Niche Differentiation in the Composition, Predicted Function, and Co-occurrence Networks in Bacterial Communities Associated With Antarctic Vascular Plants.
ABSTRACT: Climate change directly affecting the Antarctic Peninsula has been reported to induce the successful colonization of ice-free lands by two Antarctic vascular plants (Deschampsia antarctica and Colobanthus quitensis). While studies have revealed the importance of microbiota for plant growth and stress tolerance in temperate climates, the role that plant-associated microbes play in the colonization of ice-free lands remains unknown. Consequently, we used high-throughput DNA sequence analyses to explore the composition, predicted functions, and interactive networks of plant-associated microbial communities among the rhizosphere, endosphere, and phyllosphere niches of D. antarctica and C. quitensis. Here we report a greater number of operational taxonomic units (OTUs), diversity, and richness in the microbial communities from the rhizosphere, relative to endosphere and phyllosphere. While taxonomic assignments showed greater relative abundances of Proteobacteria, Bacteroidetes, and Actinobacteria in plant niches, principal coordinate analysis revealed differences among the bacterial communities from the other compartments examined. More importantly, however, our results showed that most of OTUs were exclusively found in each plant niche. Major predicted functional groups of these microbiota were attributed to heterotrophy, aerobic heterotrophy, fermentation, and nitrate reduction, independent of plant niches or plant species. Co-occurrences network analyses identified 5 (e.g., Microbacteriaceae, Pseudomonaceae, Lactobacillaceae, and Corynebacteriaceae), 23 (e.g., Chitinophagaceae and Sphingomonadaceae) and 7 (e.g., Rhodospirillaceae) putative keystone taxa present in endosphere, phyllosphere, and rhizosphere, respectively. Our results revealed niche differentiation in Antarctic vascular plants, highlighting some putative microbial indicators and keystone taxa in each niche. However, more studies are required to determine the pivotal role that these microbes play in the successful colonization of ice-free lands by Antarctic plants.
Project description:1-Aminociclopropane-1-carboxylate (ACC)-degrading bacteria having been widely studied for their use in alleviating abiotic stresses in plants. In the present study, we isolated and characterized ACC-degrading bacteria from the rhizosphere, phyllosphere, and endosphere of the Antarctic vascular plants <i>Deschampsia antarctica</i> and <i>Colobanthus quitensis</i>. One hundred and eighty of the 578 isolates (31%) were able to grow on minimal medium containing ACC, with 101 isolates (23, 37, and 41 endosphere-, phyllosphere- and rhizosphere-associated isolates, respectively) identified as being genetically unique by enterobacterial repetitive intergenic consensus (ERIC)-PCR. Subsequently, freeze/thaw treatments and ice-recrystallization-inhibition (IRI) activity assays were performed, the results of which revealed that 77 (13%) of cold-tolerant isolates exhibited putative ACC deaminase activity. Significant (<i>p</i> ? 0.05) differences in IRI activity were also observed between the studied plant niches. Surprisingly, all the cold-tolerant isolates showed ACC deaminase activity, independent of the plant niches, with 12 isolates showing the highest ACC deaminase activities of 13.21-39.56 mmol ? KB mg protein<sup>-1</sup> h<sup>-1</sup>. These isolates were categorized as 'cold-tolerant hyper-ACC-degrading bacteria', and identified as members of <i>Pseudomonas</i>, <i>Serratia,</i> and <i>Staphylococcus</i> genera. The results revealed the occurrence of cold-tolerant hyper-ACC-degrading bacteria in diverse plant niches of Antarctic vascular plants, that could be investigated as novel microbial inoculants to alleviate abiotic stresses in plants.
Project description:BACKGROUND:The plant compartments of Vitis vinifera, including the rhizosphere, rhizoplane, root endosphere, phyllosphere and carposphere, provide unique niches that drive specific bacterial microbiome associations. The majority of phyllosphere endophytes originate from the soil and migrate up to the aerial compartments through the root endosphere. Thus, the soil and root endosphere partially define the aerial endosphere in the leaves and berries, contributing to the terroir of the fruit. However, V. vinifera cultivars are invariably grafted onto the rootstocks of other Vitis species and hybrids. It has been hypothesized that the plant species determines the microbiome of the root endosphere and, as a consequence, the aerial endosphere. In this work, we test the first part of this hypothesis. We investigate whether different rootstocks influence the bacteria selected from the surrounding soil, affecting the bacterial diversity and potential functionality of the rhizosphere and root endosphere. METHODS:Bacterial microbiomes from both the root tissues and the rhizosphere of Barbera cultivars, both ungrafted and grafted on four different rootstocks, cultivated in the same soil from the same vineyard, were characterized by 16S rRNA high-throughput sequencing. To assess the influence of the root genotype on the bacterial communities' recruitment in the root system, (i) the phylogenetic diversity coupled with the predicted functional profiles and (ii) the co-occurrence bacterial networks were determined. Cultivation-dependent approaches were used to reveal the plant-growth promoting (PGP) potential associated with the grafted and ungrafted root systems. RESULTS:Richness, diversity and bacterial community networking in the root compartments were significantly influenced by the rootstocks. Complementary to a shared bacterial microbiome, different subsets of soil bacteria, including those endowed with PGP traits, were selected by the root system compartments of different rootstocks. The interaction between the root compartments and the rootstock exerted a unique selective pressure that enhanced niche differentiation, but rootstock-specific bacterial communities were still recruited with conserved PGP traits. CONCLUSION:While the rootstock significantly influences the taxonomy, structure and network properties of the bacterial community in grapevine roots, a homeostatic effect on the distribution of the predicted and potential functional PGP traits was found.
