Dietary glutamine, glutamate, and aspartate supplementation improves hepatic lipid metabolism in post-weaning piglets.
ABSTRACT: A previous study has demonstrated that early weaning significantly suppressed hepatic glucose metabolism in piglets. Glutamate (Glu), aspartate (Asp) and glutamine (Gln) are major metabolic fuels for the small intestine and can alleviate weaning stress, and therefore might improve hepatic energy metabolism. The objective of this study was to investigate the effects of administration of Glu, Asp and Gln on the expression of hepatic genes and proteins involved in lipid metabolism in post-weaning piglets. Thirty-six weaned piglets were assigned to the following treatments: control diet (Control; basal diet + 15.90 g/kg alanine); Asp, Gln and Glu-supplemented diet (Control + AA; basal diet + 1.00 g/kg Asp + 5.00 g/kg Glu + 10.00 g/kg Gln); and the energy-restricted diet supplemented with Asp, Gln and Glu (Energy- + AA; energy deficient diet + 1.00 g/kg Asp + 5.00 g/kg Glu + 10.00 g/kg Gln). Liver samples were obtained on d 5 and 21 post-weaning. Piglets fed Energy- + AA diet had higher liver mRNA abundances of acyl-CoA oxidase 1 (ACOX1), succinate dehydrogenase (SDH), mitochondrial transcription factor A (TFAM) and sirtuin 1 (SIRT1), as well as higher protein expression of serine/threonine protein kinase 11 (LKB1), phosphor-acetyl-CoA carboxylase (P-ACC) and SIRT1 compared with piglets fed control diet (P < 0.05) on d 5 post-weaning. Control + AA diet increased liver malic enzyme 1 (ME1) and SIRT1 mRNA levels, as well as protein expression of LKB1 and P-ACC on d 5 post-weaning (P < 0.05). On d 21 post-weaning, compared to control group, Glu, Gln and Asp supplementation up-regulated the mRNA levels of ACOX1, ME1 and SIRT1 (P < 0.05). These findings indicated that dietary Glu, Gln and Asp supplementation could improve hepatic lipid metabolism to some extent, which may provide nutritional intervention for the insufficient energy intake after weaning in piglets.
Project description:Gut microbiota plays a crucial role in diet nutrient metabolism and maintaining host health. The synthetic dipeptides glycyl-glutamine (Gly-Gln) used as diet supplementation to improve the weaning transition of newborns could be metabolized by certain bacteria in vitro. However, the effect of diet Gly-Gln supplementation on gut microbiota in vivo remains largely unknown. 240 piglets at the age of 28 days (day 28) were randomly assigned to two groups that received a basal diet (Ctrl group) or a basal diet supplemented with 0.25% Gly-Gln (Gly-Gln group) for 3 weeks. Five piglets from each group were euthanized for sampling after overnight fasting on day 38 and day 49, respectively. We determined their structure shifts of the gut microbiota using 16S rDNA-based high-throughput sequencing analysis. Microbial metabolites short-chain fatty acids (SCFAs) in the ileum and the colon were determined with high-performance gas chromatography. The concentrations of endocrine peptides including epidermal growth factor, glucagon-like peptide-1, and glucagon-like peptide-2 in ileal mucosa, as well as the serum concentration of interleukin 1 beta, interleukin 6, interleukin 10, and tumor necrosis factor alpha were determined using Enzyme-Linked Immunosorbent Assay. In addition, we also checked the diarrhea ratio, growth performance, and intestinal morphology to assess the favorable effect of dietary Gly-Gln supplementation during the weaning transition. Dietary Gly-Gln supplementation beneficially altered the gut microbiota by increasing bacterial loading, elevating alpha diversity, and increasing the relative abundance of anaerobes and fiber-degrading bacteria (Phylum Fibrobacteres). Accordingly, the microbial metabolites SCFAs in both colon and ileum, as well as the downstream endocrine peptides in the ileum increased. Meanwhile, dietary Gly-Gln's favorable weaning transition was reflected in the increase of growth performance indices and the reduced inflammatory response in a time dependent manner. There were significant correlations among the bacteria which responded to dietary Gly-Gln supplementation and these checked indices. Taken together, dietary Gly-Gln supplementation selectively modulated the gut microbiota, which may favor piglets' weaning-transition. These findings suggest that gut microbiota targeted approaches can be potentially used to improve weaning transition of piglets by dietary functional amino acid.
