Rapeseed-based diet modulates the imputed functions of gut microbiome in growing-finishing pigs.
ABSTRACT: Rapeseed meal is a sustainable feed ingredient that can be used as an alternative to imported soybean meal in European pig production. The gut microbiota plays an important role on pig physiology and health but the impact on microbiota of using rapeseed in diets is still not well known. In this study, 84 purebred Norwegian Landrace pigs with average initial weight of 25?kg were divided into two groups and fed for approximately three months with either a control diet containing soybean meal (CON) or a high-fiber experimental diet where 20% rapeseed meal (RSF) was included as an alternative to soybean meal in CON. The composition and function of microbiome in gut digesta samples were analyzed by performing 16S rRNA gene sequencing and culturing of bacteria. The microbiota diversity and composition were similar between the dietary treatments; however, relative abundance of a variety of bacterial groups and imputed functions of microbiome in the ileum and large intestine were altered when the pigs were fed with a rapeseed-based diet. It was notable that the immune-inducing bacterial group Mucispirillum and anti-inflammatory stimulating bacteria Lachnospira were more abundant in the ileum and large intestine of the RSF group, respectively. Moreover, there was a higher abundance of major amino acid fermenters and amylolytic bacteria in the CON group and a high abundance of putative short chain fatty acid producers in RSF group. In comparison with the CON group, the gut microbiome of RSF group possessed an enhanced potential for carbohydrate and energy metabolism and a reduced potential for bacterial pathogenicity-related pathways.
Project description:Rapeseed meal (RSM) is an alternative feed ingredient to soybean meal (SBM) in pig diets. However, knowledge on the effect of RSM on gut health, especially in relation to changes in gut microbiota is still limited. In our study, Norwegian Landrace weaner pigs were fed with either a control diet (CON) based on wheat, barley and SBM, or a high-fiber experimental diet where SBM was replaced by RSM (RSF). We found no large differences in the gut microbiota of pigs fed the two diets, suggesting that RSF does not disturb the gut microbiota and the normal gut function. The relative abundance of SCFA-producing phylotypes and colon-health related phylotypes increased in the large intestine of RSF-fed pigs. Among them, Lachnospira and Coprococcus were negatively associated with the presence of neutrophils in the colon wall. The higher abundance of these bacteria in colon of RSF pigs may suggest an anti-inflammatory stimulus effect of the RSF diet. The gut microbiota of RSF-fed pigs was relatively unaltered following episodes of diarrhea suggesting that the RSF diet may promote robustness in weaner pigs and reduce the risk of dysbiosis.
Project description:Rapeseed (RS) is an abundant and inexpensive source of energy and AA in diets for monogastrics and a sustainable alternative to soybean meal. It also contains diverse bioactive phytochemicals that could have antinutritional effects at high dose. When the RS-derived feed ingredients (RSF) are used in swine diets, the uptake of these nutrients and phytochemicals is expected to affect the metabolic system. In this study, 2 groups of young pigs (17.8 ± 2.7 kg initial BW) were equally fed a soybean meal-based control diet and an RSF-based diet, respectively, for 3 wk. Digesta, liver, and serum samples from these pigs were examined by liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry-based metabolomic analysis to determine the metabolic effects of the 2 diets. Analyses of digesta samples revealed that sinapine, sinapic acid, and gluconapin were robust exposure markers of RS. The distribution of free AA along the intestine of RSF pigs was consistent with the reduced apparent ileal digestibility of AA observed in these pigs. Despite its higher fiber content, the RSF diet did not affect microbial metabolites in the digesta, including short-chain fatty acids and secondary bile acids. Analyses of the liver and serum samples revealed that RSF altered the levels of AA metabolites involved in the urea cycle and 1-carbon metabolism. More importantly, RSF increased the levels of multiple oxidized metabolites and aldehydes while decreased the levels of ascorbic acid and docosahexaenoic acid-containing lipids in the liver and serum, suggesting that RSF could disrupt redox balance in young pigs. Overall, the results indicated that RSF elicited diverse metabolic events in young pigs through its influences on nutrient and antioxidant metabolism, which might affect the performance and health in long-term feeding and also provide the venues for nutritional and processing interventions to improve the utilization of RSF in pigs.
