Promoter methylation of tumor suppressor genes induced by human papillomavirus in cervical cancer.
ABSTRACT: Cervical cancer is the most fourth common cancer in women worldwide. The E6 and E7 high-risk human papillomavirus (HPV) types are the main cause of this cancer. Several studies have revealed that promoter methylation of tumor suppressor genes is induced by HPV E7. Recently, it was found that HPV16-E7 and the DNA methyltransferase 1 complex could bind at the cyclin A1 (CCNA1) promoter, resulting in CCNA1 promoter methylation. Therefore, there is a need to study other tumor suppressor genes for which HPV may induce promoter methylation. The present study investigated whether HPV induced cell adhesion molecule 1 (CADM1) and death associated protein kinase 1 (DAPK1) promoter methylation. C33a (no HPV infection) and SiHa (HPV 16 infection) cell lines were used for methylation status and expression observation. It was found that CADM1 and DAPK1 promoter methylation, no expression of CADM1 and decreased expression of DAPK1, was presented in SiHa cells. While no promoter methylation of these two genes was observed in C33a cells, with positive expression of the genes. It was subsequently investigated whether E6 and/or E7 could induce promoter methylation and decrease the expression of these two genes. Methylation-specific primer PCR and quantitative PCR were performed to elucidate the promoter methylation status and expression of CADM1 and DAPK1 in C33a cells transfected with HPV16 E6-PCDNA3 or HPV16 E7-PCDNA3.1 myc-his, compared to empty vector-transfected cells. The results showed that HPV E7 could induce CADM1 promoter methylation and decrease the gene expression in HPV E7 transfected C33a cells, while HPV E6 could induce DAPK1 promoter methylation and decrease its expression in C33a cells transfected with HPV E6. Finally, the mechanism by which HPV E7 induced CADM1 promoter methylation was observed by performing chromatin immunoprecipitation; the data showed that E7 induced CADM1 methylation by the same mechanism as that for CCNA1, by binding at the CADM1 promoter, resulting in the subsequent reduction of its expression in cervical cancer.
Project description:Cervical cancer is one of the most prevalent and fatal cancers among women and infection of the human papillomavirus (HPV) is the most important risk factor. This study investigated how HPV16 regulated GSK3β expression and function to promote cervical cancers. The expression of GSK3β was analyzed by quantitative PCR and western blot. The proliferation, invasion, and clonogenic survival of cells with different E6/E7 levels were measured by MTT, transwell invasion assays, and soft agar colony-forming assays, respectively. The levels of GSK3β were correlated with the copy numbers and expression levels of HPV16 E6/E7 genes. HPV16 E6/E7 genes regulated GSK3β transcription through an element located in the promoter 85 and 250 base pairs upstream of the transcription start site. The abilities of cell proliferation, invasion, and clonogenic survival were increased in C33A cells by ectopic HPV16 E6/E7 and decreased in CaSki cells by knocking down HPV16 E6/E7 levels. Meanwhile, LiCl increased GSK3β transcript levels and the proliferation of CaSki cells in a HPV16-dependent manner. These data indicated that GSK3β may participated in HPV16 mediated deregulation of wnt/β-catenin and other signaling pathways promoting the progression and invasion of cervical cancers.
Project description:To map comprehensively the methylation status of the CpG sites within the HPV16 long control region (LCR) in HPV-positive cancer cells, and to explore further the effects of methylation status of HPV16 LCR on cell bioactivity and E6 and E7 expression. In addition, to analyze the methylation status of the LCR in HPV-positive oropharyngeal squamous cell carcinoma (OPSCC) patients.Methylation patterns of HPV16 LCR in UM-SCC47, CaSki, and SiHa cells and HPV16-positiive OPSCC specimens were detected by bisulfite-sequencing PCR and TA cloning. For cells treated with 5-aza-2'-deoxycytidine and E6 and E7 knockdown, MTS and trypan blue staining, annexin-V and 7-AAD staining, and prodidium iodide were used to evaluate cell growth and cell proliferation, cell apoptosis, and cell cycle arrest, respectively. E6 and E7 mRNA and protein expression were analyzed by quantitative real-time PCR and immunocytochemistry, respectively.Hypermethylation status of the LCR in UM-SCC47 (79.8%) and CaSki cells (90.0%) and unmethylation status of the LCR in SiHa cells (0%) were observed. Upon demethylation, the cells with different methylation levels responded differently during growth, apoptosis, and cell cycle arrest, as well as in terms of their E6 and E7 expression. In HPV16-positive OPSCC patients, the methylation rates were 9.5% in the entire LCR region, 13.9% in the 5'-LCR, 6.0% in the E6 enhancer, and 9.5% in the p97 promoter, and hypermethylation of p97 promoter was found in a subset of cases (20.0%, 2/10).Our study revealed two different methylation levels of the LCR in HPV16-positive cancer cells and OPSCC patients, which may represent different carcinogenesis mechanisms of HPV-positive cancers cells. Demethylating the meCpGs in HPV16 LCR might be a potential target for a subgroup of HPV16-positive patients with head and neck squamous cell carcinoma.
