bevacizumab-based therapy. Methods: Clinical data from 514 mCRC patients treated with bevacizumab between 2005 and 2019 were analysed retrospectively. The association of progression-free survival (PFS) and overall survival (OS) with the incidental use of beta-blockers and other common antihypertensive drugs was assessed. Results: The median PFS and OS for patients using beta-blockers was 11.40 (95% confidence interval (CI) 10.10-13.61) months and 26.8 (95% CI 22.2-32.2) months compared with 8.30 (95% CI 7.80-9.57) and 21.0 (95% CI 17.8-23.8) months for patients not using beta-blockers (p = 0.006 and p = 0.009, respectively). In the Cox multivariate analysis, the use of beta-blockers was a significant factor predicting both PFS (hazard ratio (HR) = 0.763 (95% CI 0.606-0.960), p = 0.021) and OS (HR = 0.730 (95% CI 0.560-0.951), p = 0.020). Conclusions: The results of the present retrospective study suggest that there is a significant association between the use of beta-blockers and favourable outcomes of mCRC patients treated with bevacizumab-based therapy.
Project description:(1) Background: Bevacizumab-based regimens are a standard treatment for metastatic colorectal cancer (mCRC) patients, however meaningful clinical biomarkers for treatment benefit remain scarce. (2) Methods: Tumor samples from 36 mCRC patients treated with bevacizumab-based chemotherapy underwent comprehensive genomic profiling. Alterations in frequently altered genes and important signaling pathways were correlated with progression-free survival (PFS). (3) Results: Overall genetic alteration analysis of investigated genes and pathways did not identify promising new predictors of PFS. However, when considering mutation subtypes, <i>TP53</i> DNA binding domain (DBD) missense mutations were associated with prolonged PFS (HR, 0.41; 95% CI, 0.13-0.65; <i>p</i> = 0.005). In contrast, <i>TP53</i> truncating mutations were associated with short PFS (HR, 2.95; 95% CI, 1.45-27.50; <i>p</i> = 0.017). Importantly, neither <i>TP53</i> mutation subtype was associated with overall response rate. In multivariate analysis, <i>TP53</i> DBD missense mutations remained an independent PFS predictor (HR, 0.31; 95% CI, 0.13-0.77; <i>p</i> = 0.011). The other genetic factor independently associated with PFS were <i>PTPRT/PTPRD</i> deleterious alterations, which we previously identified in a screen for biomarkers of bevacizumab response. (4) Conclusions: <i>TP53</i> DBD missense mutations may predict prolonged PFS in mCRC patients treated with bevacizumab-based therapy. Analyses of <i>TP53</i> mutations as clinical biomarkers should take the biological impact of different mutation subtypes into consideration to improve patient stratification.