Project description:Maternal nutrition during gestation is involved in the offspring's intestinal development and immunity. The aim of this study was to (1) determine the effects of maternal energy on intestinal digestion and absorption function in offspring, using pigs as a model; and (2) to evaluate the potential effect and mechanisms of maternal energy in modulating immune responses of lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-challenged piglets. After mating, thirty-six nine-parity sows (Landrace × Yorkshire), body weight (BW) (initial body weight 233.56 ± 2.77 kg) were allocated to two dietary treatment groups; a control diet (CON) group and a low-energy diet (LED) group. The nutrient levels of the CON were based on the nutrient recommendations by the National Research Council (NRC, 2012), and contained 3.40 MCal digestible energy (DE)/kg diet and 7.3% crude protein; while the LED contained 3.00 MCal DE/kg diet. The dietary treatments were introduced from day 1 of gestation to farrowing. Intestine samples were collected from the pigs' offspring at birth, and at weaning (day 28 post-birth). At weaning, male pigs from control and LED groups were intraperitoneally injected with LPS (50 ?g/kg body weight) or saline (n = 6), and sacrificed at 4 h post-injection to collect blood, intestine and digesta samples for biochemical analysis. The results indicated that the maternal LED markedly decreased the BW, small intestinal weight, and the ratio of jejunum and ileum villus height to crypt depth in the offspring. Moreover, the activities of lactase and sucrase in newborn piglets' intestine, and sucrase and maltase in weaning piglet intestine were markedly decreased by the maternal LED. In addition, maternal LED significantly increased the mRNA relative expression of ileal IL-6 and TNF-? in newborn piglets. Plasma IL-1? concentration and colonic Escherichia coli amount were affected by maternal diet (p < 0.05) and LPS challenge (p < 0.001). Maternal LED significant increased the mRNA relative expression of ileal TLR-4, IL-1? and NF-?B as well as decreased ZO-1 in weaning pigs after LPS challenge (p < 0.05). In conclusion, decreasing energy intake could suppress the offspring's intestinal digestion and absorption function, and increase the susceptibility of weaning piglets to LPS challenge.
Project description:Elongation factor Tu (EF-Tu) binds and loads elongating aminoacyl-tRNAs (aa-tRNAs) onto the ribosome for protein biosynthesis. Many bacteria biosynthesize Gln-tRNA (Gln) and Asn-tRNA (Asn) by an indirect, two-step pathway that relies on the misacylated tRNAs Glu-tRNA (Gln) and Asp-tRNA (Asn) as intermediates. Previous thermodynamic and experimental analyses have demonstrated that Thermus thermophilus EF-Tu does not bind Asp-tRNA (Asn) and predicted a similar discriminatory response against Glu-tRNA (Gln) [Asahara, H., and Uhlenbeck, O. (2005) Biochemistry 46, 6194-6200; Roy, H., et al. (2007) Nucleic Acids Res. 35, 3420-3430]. By discriminating against these misacylated tRNAS, EF-Tu plays a direct role in preventing misincorporation of aspartate and glutamate into proteins at asparagine and glutamine codons. Here we report the characterization of two different mesophilic EF-Tu orthologs, one from Escherichia coli, a bacterium that does not utilize either Glu-tRNA (Gln) or Asp-tRNA (Asn), and the second from Helicobacter pylori, an organism in which both misacylated tRNAs are essential. Both EF-Tu orthologs discriminate against these misacylated tRNAs, confirming the prediction that Glu-tRNA (Gln), like Asp-tRNA (Asn), will not form a complex with EF-Tu. These results also demonstrate that the capacity of EF-Tu to discriminate against both of these aminoacyl-tRNAs is conserved even in bacteria like E. coli that do not generate either misacylated tRNA.