Project description:Plants harbor diverse bacterial communities, which play crucial roles in plant health and growth, in their rhizosphere, phyllosphere and endosphere. Tomato is an important model for studying plant-microbe interactions, but comparison of its associated bacterial community is still lacking. In this study, using Illumina sequencing of 16S rRNA amplicons, we characterized and compared the bacterial size and community from rootzone soil as well as the rhizosphere, phyllosphere and endosphere of roots, stems, leaves, fruits and seeds of tomato plants that were grown in greenhouse conditions. Habitat (soil, phyllospheric, and endophytic) structured the community. The bacterial communities from the soil-type samples (rootzone soil and rhizosphere) showed the highest richness and diversity. The lowest bacterial diversity occurred in the phyllospheric samples, while the lowest richness occurred in the endosphere. Among the endophytic samples, both bacterial diversity and richness varied in different tissues, with the highest values in roots. The most abundant phyla in the tomato-associated community was Proteobacteria, with the exception of the seeds and jelly, where both Proteobacteria and Firmicutes were dominant. At the genus level, the sequences of Pseudomonas and Acinetobacter were prevalent in the rhizosphere, and in the phyllosphere, more than 97% of the sequences were assigned to Acinetobacter. For the endophytes, Acinetobacter, Enterobacter, and Pseudomonas were the abundant genera in the roots, stems and leaves. In the fruits, the bacterial endophytes varied in different compartments, with Enterobacter being enriched in the pericarp and seeds, Acinetobacter in the placenta, and Weissella in the jelly. The present data provide a comprehensive description of the tomato-associated bacterial community and will be useful for better understanding plant-microbe interactions and selecting suitable bacterial taxa for tomato production.
Project description:Growing evidence suggests that livestock manure used as organic fertilizer in agriculture may lead to the potential propagation of antibiotic resistance genes (ARGs) from "farm to fork." However, little is known about the impacts of manure fertilization on the incidence of ARGs in the plant-associated microbiomes (including rhizosphere, endosphere, and phyllosphere), which hampers our ability to assess the dissemination of antibiotic resistance in the soil-plant system. Here, we constructed a pot experiment to explore the effects of poultry and cattle manure applications on the shifts in the resistome in the plant microbiome of harvested cherry radish. A total of 144 ARGs conferring resistance to eight major classes of antibiotics were detected among all the samples. Rhizosphere and phyllosphere microbiomes harbored significantly higher diversity and abundance of ARGs than did root endophytic microbiomes of cherry radish. Manure application significantly increased the abundance of ARGs in the rhizosphere and phyllosphere but not in the endophytes of the root, which is the edible part of cherry radish. Soil and plant microbiomes changed dramatically after manure applications and clustered separately according to different sample types and treatments. Structural equation modeling revealed that bacterial abundance was the most important factor modulating the distribution patterns of soil and plant resistomes after accounting for multiple drivers. Taken together, we provide evidence that enrichment of the resistome in the rhizosphere and phyllosphere of cherry radish is more obvious than with the endosphere after manure application, suggesting that manure amendment might not enhance the dissemination of ARGs into the root of vegetables in the pot experiment.IMPORTANCE Our study provides important evidence that manure application increased the occurrence of ARGs in the rhizosphere and phyllosphere of cherry radish, compared with that in the endophytic bacterial microbiota of root, which is the edible part of cherry radish. Our findings suggest that although manure amendment is a significant route of ARGs entering agricultural soils, these manure-derived ARGs may be at low risk of migrating into the endophytes of root vegetables.
