The patient demographics, radiographic index and surgical invasiveness for mechanical failure (PRISM) model established for adult spinal deformity surgery.
ABSTRACT: Mechanical failure (MF) following adult spinal deformity (ASD) surgery is a severe complication and often requires revision surgery. Predicting a patient's risk of MF is difficult, despite several potential risk factors that have been reported. The purpose of this study was to establish risk stratification model for predicting the MF based on demographic, and radiographic data. This is a multicenter retrospective review of the risk stratification for MF and included 321 surgically treated ASD patients (55?±?19?yr, female: 91%). The analyzed variables were recorded for at least 2?yr and included age, gender, BMI, BMD, smoking status, frailty, fusion level, revision surgery, PSO, LIF, previous surgery, spinal alignment, GAP score, Schwab-SRS type, and rod materials. Multivariate logistic regression analyses were performed to identify the independent risk factors for MF. Each risk factor was assigned a value based on its regression coefficient, and the values of all risk factors were summed to obtain the PRISM score (range 0-12). We used an 8:2 ratio to split the data into a training and a testing cohort to establish and validate the model. MF developed in 41% (n?=?104) of the training subjects. Multivariate analysis revealed that BMI, BMD, PT, and frailty were independent risk factors for MF (BMI: OR 1.7 [1.0-2.9], BMD: OR 3.8 [1.9-7.7], PT: OR 2.6 [1.8-3.9], frailty: OR 1.9 [1.1-3.2]). The MF rate increased with and correlated well with the risk grade as shown by ROC curve (AUC of 0.81 [95% CI 0.76-0.86]). The discriminative ability of the score in the testing cohort was also good (AUC of 0.86 ([95% CI 0.77-0.95]). We successfully developed an MF-predicting model from individual baseline parameters. This model can predict a patient's risk of MF and will help surgeons adjust treatment strategies to mitigate the risk of MF.
Project description:Patients with autism spectrum disorder (ASD) are at increased risk for fracture, and peri-pubertal boys with ASD have lower bone mineral density (BMD) than controls. Data are lacking regarding BMD in older adolescents with ASD. We compared BMD using dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry in 9 adolescents/young adults with ASD against 9 typically developing matched controls. Patients with ASD and controls were excluded if they had other underlying conditions that may affect bone. Compared to controls, patients with ASD had (i) lower femoral neck and hip BMD Z-scores, and (ii) lower spine, femoral neck and hip height adjusted BMD Z-scores even after controlling for BMI. Understanding the underlying pathophysiology will be key to developing therapies to improve BMD and reduce fracture risk.
Project description:BACKGROUND:Frailty is characterised by age-related declines in physical, psychological and social functioning. Features of frailty overlap with risk factors for fragility fractures. The aim of this study was to investigate the association between the fracture risk assessment tool (FRAX®) and frailty. METHODS:In cross-sectional analysis, frailty status was determined for participants aged 60-90?yr at 15-year follow-up of the Geelong Osteoporosis Study, using a modified Fried frailty phenotype. Using the FRAX on-line tool, scores for hip and major osteoporotic fracture (MOF) were calculated with and without bone mineral density (BMD). Using the area under Receiver Operating Characteristic (AUROC) curves, and FRAX scores calculated at the baseline visit for these participants, we investigated the association of FRAX and frailty 15?years later. RESULTS:Forty-seven of 303 women (15.5%) and 41 of 282 men (14.5%) were frail at the 15-year visit. There was a gradient of increasing median FRAX scores from robust to frail. For example, for women, median MOF-FRAX without BMD increased from 5.9 for the robust to 7.5 for the pre-frail and 14.0 for the frail (p?<?0.001). In secondary analyses, an association was observed between FRAX and frailty over 15?years, with the highest AUROC for women being 0.72 for MOF-FRAX with BMD, and for men, 0.76 hip-FRAX without BMD. CONCLUSION:An association was observed between FRAX and frailty where frail men and women had higher FRAX-scores compared to the other groups. Preliminary data suggest that FRAX, with or without BMD, may be useful in enhancing the information on frailty. Further research using larger datasets will be required to explore this.