Project description:The present study aimed to investigate the effects of dietary fiber on the gut health of growing pigs. In total, 30 growing pigs with an initial average body weight of 45.8 ± 2.78 kg were divided into three groups with 10 replicates per treatment, and one pig per replicate. The treatments included a corn-soybean meal-based diet (control group, 1.5% crude fiber (CF)), corn-soybean meal + beet pulp-based diet (beet pulp group, 5.74% CF) and corn-soybean meal-based diet (feed intake-pairing group (pairing group); the feed intake was equal to the beet pulp group, 1.5% CF). The whole trial lasted 28 days. The beet pulp group had a longer length of the large intestine, higher weight of the small intestine and whole intestine, greater density of the large intestine and whole intestine, and higher villus height in the jejunum and ileum than the control group (p < 0.05). The messenger RNA (mRNA) expression levels of epidermal growth factor (EGF), glucagon-like peptide 2 (GLP-2), and glucagon-like peptide 2 receptor (GLP-2R) in the duodenum, EGF and GLP-2 in the jejunum, EGF in the ileum, and GLP-2 in the colon were higher in the beet pulp group than in the control group (p < 0.05). Moreover, the apparent total tract digestibility of crude ash, energy, dry matter (DM), and crude protein (CP) was lower in the beet pulp group than in the control group (p < 0.05), while the apparent total tract digestibility of CF, the activity of jejunal lactase, and the mRNA abundance of duodenal GLP-2 were higher in the beet pulp group than in the control and pairing groups (p < 0.05). In addition, the beet pulp group had more goblet cells in the colon, more Bifidobacterium spp. in the cecal digesta, higher concentrations of acetic acid and butyric acid in the cecal digesta, and higher mRNA abundance of duodenal regeneration protein ?? (REG-??), jejunal mucin 2 (MUC-2), and ileal G protein-coupled receptor 43 (GPR-43) than the control group (p < 0.05). However, these parameters did not differ between the control and pairing groups (p > 0.05). These findings indicate feeding a high-fiber diet (5.74% CF, obtained from beet pulp) to pigs could modulate the gut microbiota composition, increase the short-chain fatty-acid (SCFA) content in the hindgut, and improve gut health, which is independent of the feed intake.
Project description:The aim of the study was to investigate the effect of untreated and processed rapeseed meal (RSM) on fiber degradability by pig gut microbiota and the adaptation of the microbiota to the substrate, by using the Swine Large Intestine in vitro Model (SLIM). A standardized swine gut microbiota was fed for 48 h with pre-digested RSM which was processed enzymatically by a cellulase (CELL), two pectinases (PECT), or chemically by an alkaline (ALK) treatment. Amplicons of the V3-V4 region of the 16S rRNA gene were sequenced to evaluate the gut microbiota composition, whereas short chain fatty acids (SCFA) were measured to assess fiber degradation. Adaptive gPCA showed that CELL and ALK had larger effects on the microbiota composition than PECT1 and PECT2, and all substrates had larger effects than CON. The relative abundance of family Prevotellaceae was significantly higher in CELL treatment compared to other treatments. Regardless of the treatments (including CON), the relative abundance of Dorea, Allisonella, and FamilyXIIIUCG_001 (in the order of Clostridiales) were significantly increased after 24 h, and Parabacteroides, Mogibacterium, Intestinimonas, Oscillibacter, RuminococcaceaeUCG_009, Acidaminococcus, Sutterella, and Citrobacter were significantly higher in abundance at time point 48 compared to the earlier time points. Prevotella 9 had significant positive correlations with propionic and valeric acid, and Mogibacterium positively correlated with acetic and caproic acid. There was no significant difference in SCFA production between untreated and processed RSM. Overall, degradability in the processed RSM was not improved compared to CON. However, the significantly different microbes detected among treatments, and the bacteria considerably correlating with SCFA production might be important findings to determine strategies to shorten the fiber adaptation period of the microbiota, in order to increase feed efficiency in the animal, and particularly in pig production.