Project description:Chlamydia trachomatis is an obligate intracellular pathogen that requires specific essential nutrients from the host cell, one of which is the amino acid tryptophan. In this context interferon gamma (IFN?) is the major host protective cytokine against chlamydial infections because it induces the expression of the host enzyme, indoleamine 2,3-dioxygenase 1, that degrades tryptophan, thereby restricting bacterial replication. The mechanism by which IFN? acts has been dissected in vitro using epithelial cell-lines such as HeLa, HEp-2, or the primary-like endocervical cell-line A2EN. All these cell-lines express the high-risk human papillomavirus oncogenes E6 & E7. While screening cell-lines to identify those suitable for C. trachomatis co-infections with other genital pathogens, we unexpectedly found that tryptophan starvation did not completely block chlamydial development in cell-lines that were HR-HPV negative, such as C33A and 293. Therefore, we tested the hypothesis that HR-HPV oncogenes modulate the effect of tryptophan starvation on chlamydial development by comparing chlamydial development in HeLa and C33A cell-lines that were both derived from cervical carcinomas. Our results indicate that during tryptophan depletion, unlike HeLa, C33A cells generate sufficient intracellular tryptophan via proteasomal activity to permit C. trachomatis replication. By generating stable derivatives of C33A that expressed HPV16 E6, E7 or E6 & E7, we found that E6 expression alone was sufficient to convert C33A cells to behave like HeLa during tryptophan starvation. The reduced tryptophan levels in HeLa cells have a biological consequence; akin to the previously described effect of IFN?, tryptophan starvation protects C. trachomatis from clearance by doxycycline in HeLa but not C33A cells. Curiously, when compared to the known Homo sapiens proteome, the representation of tryptophan in the HR-HPV E6 & E6AP degradome is substantially lower, possibly providing a mechanism that underlies the lowered intracellular free tryptophan levels in E6-expressing cells during starvation.
Project description:Human papillomavirus (HPV) causes tumors primarily Cervical cancer. Recently, inconsistent reports came up in Breast cancer (BC) too. In India, despite treatment 70,218 BC patients die each year. So, we explored the association of HPV, if any, with BC prognosis in Indian pre-therapeutic (PT) and Neo-adjuvant chemotherapy (NACT) patients with subsequent analysis of HPV profile.HPV prevalence was checked and analysis of physical status, copy number, genome variation, promoter methylation and expression (mRNA and protein) of the prevalent subtype was done.High prevalence of HPV was observed in both PT (64.0%) and NACT (71.0%) cases with significant association with younger (20-45 yrs) PT patients. Interestingly, HPV infection was significantly increased from adjacent normal breast (9.5%, 2/21), fibro adenomas (30%, 3/10) to tumors (64.8%, 203/313) samples. In both PT and NACT cases, HPV16 was the most prevalent subtype (69.0%) followed by HPV18 and HPV33. Survival analysis illustrated hrHPV infected PT patients had worst prognosis. So, detailed analysis of HPV16 profile was done which showed Europian-G350 as the most frequent HPV16 variant along with high rate of integration. Moreover, low copy number and hyper-methylation of P97 early promoter were concordant with low HPV16 E6 and E7 mRNA and protein expression. Notably, four novel variations (KT020838, KT020840, KT020841 and KT020839) in the LCR region and two (KT020836 and KT020837) in the E6 region were identified for the first time along with two novel E6^E7*I (KU199314) and E6^E7*II (KU199315) fusion transcript variants.Thus, significant association of hrHPV with prognosis of Indian BC patients led to additional investigation of HPV16 profile. Outcomes indicated a plausible role of HPV in Indian BC patients.