Project description:<b>Study design: </b>A meta-analysis.<br><br><b>Objective: </b>We performed a meta-analysis to explore the incidence and risk factors of adjacent segment degeneration (ASD) after posterior lumbar fusion surgery.<br><br><b>Methods: </b>An extensive search of the literature was performed in English database of PubMed, Embase, and Cochrane Library, and Chinese database of CNKI and WANFANG (up to May 2020). We collected factors including demographic data, surgical factor, and sagittal parameters. Data analysis was conducted with RevMan 5.3 and STATA 12.0.<br><br><b>Results: </b>Finally, 19 studies were included in the final analysis. In our study, the rate of ASD after posterior lumbar fusion surgery was 18.6% (540 of 2896). Our data also showed that mean age, body mass index (BMI), the history of smoking and hypertension, preoperative adjacent disc degeneration, long-segment fusion, preoperative superior facet violation, high lumbosacral joint angle, pre- and post-operative L1-S1 sagittal vertical axis (SVA), post-operative lumbar lordosis (LL), and preoperative pelvic incidence (PI) were associated with the development of ASD. However, gender, history of diabetes, bone mineral density (BMD), preoperative Oswestry Disability Index (ODI) and Japanese Orthopedic Association (JOA), the type of fusion (PLIF vs TLIF), type of bone graft (auto- vs allograft), fusion to S1(vs non-fusion to S1), diagnose (lumbar disc herniation, lumbar spinal stenosis, lumbar spondylolisthesis), preoperative pelvic tilt (PT), LL and sacral slope (SS), post-operative SS, PT and PI were not associated with the development of ASD.<br><br><b>Conclusions: </b>In our study, many factors were correlated with the risk of ASD after posterior lumbar fusion surgery. We hope this article can provide a reference for spinal surgeons in treatment for lumbar degenerative diseases.
Project description:Study Design:Narrative review. Objective:The prevalence of adult spinal deformity (ASD) has been cited anywhere between 2-32%, while the prevalence in the elderly population has been estimated at 68%. Neurologic complications following ASD surgery remains a concern. Previous literature reported incidence of neurologic complications varied between 1-10%, while non-neurologic complications reported were as high as 50%. To assess the incidence of neurologic deficits, complications, and outcomes following ASD surgery, an international group of spine deformity surgeons initiated a prospective, multicenter, international, observational study: Scoli-RISK-1. Methods:Two hundred seventy-two patients were enrolled from 15 centers with ASD having primary or revision surgery with a major Cobb?80°, revision including an osteotomy, and/or a complex 3-column osteotomy. Patients had lower extremity muscle strength (LEMS) exams performed preoperatively and at specific time points through 2-year follow-up. Results:Preoperatively, 203 patients (74.9%) had no LEMS impairment (normal) and 68 (25.1%) had a LEMS of <50 (abnormal). Compared with baseline, 23.0% of all patients experienced a LEMS decline at discharge, with this rate decreasing to 17.1% at 6-weeks and to 9.9% at 6-months and remaining stable at 10.0% at 2-years. Conclusion:This study revealed that a decline in LEMS after complex ASD surgery is common and more frequent than previously reported. We identified such a decline in 23.0% of patients at discharge, with neurologic function recovering over time to a decline of 10.0% at 2-years postoperatively. The Scoli-RISK-1 study revealed valuable information regarding the incidence, natural history, and prognosis of neurologic and non-neurologic complications following ASD surgery and provides useful information for patient counseling.
Project description:Phenylalanine hydroxylase (PAH) deficiency is a genetic disorder characterized by deficiency of the PAH enzyme. Patients follow a phenylalanine-restricted diet low in intact protein, and must consume synthetic medical food (MF) to supply phenylalanine-free protein. We assessed relationships between dietary intake and nutrient source (food or MF) on bone mineral density (BMD) and bone turnover markers (BTM) in PAH deficiency. Blood from 44 fasted females 11-52 years of age was analyzed for plasma phenylalanine, serum BTM [CTx (resorption), P1NP (formation)], vitamin D, and parathyroid hormone (PTH). BTM ratios were calculated to assess resorption relative to formation (CTx/P1NP). Dual energy X-ray absorptiometry measured total BMD and age-matched Z-scores. Three-day food records were analyzed for total nutrient intake, nutrients by source (food, MF), and compliance with MF prescription. Spearman's partial coefficients (adjusted for age, BMI, energy intake, blood phenylalanine) assessed correlations. All had normal BMD for age (Z-score >-2). Sixty-four percent had high resorption and normal formation indicating uncoupled bone turnover. CTx/P1NP was positively associated with food phenylalanine (r 2 = 0.39; p-value = 0.017), energy (r 2 = 0.41; p-value = 0.011) and zinc (r 2 = 0.41; p-value = 0.014). CTx/P1NP was negatively associated with MF fat (r 2 = -0.44; p-value = 0.008), MF compliance (r 2 = -0.34; p-value = 0.056), and positively with food sodium (r 2 = 0.43; p-value = 0.014). CTx/P1NP decreased significantly with age (p-value = 0.002) and higher PTH (p-value = 0.0002). Phenylalanine was not correlated with any bone indicator. Females with PAH deficiency had normal BMD but elevated BTM, particularly resorption. More favorable ratios were associated with nutrients from MF and compliance. Younger females had less favorable BTM ratios. Promoting micronutrient intake through compliance with MF may impact bone metabolism in patients with PAH deficiency. SYNOPSIS:Bone mineral density was normal in 44 females with PAH deficiency; however, bone turnover markers suggested uncoupling of bone resorption and formation, particularly in younger patients. Adequate nutrient intake from medical food and overall medical food compliance may positively impact bone turnover.