Project description:Understanding the environmental factors that shape microbial communities is crucial, especially in extreme environments, like Antarctica. Two main forces were reported to influence Antarctic soil microbes: birds and plants. Both birds and plants are currently undergoing relatively large changes in their distribution and abundance due to global warming. However, we need to clearly understand the relationship between plants, birds and soil microorganisms. We therefore collected rhizosphere and bulk soils from six different sampling sites subjected to different levels of bird influence and colonized by Colobanthus quitensis and Deschampsia antarctica in Admiralty Bay, King George Island, Maritime Antarctic. Microarray and qPCR assays targeting 16S rRNA genes of specific taxa were used to assess microbial community structure, composition and abundance and analyzed with a range of soil physico-chemical parameters. The results indicated significant rhizosphere effects in four out of the six sites, including areas with different levels of bird influence. Acidobacteria were significantly more abundant in soils with little bird influence (low nitrogen) and in bulk soil. In contrast, Actinobacteria were significantly more abundant in the rhizosphere of both plant species. At two of the sampling sites under strong bird influence (penguin colonies), Firmicutes were significantly more abundant in D. antarctica rhizosphere but not in C. quitensis rhizosphere. The Firmicutes were also positively and significantly correlated to the nitrogen concentrations in the soil. We conclude that the microbial communities in Antarctic soils are driven both by bird and plants, and that the effect is taxa-specific.
Project description:Although positive effects on growth and reproduction of Antarctic vascular plants have been reported under warmer temperatures, it could also increase the vulnerability of these plants to freezing. Thus, we assessed in situ whether warming decreases the freezing resistance of Colobanthus quitensis and Deschampsia antarctica, and we compared the level and mechanism of freezing resistance of these species in the field with previous reports conducted in lab conditions. We assessed the freezing resistance of C. quitensis and D. antarctica by determining their low temperature damage (LT50), ice nucleation temperature (NT) and freezing point (FP) in three sites of the King George Island. Plants were exposed during two growing seasons to a passive increase in the air temperature (+W). +W increased by 1K the mean air temperatures, but had smaller effects on freezing temperatures. Leaf temperature of both species was on average 1.7K warmer inside +W. Overall, warming decreased the freezing resistance of Antarctic species. The LT50 increased on average 2K for C. quitensis and 2.8K for D. antarctica. In contrast, NT and FP decreased on average c. 1K in leaves of warmed plants of both species. Our results showed an averaged LT50 of -15.3°C for C. quitensis, and of -22.8°C for D. antarctica, with freezing tolerance being the freezing resistance mechanism for both species. These results were partially consistent with previous reports, and likely explanations for such discrepancies were related with methodological differences among studies. Our work is the first study reporting the level and mechanisms of freezing resistance of Antarctic vascular plants measured in situ, and we demonstrated that although both plant species exhibited a great ability to cope with freezing temperatures during the growing season, their vulnerability to suffer freezing damage under a warming scenario increase although the magnitude of this response varied across sites and species. Hence, freezing damage should be considered when predicting changes in plant responses of C. quitensis and D. antarctica under future climate conditions of the Antarctic Peninsula.
Project description:The increase in temperature as consequence of the recent global warming has been reported to generate new ice-free areas in the Antarctic continent, facilitating the colonization and spread of plant populations. Consequently, Antarctic vascular plants have been observed extending their southern distribution. But as the environmental conditions toward southern localities become progressively more departed from the species' physiological optimum, the ecophysiological responses and survival to the expected global warming could be reduced. However, if processes of local adaptation are the main cause of the observed southern expansion, those populations could appear constrained to respond positively to the expected global warming. Using individuals from the southern tip of South America, the South Shetland Islands and the Antarctic Peninsula, we assess with a long term experiment (three years) under controlled conditions if the responsiveness of Colobanthus quitensis populations to the expected global warming, is related with their different foliar traits and photoprotective mechanisms along the latitudinal gradient. In addition, we tested if the release of the stress condition by the global warming in these cold environments increases the ecophysiological performance. For this, we describe the latitudinal pattern of net photosynthetic capacity, biomass accumulation, and number of flowers under current and future temperatures respective to each site of origin after three growing seasons. Overall, was found a clinal trend was found in the foliar traits and photoprotective mechanisms in the evaluated C. quitensis populations. On the other hand, an asymmetric response to warming was observed for southern populations in all ecophysiological traits evaluated, suggesting that low temperature is limiting the performance of C. quitensis populations. Our results suggest that under a global warming scenario, plant populations that inhabiting cold zones at high latitudes could increase in their ecophysiological performance, enhancing the size of populations or their spread.