Project description:In SiHa and CaSki cells, E6 and E7-targeting shRNA specifically and effectively knocked down human papillomavirus (HPV) 16 E6 and E7 at the transcriptional level, reduced the E6 and E7 mRNA levels by more than 80% compared with control cells that expressed a scrambled-sequence shRNA. E6 and E7 repression resulted in down-regulation of DNA methyltransferase mRNA and protein expression, decreased DNA methylation and increased mRNA expression levels of tumor suppressor genes, induced a certain apoptosis and inhibited proliferation in E6 and E7 shRNA-infected SiHa and CaSki cells compared with the uninfected cells. Repression of E6 and E7 oncogenes resulted in restoration of DNA methyltransferase suppressor pathways and induced apoptosis in HPV16-positive cervical carcinoma cell lines. Our findings suggest that the potential carcinogenic mechanism of HPV16 through influencing DNA methylation pathway to activate the development of cervical cancer exist, and maybe as a candidate therapeutic strategy for cervical and other HPV-associated cancers.
Project description:High-risk human papillomavirus (HR-HPV) infection is not a sufficient condition for cervical cancer development because most infections are benign and naturally cleared. Epidemiological studies revealed that tobacco smoking is a cofactor with HR-HPV for cervical cancer initiation and progression, even though the mechanism by which tobacco smoke cooperates with HR-HPV in this malignancy is poorly understood. As HR-HPV E6/E7 oncoproteins overexpressed in cervical carcinomas colocalize with cigarette smoke components (CSC), in this study we addressed the signaling pathways involved in a potential interaction between both carcinogenic agents. Cervical cancer-derived cell lines, CaSki (HPV16; 500 copies per cell) and SiHa (HPV16; 2 copies per cell), were acutely exposed to CSC at various non-toxic concentrations and we found that E6 and E7 levels were significantly increased in a dose-dependent manner. Using a reporter construct containing the luciferase gene under the control of the full HPV16 long control region (LCR), we also found that p97 promoter activity is dependent on CSC. Non-synonymous mutations in the LCR-resident TPA (12-O-tetradecanoylphorbol 13-acetate)-response elements (TRE) had significantly decreased p97 promoter activation. Phosphoproteomic arrays and specific inhibitors revealed that CSC-mediated E6/E7 overexpression is at least in part reliant on EGFR phosphorylation. In addition, we showed that the PI3K/Akt pathway is crucial for CSC-induced E6/E7 overexpression. Finally, we demonstrated that HPV16 E6/E7 overexpression is mediated by JUN. overexpression, c-Jun phosphorylation and recruitment of this transcription factor to TRE sites in the HPV16 LCR. We conclude that acute exposure to tobacco smoke activates the transcription of HPV16 E6 and E7 oncogenes through p97 promoter activation, which involves the EGFR/PI3K/Akt/C-Jun signaling pathway activation in cervical cancer cells.
Project description:High-risk human papillomaviruses are the etiological agents of cervical cancer and HPV16 is the most oncogenic genotype. Immortalization and transformation of infected cells requires the overexpression of the two viral oncoproteins E6 and E7 following HPV DNA integration into the host cell genome. Integration often leads to the loss of the E2 open reading frame and the corresponding protein can no longer act as a transcriptional repressor on p97 promoter. Recently, it has been proposed that long control region methylation also contributes to the regulation of E6/E7 expression.To determine which epigenetic mechanism is involved in HPV16 early gene regulation, 5-aza-2'-deoxycytidine was used to demethylate Ca Ski and SiHa cell DNA. Decreased expression of E6 mRNA and protein levels was observed in both cell lines in an E2-independent manner. E6 repression was accompanied by neither a modification of the main cellular transcription factor expression involved in long control region regulation, nor by a modification of the E6 mRNA splicing pattern. In contrast, a pronounced upregulation of miR-375, known to destabilize HPV16 early viral mRNA, was observed. Finally, the use of miR-375 inhibitor definitively proved the involvement of miR-375 in E6 repression. These results highlight that cellular DNA methylation modulates HPV16 early gene expression and support a role for epigenetic events in high-risk HPV associated-carcinogenesis.