Project description:Against a backdrop of rising levels of obesity, we describe and estimate associations of body mass index (BMI), age and gender with time to revision for participants undergoing primary total hip (THR) or knee (TKR) replacement in the UK.Population-based cohort study.Routinely collected primary care data from a representative sample of general practices, including linked data on all secondary care events.Population-based cohort study of 63 162 patients with THR and 54 276 with TKR in the UK General Practice Research Database between 1988 and 2011.Risk of THR and TKR revision associated with BMI, age and gender, after adjusting for the competing risk of death.The 5-year cumulative incidence rate for THR was 2.2% for men and 1.8% for women (TKR 2.3% for men, 1.6% for women). The adjusted overall subhazard ratio (SHR) for patients with THR undergoing subsequent hip revision surgery, with a competing risk of death, were estimated at 1.020 (95% CI 1.009 to 1.032) per additional unit (kg/m(2)) of BMI, 1.23 (95% CI 1.10 to 1.38) for men compared with women and 0.970 (95% CI 0.967 to 0.973) per additional year of age. For patients with TKR, the equivalent estimates were 1.015 (95% CI 1.002 to 1.028) for BMI; 1.51 (95% CI 1.32 to 1.73) for gender and 0.957 (95% CI 0.951 to 0.962) for age. Morbidly obese patients with THR had a 65.5% increase (95% CI 15.4% to 137.3%, p=0.006) in the subhazard of revision versus the normal BMI group (18.5-25). The effect for TKR was smaller (a 43.9% increase) and weaker (95% CI 2.6% to 103.9%, p=0.040).BMI is estimated to have a small but statistically significant association with the risk of hip and knee revision, but absolute numbers are small. Further studies are needed in order to distinguish between effects for specific revision surgery indications.
Project description:Obesity from childhood to adulthood is associated with adverse health later in life. Increased youth BMI is a risk factor for later obesity, but it is unknown whether identification of other risk factors, including recently discovered genetic markers, would help to identify children at risk of developing adult obesity.Our objective was to examine the childhood environmental and genetic predictors of adult obesity.We followed 2119 individuals of the Cardiovascular Risk in Young Finns Study for up to 27 yr since baseline (1980, age 3-18 yr).We evaluated adult obesity [body mass index (BMI) ? 30 kg/m(2)].The independent predictors (P < 0.05) of adult obesity included childhood BMI, C-reactive protein (CRP), family income (inverse), mother's BMI, and polymorphisms near genes TFAP2B, LRRN6C, and FLJ35579. A risk assessment based on childhood BMI, mother's BMI, and family income was superior in predicting obesity compared with the approach using data only on BMI (C-statistics 0.751 vs. 0.772, P = 0.0015). Inclusion of data on childhood CRP and novel genetic variants for BMI did not incrementally improve C-value (0.779, P = 0.16). A nonlaboratory risk score (childhood BMI, mother's BMI, and family income) predicted adult obesity in all age groups between 3-18 yr (P always <0.001).Childhood BMI, CRP, family income (inversely), mother's BMI, and polymorphisms near genes FLJ35779, TFAP2B, and LRRN6C are independently related to adulthood obesity. However, because genetic risk markers and CRP only marginally improve the prediction, our results indicate that children at high risk of adult obesity can be identified using a simple non-laboratory-based risk assessment.