Project description:<h4>Background</h4>Traditional agro-systems in arid areas are a bulwark for preserving soil stability and fertility, in the sight of "reverse desertification". Nevertheless, the impact of desert farming practices on the diversity and abundance of the plant associated microbiome is poorly characterized, including its functional role in supporting plant development under drought stress.<h4>Methodology/principal findings</h4>We assessed the structure of the microbiome associated to the drought-sensitive pepper plant (Capsicum annuum L.) cultivated in a traditional Egyptian farm, focusing on microbe contribution to a crucial ecosystem service, i.e. plant growth under water deficit. The root system was dissected by sampling root/soil with a different degree of association to the plant: the endosphere, the rhizosphere and the root surrounding soil that were compared to the uncultivated soil. Bacterial community structure and diversity, determined by using Denaturing Gradient Gel Electrophoresis, differed according to the microhabitat, indicating a selective pressure determined by the plant activity. Similarly, culturable bacteria genera showed different distribution in the three root system fractions. Bacillus spp. (68% of the isolates) were mainly recovered from the endosphere, while rhizosphere and the root surrounding soil fractions were dominated by Klebsiella spp. (61% and 44% respectively). Most of the isolates (95%) presented in vitro multiple plant growth promoting (PGP) activities and stress resistance capabilities, but their distribution was different among the root system fractions analyzed, with enhanced abilities for Bacillus and the rhizobacteria strains. We show that the C. annuum rhizosphere under desert farming enriched populations of PGP bacteria capable of enhancing plant photosynthetic activity and biomass synthesis (up to 40%) under drought stress.<h4>Conclusions/significance</h4>Crop cultivation provides critical ecosystem services in arid lands with the plant root system acting as a "resource island" able to attract and select microbial communities endowed with multiple PGP traits that sustain plant development under water limiting conditions.
Project description:Plant-fungi interactions have been identified as fundamental drivers of the plant host performance, particularly in cold environments where organic matter degradation rates are slow, precisely for the capacity of the fungal symbiont to enhance the availability of labile nitrogen (N) in the plant rhizosphere. Nevertheless, these positive effects appear to be modulated by the composition and amount of the N pool in the soil, being greater when plant hosts are growing where N is scarce as is the case of Antarctic soils. Nevertheless, in some coastal areas of this continent, seabirds and marine mammal colonies exert, through their accumulated feces and urine a strong influence on the edaphic N content surrounding their aggregation points. To evaluate if the fungal symbionts (root endophytes), associated to the only two Antarctic vascular plants Colobanthus quitensis and Deschampsia antarctica, act as N-uptake enhancers, even in such N-rich conditions as those found around animal influence, we assessed, under controlled conditions, the process of N mineralization in soil by the accumulation of NH4 + in the rizhosphere and the biomass accumulation of plants with (E+) and without (E-) fungal symbionts. Complementarily, taking advantage of the isotopic N-fractionation that root-fungal symbionts exert on organic N molecules during its acquisition process, we also determined if endophytes actively participate in the Antarctic plants N-uptake, when inorganic N is not a limiting factor, by estimating the ?15N isotopic signatures in leaves. Overall, symbiotic interaction increased the availability of NH4 + in the rhizosphere of both species. As expected, the enhanced availability of inorganic N resulted in a higher final biomass in E + compared with E- plants of both species. In addition, we found that the positive role of fungal symbionts was also actively linked to the process of N-uptake in both species, evidenced by the contrasting ?15N signatures present in E+ (-0.4 to -2.3‰) relative to E- plants (2.7-3.1‰). In conclusion, despite being grown under rich N soils, the two Antarctic vascular plants showed that the presence of root-fungal endophytes, furthermore enhanced the availability of inorganic N sources in the rhizosphere, has a positive impact in their biomass, remarking the active participation of these endophytes in the N-uptake process for plants inhabiting the Antarctic continent.
Project description:Interactions between plants and microbes can affect ecosystem functions, and many studies have demonstrated that plant properties influence mutualistic microorganisms. Here, high-throughput sequencing was used to investigate rhizosphere and phyllosphere fungal communities during different plant development stages. Results demonstrated that phyllosphere and rhizosphere fungal community structures were distinct during all developmental stages while they were mediated separately by plant carbon and soil sulfur. Comparatively, the effect of root properties on phyllosphere fungal diversity was greater than soil properties. Moreover, rhizosphere fungal networks of Bothriochloa ischaemum were more complex than phyllosphere fungal networks. This study demonstrated that the effect of plant and soil traits on phyllosphere and rhizosphere fungal communities could potentially be significant, depending on the applicable environmental condition and plant development stage. Although links between phyllosphere and rhizosphere communities have been established, further studies on functional fungal groups during phytoremediation processes are necessary. This study comprehensively analyzed dynamic relationships between phyllosphere and rhizosphere fungal communities during different plant development stages in a polluted environment. These fungal communities were determined to be expedient to the development and utilization of beneficial microbial communities during different development stages, which could more effectively help to stabilize and reclaim contaminated copper tailings soil.