Project description:Most bacteria and all archaea misacylate the tRNAs corresponding to Asn and Gln with Asp and Glu (Asp-tRNA(Asn) and Glu-tRNA(Gln)).The GatCAB enzyme of most bacteria converts misacylated Glu-tRNA(Gln) to Gln-tRNA(Gln) in order to enable the incorporation of glutamine during protein synthesis. The conversion process involves the intramolecular transfer of ammonia between two spatially separated active sites. This study presents a computational analysis of the two putative intramolecular tunnels that have been suggested to describe the ammonia transfer between the two active sites. Molecular dynamics simulations have been performed for wild-type GatCAB of S. aureus and its mutants: T175(A)V, K88(B)R, E125(B)D, and E125(B)Q. The two tunnels have been analyzed in terms of free energy of ammonia transfer along them. The probability of occurrence of each type of tunnel and the variation of the probability for wild-type GatCAB and its mutants is also discussed.
Project description:Alternative feed supplements have shown promising effects in terms of performance, but their effects on welfare have had little evaluation. In the present study, we aimed at evaluating the effect of diet supplementation on welfare indicators. A total of 246 piglets were weaned and transported for 12 h. After transport, they were assigned to one of 3 diets for a 14-day period: A-an antibiotic diet including chlortetracycline and tiamulin, NA-a control diet without any antibiotic or feed supplement, GLN-a diet including 0.20% L-glutamine. After the 14-day period, all piglets were fed the same diet. Tear staining was measured 11 times post-weaning (from d0 to 147). Skin lesions were counted before and after weaning (d-2, 2, and 36). Novel object tests (NOT) were done in groups 4 times post-weaning (d17, 47, 85, 111). Samples for 16S rRNA gene composition were collected prior to transport (d0), following the 14-day period (d14) and at the conclusion of the nursery phase (d34). The NA pigs appeared less interested in novel objects. On d17, they avoided the object less than A pigs (P < 0.05). They spent less time exploring the object on d85 and took longer to interact with the object on d111 than A and GLN pigs (P < 0.05). NA pigs also appeared more sensitive to environment and management. They had larger tear stains than GLN pigs on d84 and 110 (P < 0.05). On d2, NA pigs had more lesions than A and GLN (P < 0.01). In terms of microbiota composition, GLN had higher ?-diversity than A and NA (P < 0.001). Differences between dietary treatments were absent at d0, were demonstrated at d14 and disappeared at d34. Pearson correlations between aggression, stress and anxiety indicators and bacterial populations were medium to high from 0.31 to 0.69. The results demonstrate that short-term feeding strategy can have both short- and long-term effects on behavior and welfare, that may partly be explained by changes in gut microbiota composition. Supplementation with GLN appears to confer similar benefits to dietary antibiotics and thus could be a viable alternative.