Project description:PURPOSE:Cancer survivors are at an increased risk for fractures, but lack of effective and economical biomarkers limits quantitative assessments of marrow fat (MF), bone mineral density (BMD) and their relation in response to cytotoxic cancer treatment. We report dual energy CT (DECT) imaging, commonly used for cancer diagnosis, treatment and surveillance, as a novel biomarker of MF and BMD. METHODS:We validated DECT in pre-clinical and phase I clinical trials and verified with water-fat MRI (WF-MRI), quantitative CT (QCT) and dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry (DXA). Basis material composition framework was validated using water and small-chain alcohols simulating different components of bone marrow. Histologic validation was achieved by measuring percent adipocyte in the cadaver vertebrae and compared with DECT and WF-MRI. For a phase I trial, sixteen patients with gynecologic malignancies (treated with oophorectomy, radiotherapy or chemotherapy) underwent DECT, QCT, WF-MRI and DXA before and 12months after treatment. BMD and MF percent and distribution were quantified in the lumbar vertebrae and the right femoral neck. RESULTS:Measured precision (3mg/cm(3)) was sufficient to distinguish test solutions. Adiposity in cadaver bone histology was highly correlated with MF measured using DECT and WF-MRI (r=0.80 and 0.77, respectively). In the clinical trial, DECT showed high overall correlation (r=0.77, 95% CI: 0.69, 0.83) with WF-MRI. MF increased significantly after treatment (p<0.002). Chemotherapy and radiation caused greater increases in MF than oophorectomy (p<0.032). L4 BMD decreased 14% by DECT, 20% by QCT, but only 5% by DXA (p<0.002 for all). At baseline, we observed a statistically significant inverse association between MF and BMD which was dramatically attenuated after treatment. CONCLUSION:Our study demonstrated that DECT, similar to WF-MRI, can accurately measure marrow adiposity. Both imaging modalities show rapid increase in MF following cancer treatment. Our results suggest that MF and BMD cannot be used interchangeably to monitor skeletal health following cancer therapy.
Project description:Identifying frailty by the presence of a critical number of frailty markers has been difficult to operationalize in the intensive care unit (ICU), where patients often cannot complete performance measures or answer complex questions.To assess the construct and predictive validity of a questionnaire-based approach to identifying frailty in adult ICU patients.We conducted an observational cohort study of adults admitted to a medical or surgical ICU at one of two hospitals in New York. We asked patients or surrogates about demographic information, frailty markers, and prehospital disability status. ICU physicians completed the Clinical Frailty Scale (CFS), a judgment-based frailty assessment tool. We examined the relationship between individual frailty markers, CFS, and demographic correlates of frailty such as age, prehospital living arrangement, and prehospital disability. We assessed the predictive validity of possible frailty phenotypes, using hospital and 6-month outcomes.Among 95 study participants (mean age [SD], 57.1 [17.5] yr), 80% reported one or more of seven frailty markers (median [interquartile range], 3 [1-4]). The most common frailty markers were impaired mobility (60%), impaired physical activity (60%), and decreased strength (44.2%). Patients with more frailty markers were older (mean age [SD] of those with at least three frailty markers: 62.3 [17.7] vs. 51.6 [15.8] yr; P < 0.001) compared with those with fewer than three markers, and were more likely to be judged frail by CFS (57.0 vs. 19.6%; P = 0.001), although of the 49 patients with three or more frailty markers, CFS identified 36.7% as not frail. Malnutrition and fatigue or low energy were not significantly associated with other frailty correlates. Survivors with more frailty markers were more likely to die or report increased disability at follow-up. In multivariate models, a frailty phenotype defined as at least three of the seven frailty markers performed similarly to CFS in predicting death or increased disability at 6 months (adjusted odds ratio [95% confidence interval], 3.3 [1.2-9.0] vs. 3.8 [1.2-11.7]) for CFS.Asking patients or surrogates about frailty markers may be a valid approach to identifying critically ill adults with a frailty phenotype associated with increased risk of adverse outcomes. Larger studies measuring frailty markers may provide insight into factors that impact short- and long-term outcomes after ICU admission.
Project description:Several published studies have reported the need to change the cutoff points of anthropometric indices for obesity. We therefore conducted a cross-sectional study to estimate anthropometric cutoff points predicting high coronary heart disease (CHD) risk in Korean adults. We analyzed the Korean National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey data from 2007 to 2010. A total of 21,399 subjects aged 20 to 79 yr were included in this study (9,204 men and 12,195 women). We calculated the 10-yr Framingham coronary heart disease risk score for all individuals. We then estimated receiver-operating characteristic (ROC) curves for body mass index (BMI), waist circumference, and waist-to-height ratio to predict a 10-yr CHD risk of 20% or more. For sensitivity analysis, we conducted the same analysis for a 10-yr CHD risk of 10% or more. For a CHD risk of 20% or more, the area under the curve of waist-to-height ratio was the highest, followed by waist circumference and BMI. The optimal cutoff points in men and women were 22.7 kg/m(2) and 23.3 kg/m(2) for BMI, 83.2 cm and 79.7 cm for waist circumference, and 0.50 and 0.52 for waist-to-height ratio, respectively. In sensitivity analysis, the results were the same as those reported above except for BMI in women. Our results support the re-classification of anthropometric indices and suggest the clinical use of waist-to-height ratio as a marker for obesity in Korean adults.