Project description:The hypothesis tested was that dietary inclusion of insect meal (IM) causes an alteration in the cecal microbiota composition and its fermentation activity of growing pigs. Five-week-old male crossbred pigs were randomly assigned to three groups of 10 pigs each, and fed isonitrogenous diets either without (CON) or with 5% IM (IM5) or 10% IM (IM10) from Tenebrio molitor larvae for four weeks. The relative abundance of the phylum Bacteroidetes was lower in group IM10 than in group CON (p < 0.05), whereas the relative abundance of Firmicutes and the Firmicutes:Bacteroidetes-ratio tended to be higher in groups IM10 and IM5 than in group CON (p < 0.1). The relative abundance of the Proteobacteria tended to be higher in group IM10 than in groups CON and IM5 (p < 0.1). The concentrations of the total short-chain fatty acids in the cecal digesta did not differ between the three groups, but the concentrations of the branched-chain fatty acids in the cecal digesta were higher in group IM5 and IM10 than in group CON (p < 0.05). The present study shows for the first time that the replacement of soybean meal by Tenebrio molitor larvae meal causes a shift of the cecal microbial community and its fermentation activity in growing pigs.
Project description:Background:The constant interaction between diet and intestinal barrier has a crucial role in determining gut health in pigs. Hermetia illucens (HI) meal (that represents a promising, alternative feed ingredient for production animals) has recently been demonstrated to influence colonic microbiota, bacterial metabolite profile and mucosal immune status of pigs, but no data about modulation of gut mucin dynamics are currently available. The present study evaluated the effects of dietary HI meal inclusion on the small intestinal mucin composition of piglets, as well as providing insights into the cecal microbiota and the mucosal infiltration with immune cells. Results:A total of 48 weaned piglets were randomly allotted to 3 dietary treatments (control diet [C] and 5% or 10% HI meal inclusion [HI5 and HI10], with 4 replicate boxes/treatment and 4 animals/box) and slaughtered after 61?days of trial (3 animals/box, 12 piglets/diet). The cecal microbiota assessment by 16S rRNA amplicon based sequencing showed higher beta diversity in the piglets fed the HI-based diets than the C (P?<? 0.001). Furthermore, the HI-fed animals showed increased abundance of Blautia, Chlamydia, Coprococcus, Eubacterium, Prevotella, Roseburia, unclassified members of Ruminococcaceae, Ruminococcus and Staphylococcus when compared to the C group (FDR?<? 0.05). The gut of the piglets fed the HI-based diets showed greater neutral mucin percentage than the C (P?<? 0.05), with the intestinal neutral mucins of the HI-fed animals being also higher than the sialomucins and the sulfomucins found in the gut of the C group (P?<? 0.05). Furthermore, the piglets fed the HI-based diets displayed lower histological scores in the jejunum than the other gut segments (ileum [HI5] or ileum and duodenum [HI10], P?<? 0.05). Conclusions:Dietary HI meal utilization positively influenced the cecal microbiota and the small intestinal mucin dynamics of the piglets in terms of selection of potentially beneficial bacteria and preservation of mature mucin secretory architecture, without determining the development of gut inflammation. These findings further confirm the suitability of including insect meal in swine diets.
Project description:Gut microbiota contributes to intestinal and immune homeostasis through host-microbiota interactions. Distribution of the gut microbiota differs according to the location in the gastrointestinal tract. Although the microbiota properties change with age, evidence for the regional difference of gut microbiota has been restricted to the young. The aim of this study is to compare the gut microbiota between terminal ileum and cecum of old rats.We analyzed gut microbiome of luminal contents from ileum and cecum of 74-week-old and 2-year-old rats (corresponding to 60-year and 80-year-old of human age) by metagenome sequencing of 16S rRNA.Inter-individual variation (beta diversity) of microbiota was higher in ileum than in cecum. Conversely, alpha diversity of microbiota composition was higher in cecum than in ileum. Lactobacillaceae were more abundant in ileum compared to cecum while Ruminococcaceae and Lachnospiraceae were more enriched in cecum. The proportions of Deltaproteobacteria were increased in cecal microbiota of 2-year-old rats compared to 74-week-old rats.Major regional distinctions of microbiota between ileum and cecum of old rats appear consistent with those of young rats. Age-related alterations of gut microbiota in old rats seem to occur in minor compositions.