Project description:OBJECTIVE:The study was to investigate the effects of alanyl-glutamine (Ala-Gln) and glutamine (Gln) supplementation on the intestinal mucosa barrier in piglets. METHODS:A total of 180 barrows with initial weight 10.01±0.03 kg were randomly allocated to three treatments, and each treatment consisted of three pens and twenty pigs per pen. The piglets of three groups were fed with control diet [0.62% alanine (Ala)], Ala-Gln diet (0.5% Ala-Gln), Gln diet (0.34% Gln and 0.21% Ala), respectively. RESULTS:The results showed that in comparison with control diet, dietary Ala-Gln supplementation increased the height of villi in duodenum and jejunum (p<0.05), Gln supplementation increased the villi height of jejunum (p<0.05), Ala-Gln supplementation up-regulated the mRNA expressions of epidermal growth factor receptor and insulin-like growth factor 1 receptor in jejunal mucosa (p<0.05), raised the mRNA expressions of Claudin-1, Occludin, zonula occludens protein-1 (ZO-1) and the protein levels of Occludin, ZO-1 in jejunal mucosa (p<0.05), Ala-Gln supplementation enlarged the number of goblet cells in duodenal and ileal epithelium (p<0.05), Gln increased the number of goblet cells in duodenal epithelium (p<0.05) and Ala-Gln supplementation improved the concentrations of secretory immunoglobulin A and immunoglobulin G in the jejunal mucosa (p<0.05). CONCLUSION:These results demonstrated that dietary Ala-Gln supplementation could maintain the integrity of small intestine and promote the functions of intestinal mucosa barriers in piglets.
Project description:OBJECTIVE:The association between ribonuclease L (RNASEL) gene polymorphisms and prostate cancer risk has been widely reported, but the results of these studies remained controversial and underpowered. We performed a meta-analysis of 28 studies to evaluate the association between Arg462Gln and Asp541Glu polymorphisms in the RNASEL gene and prostate cancer risk. METHODS:Odds ratios (ORs) with 95% confidence intervals (CIs) were estimated to assess the association between RNASEL polymorphisms and prostate cancer risk. RESULTS:A significantly increased prostate cancer risk was found for the Arg462Gln polymorphism in Africans (Gln/Gln vs Arg/Arg: OR = 2.50, 95%CI = 1.28-4.87; Gln/Gln vs Gln/Arg + Arg/Arg: OR = 2.54, 95%CI = 1.30-4.95), but not in Europeans and Asians. Additionally, the Asp541Glu polymorphism was associated with increased total prostate cancer risk (Glu-allele vs Asp-allele: OR = 1.04, 95%CI = 1.01-1.07; Glu/Glu vs Asp/Asp: OR = 1.22, 95%CI = 1.03-1.46; Glu/Glu vs Glu/Asp + Asp/Asp: OR = 1.09, 95%CI = 1.02-1.16). In the stratified analysis for the Asp541Glu polymorphism, there was a significantly increased prostate cancer risk in Africans and Europeans, and in hospital-based prostate cancer cases. CONCLUSION:The meta-analysis results showed evidence that RNASEL Arg462Gln and Asp541Glu polymorphisms are associated with prostate cancer risk and could be low-penetrance prostate cancer susceptibility biomarkers.
Project description:Background:The conventional farrowing crate is criticised due to the limited mobility of sows during farrowing and lactation. The present study aims to investigate the effects of three different farrowing systems on the performance of suckling neonates on the basis of immunocrit (IC; a quantification of immunoglobulins), serum amino acid (AA) concentrations and growth performance. Methods:From a total of 149 sows placed in three housing systems (farrowing crate - FC, loose housing - LH, group housing - GH), 18 sows and their respective litters, formed the basis for a two-factorial study design (farrowing system and body weight (BW) of neonates). Therefore, also blood samples of two light (1.0-1.4 kg) and two heavy (≥ 1.4 kg) piglets were taken within 48 h post natum (p.n.) and on the day of weaning (day 26) to determine the immunocrit (IC; a quantification of immunoglobulins) and levels of serum AAs. Results:The IC (FC: 0.148a, LH: 0.153a, GH: 0.117b) as well as serum levels of arginine, leucine, lysine, proline and threonine within 48 h p.n. were significantly lower in GH. Additionally, in general, these piglets showed (except for the first week of life) the lowest average daily weight gain. On the day of weaning, piglets in GH had the lowest levels of arginine (in mg/dL; FC: 3.68a, LH: 3.40ab, GH: 2.94b) and threonine (in mg/dL; FC: 3.59a, LH: 3.02ab, GH: 2.49b). The concentrations of leucine, lysine, proline and valine at this time were significantly lower in LH. Conclusion:The observed significant lower IC indicates a lower Ig intake of piglets in the tested GH. No significant differences regarding the IC and AA levels within 48 h p.n. of the piglets in FC and LH could be seen. In principle, differences at weaning in AA levels were rather small, although the body weight of GH piglets at weaning was lower. Therefore, further research needs to clarify whether there are medium-term effects on health and performance.