Project description:Change in the host and/or human papillomavirus (HPV) DNA methylation profile is probably one of the main factors responsible for the malignant progression of cervical lesions to cancer. To investigate those changes we studied 173 cervical samples with different grades of cervical lesion, from normal to cervical cancer. The methylation status of nine cellular gene promoters, CCNA1, CDH1, C13ORF18, DAPK1, HIC1, RAR?2, hTERT1, hTERT2 and TWIST1, was investigated by Methylation Specific Polymerase Chain Reaction (MSP). The methylation of HPV18 L1-gene was also investigated by MSP, while the methylated cytosines within four regions, L1, 5'LCR, enhancer, and promoter of the HPV16 genome covering 19 CpG sites were evaluated by bisulfite sequencing. Statistically significant methylation biomarkers distinguishing between cervical precursor lesions from normal cervix were primarily C13ORF18 and secondly CCNA1, and those distinguishing cervical cancer from normal or cervical precursor lesions were CCNA1, C13ORF18, hTERT1, hTERT2 and TWIST1. In addition, the methylation analysis of individual CpG sites of the HPV16 genome in different sample groups, notably the 7455 and 7694 sites, proved to be more important than the overall methylation frequency. The majority of HPV18 positive samples contained both methylated and unmethylated L1 gene, and samples with L1-gene methylated forms alone had better prognosis when correlated with the host cell gene promoters' methylation profiles. In conclusion, both cellular and viral methylation biomarkers should be used for monitoring cervical lesion progression to prevent invasive cervical cancer.
Project description:OBJECTIVES:Human papillomavirus-related oropharyngeal squamous cell carcinoma (HPV+ OPSCC) is increasing in incidence. Although HPV+ OPSCC has favorable prognosis, 10 to 25% of HPV+ OPSCCs eventually recur. We sought to evaluate the feasibility of detection of HPV16 E6/E7 expression in Circulating Tumor Cells (CTCs) and its utility as a prognostic tool in HPV16-associated OPSCC. MATERIALS AND METHODS:We developed a highly sensitive RT-qPCR assay for HPV mRNA expression in EpCAM(+) CTCs. In 22 patients with early stage and locally advanced OPSCC we evaluated HPV16 E6/E7 expression in the EpCAM(+) CTC fraction at baseline and at the end of concurrent chemoradiotherapy. HPV status in pre-therapy formalin-fixed paraffin-embedded (FFPE) tumor biopsies was assessed by p16 immunohistochemistry and polymerase chain reaction (PCR) and double positives were subjected to Real-time qPCR assay for detection of HPV16, 18 and 31 types. RESULTS:Fourteen of 22 OPSCC (63.6%) were HPV DNA+/p16+. Among HPV+/p16+ patients, 10 patients (71.4%) were HPV16 DNA+. HPV16 E6/E7(+) CTCs were detected in 3 of 10 patients (30%) at baseline and 4 of 9 patients (44.4%) at the end-of-treatment, all of which were p16+/HPV16 DNA+. Survival analysis showed a significantly higher risk for disease relapse (p = 0.001) and death (p = 0.005) in patients with HPV16 E6/E7(+) baseline CTCs. CONCLUSION:Detection of HPV E6/E7(+) CTCs might be a useful noninvasive test in liquid biopsy samples for determination of a clinically relevant HPV infection in HPV+ OPSCC. Combined interpretation of HPV E6/E7(+) CTCs with UICC staging data may lead to alteration of risk definition of patient subsets, with improved risk discrimination in early-stage disease.
Project description:Alterations in specific DNA damage repair mechanisms in the presence of human papillomavirus (HPV) infection have been described in different experimental models. However, the global effect of HPV on the expression of genes involved in these pathways has not been analyzed in detail. In the present study, we compared the expression profile of 135 genes involved in DNA damage repair among primary human keratinocytes (PHK), HPV-positive (SiHa and HeLa) and HPV-negative (C33A) cervical cancer derived cell lines. We identified 9 genes which expression pattern distinguishes HPV-positive tumor cell lines from C33A. Moreover, we observed that Three Prime Repair Exonuclease 1 (TREX1) expression is upregulated exclusively in HPV-transformed cell lines and PHK expressing HPV16 E6 and E7 oncogenes. We demonstrated that TREX1 silencing greatly affects tumor cells clonogenic and anchorage independent growth potential. We showed that this effect is associated with p53 upregulation, accumulation of subG1 cells, and requires the expression of E7 from high-risk HPV types. Finally, we observed an increase in TREX1 levels in precancerous lesions, squamous carcinomas and adenocarcinomas clinical samples. Altogether, our results indicate that TREX1 upregulation is important for cervical tumor cells growth and may contribute with tumor establishment and progression.