Project description:The aim of the current study was to investigate whether degradation of rapeseed meal (RSM) by a swine gut microbiota consortium was improved by modifying RSM by treatment with cellulase (CELL), two pectinases (PECT), or alkaline (ALK) compared to untreated RSM and to assess whether microbiota composition and activity changed. The predicted relative abundances of carbohydrate digestion and absorption, glycolysis, pentose phosphate pathway, and pyruvate metabolism were significantly increased upon CELL and ALK feeding, and CELL and ALK also exhibited increased total short-chain fatty acid (SCFA) production compared to CON. Megasphaera, Prevotella, and Desulfovibrio were significantly positively correlated with SCFA production. Findings were validated in ileal cannulated pigs, which showed that CELL and ALK increased fiber degradation of RSM. In conclusion, CELL and ALK rather than PECT1 or PECT2 increased fiber degradation in RSM, and this information could guide feed additive strategies to improve efficiency and productivity in the swine industry.
Project description:Duck meat enjoys growing popularity among consumers. Alternative protein sources to soybean are being investigated to eliminate genetically modified components from the poultry' diet. The aim of this study was to compare growth performance, quality of meat, and fatty acid composition in subcutaneous and abdominal fat from ducks fed a diet based on yellow lupin and rapeseed meal, sources of protein alternative to soybean meal (SBM). Ducks were allocated to different dietary treatment groups and reared for 8 weeks (N?=?102 per group). Group A received a diet based on SBM, while group B was fed a diet based on yellow lupin with the addition of rapeseed meal. Both groups were divided into two subgroups, of male and female birds. Growth performance parameters and zoometric traits of ducks were monitored during the growth period. After 8 weeks selected birds were slaughtered and dissected (N?=?10 per group). Carcass composition was calculated and selected traits of meat quality important for further processing were analysed. Subcutaneous and abdominal fat were collected to analyse fatty acid composition. The alternative diet had no negative effect on ducks' growth performance parameters and dressing percentage. The replacement of SBM with yellow lupin and rapeseed meal increased n-3 fatty acid content, which is important for consumers. In conclusion, SBM can be replaced with feed containing 60.10% of yellow lupin and 14.00% of rapeseed meal in concentrate. These sources of protein are mainly recommended for small poultry farms, which do not always have access to SBM and prepare poultry feed from their own crops.
Project description:Dietary protein sources can have profound effects on host-microbe interactions in the gut that are critically important for immune resilience. However more knowledge is needed to assess the impact of different protein sources on gut and animal health. Thirty-six wildtype male C57BL/6J mice of 35 d age (n = 6/group; mean ± SEM body weight 21.9 ± 0.25 g) were randomly assigned to groups fed for four weeks with semi synthetic diets prepared with one of the following protein sources containing (300 g/kg as fed basis): soybean meal (SBM), casein, partially delactosed whey powder, spray dried plasma protein, wheat gluten meal and yellow meal worm. At the end of the experiment, mice were sacrificed to collect ileal tissue to acquire gene expression data, and mammalian (mechanistic) target of rapamycin (mTOR) activity, ileal digesta to study changes in microbiota and serum to measure cytokines and chemokines. By genome-wide transcriptome analysis, we identified fourteen high level regulatory genes that are strongly affected in SBM-fed mice compared to the other experimental groups. They mostly related to the mTOR pathway. In addition, an increased (P < 0.05) concentration of granulocyte colony-stimulating factor was observed in serum of SBM-fed mice compared to other dietary groups. Moreover, by 16S rRNA sequencing, we observed that SBM-fed mice had higher (P < 0.05) abundances of Bacteroidales family S24-7, compared to the other dietary groups. We showed that measurements of genome-wide expression and microbiota composition in the mouse ileum reveal divergent responses to diets containing different protein sources, in particular for a diet based on SBM.