Project description:Aggressive interactions, and their consequences, are the most important causes of poor welfare in piglets. Aggressive behaviour can be modulated by the prenatal and neonatal environment in several species. Commercially kept pregnant sows are often subjected to food restriction, which can compromise their welfare. Limited information is available on the consequences of sow hunger during pregnancy on welfare outcomes for their piglets. High fibre diets can mitigate the feeling of hunger and, consequently, it may improve welfare and productivity measures. The aim of this study was to assess the consequences of feeding pregnant gilts with high fibre diets (HFD) on agonistic behaviour, as manifested by skin lesions, and indicators of fear in their piglets at weaning. Twenty-two pregnant gilts were fed either HFD, 12.86% of crude fibre, 2.4 kg per day (N = 14), or low fibre diet (LFD), 2.53% of crude fibre, 2.0 kg per day (N = 8). During lactation, both treatments received the same diet, ad libitum. We investigated the impact of HFD on behaviour and performance measures (birth weight, average daily gain, weaning weight, see S3 File) in the offspring. Skin lesions were evaluated before and after weaning in 156 piglets (100 HFD and 56 LFD), and 142 piglets were subjected to an open field test and a novel object test (87 HFD and 55 LFD). We found no treatment effect on the performance measures. Piglets born from gilts that received HFD had fewer skin lesions before weaning (D28) than the offspring of LFD gilts, while no difference was found during days 29 and 30. In the open field and novel object tests, there was no treatment effect on the behaviour of piglets. The improved skin health at weaning in piglets of sows fed HFD suggests less agonistic interactions amongst these littermates than in piglets of sows fed LFD.
Project description:Environment and diet are two major factors affecting the human gut microbiome. In this study, we used a pig model to determine the impact of these two factors during lactation on the gut microbiome, immune system, and growth performance. We assigned 80 4-day-old pigs from 20 sows to two rearing strategies at lactation: conventional rearing on sow's milk (SR) or isolated rearing on milk replacer supplemented with solid feed starting on day 10 (IR). At weaning (day 21), SR and IR piglets were co-mingled (10 pens of 4 piglets/pen) and fed the same corn-soybean meal-dried distiller grain with solubles- and antibiotic-free diets for eight feeding phase regimes. Fecal samples were collected on day 21, 62, and 78 for next-generation sequencing of the V4 hypervariable region of the bacterial 16S rRNA gene. Results indicate that IR significantly increased swine microbial diversity and changed the microbiome structure at day 21. Such changes diminished after the two piglet groups were co-mingled and fed the same diet. Post-weaning growth performance also improved in IR piglets. Toward the end of the nursery period (NP), IR piglets had greater average daily gain (0.49 vs. 0.41 kg/d; P < 0.01) and average daily feed intake (0.61 vs. 0.59 kg/d; P < 0.01) but lower feed efficiency (0.64 vs. 0.68; P = 0.05). Consequently, IR piglets were heavier by 2.9 kg (P < 0.01) at the end of NP, and by 4.1 kg (P = 0.08) at market age compared to SR piglets. Interestingly, pigs from the two groups had similar lean tissue percentage. Random forest analysis showed that members of Leuconostoc and Lactococcus best differentiated the IR and SR piglets at weaning (day 21), were negatively correlated with levels of Foxp3 regulatory T cell populations on day 20, and positively correlated with post-weaning growth performance. Our results suggest that rearing strategies may be managed so as to accelerate early-life establishment of the swine gut microbiome to enhance growth performance in piglets.