Analysis of CFTR Mutation Spectrum in Ethnic Russian Cystic Fibrosis Patients.
ABSTRACT: The distribution and frequency of the CFTR gene mutations vary considerably between countries and ethnic groups. Russians are an East Slavic ethnic groups are native to Eastern Europe. Russians, the most numerous people of the Russian Federation (RF), make about 80% of the population. The aim is to reveal the molecular causes of CF in ethnic Russian patients as comprehensively as possible. The analysis of most common CFTR mutations utilized for CF diagnosis in multiethnic RF population accounts for about 83% of all CF-causing mutations in 1384 ethnic Russian patients. Variants c.1521_1523delCTT (F508del), c.54-5940_273+10250del21kb (CFTRdele2,3), c.2012delT (2143delT), c.2052_2053insA (2184insA), and c.3691delT (3821delT) are most typical for CF patients of Russian origin. DNA of 154 CF patients, Russian by origin, in whom at least one mutant allele was not previously identified (164 CF alleles), was analyzed by Sanger sequencing followed by the multiplex ligase-dependent probe amplification (MLPA) method. In addition to the 29 variants identified during the previous test for common mutations, 91 pathogenic CFTR variants were also revealed: 29 missense, 19 nonsense, 14 frame shift in/del, 17 splicing, 1 in frame ins, and 11 copy number variations (CNV). Each of the 61 variants was revealed once, and 17 twice. Each of the variants c.1209G>C (E403D), c.2128A>T (K710X), c.3883delA (4015delA), and c.3884_3885insT (4016insT) were detected for three, c.1766+1G>A (1898+1G>A) and c.2834C>T (S945L) for four, c.1766+1G>C (1898+1G>C) and c.(743+1_744-1)_(1584+1_1585-1)dup (CFTRdup6b-10) for five, c.2353C>T (R785X) and c.4004T>C (L1335P) for six, c.3929G>A (W1310X) for seven, c.580-1G>T (712-1G>T for eight, and c.1240_1244delCAAAA (1365del5) for 11 unrelated patients. A comprehensive analysis of CFTR mutant alleles with sequencing followed by MLPA, allowed not only the identification of 163 of 164 unknown alleles in our patient sample, but also expansion of the mutation spectrum with novel and additional frequent variants for ethnic Russians.
Project description:BACKGROUND:Cystic fibrosis (CF; OMIM #219700) is a common autosomal recessive disease caused by pathogenic variants (henceforward mutations) in the cystic fibrosis transmembrane conductance regulator gene (CFTR). The spectrum and frequencies of CFTR mutations vary among different populations. Characterization of the specific distribution of CFTR mutations can be used to optimize genetic counseling, foster reproductive choices, and facilitate the introduction of mutation-specific therapies. Chechens are a distinct Caucasian ethnic group of the Nakh peoples that originated from the North Caucasus. Chechens are one of the oldest ethnic groups in the Caucasus, the sixth largest ethnic group in the Russian Federation (RF), and constitute the majority population of the Chechen Republic (Chechnya). The spectrum of CFTR mutations in a representative cohort of Chechen CF patients and healthy individuals was analyzed. METHODS:Molecular genetic analysis of 34 CFTR mutations (representing approx. 80-85% of mutations in multiethnic CF populations of the RF) was performed in 32 CF patients from 31 unrelated Chechen families living in Chechnya. One hundred randomly chosen healthy Chechens were analyzed for the 15 most common "Russian" mutations. The clinical symptoms in Chechen CF patients with different CFTR genotypes were investigated. RESULTS:High frequencies of c.1545_1546delTA (p.Tyr515X; 1677delTA) (52 out of 64 CFTR alleles tested; 81.3%) and c.274G?>?A (p.Glu92Lys, E92K) (8/64, 12.5%) mutations were found. Twenty patients were homozygous for the c.1545_1546delTA mutation, and eight were compound heterozygous for the c.1545_1546delTA and c.274G?>?A mutations. Three carriers of the c.1545_1546delTA mutation were also found in the cohort of 100 apparently healthy Chechens (frequency - 0.015). The c.1545_1546delTA and c.274G?>?A mutations are linked to the same haplotype (22-7-16-13) of intragenic Short Tandem Repeat markers, i.e., IVS1CA, IVS6aGATT, IVS8CA, and IVS17bCA. CONCLUSIONS:The distribution of CFTR mutations in the Chechen CF population is unique regarding the high frequency of mutations c.1545_1546delTA and c.274G?>?A (more than 90% of the mutant alleles). The c.274G?>?A mutation is associated with a less severe course of CF than that observed in c.1545_1546delTA homozygotes. Testing for these two variants can be proposed as the first step of CF DNA diagnosis in the Chechen population.
Project description:An extensive molecular analysis of the CF transmembrane regulator (CFTR) gene was performed to establish the CFTR mutation spectrum and frequencies in the Palestinian population, which can be considered as an understudied population. We used a targeted Next Generation Sequencing approach to sequence the entire coding region and the adjacent sequences of the CFTR gene combined with MLPA analysis of 60 unrelated CF patients. Eighteen different CF-causing mutations, including one previously undescribed mutation p.(Gly1265Arg), were identified. The overall detection rate is up to 67%, and when we consider only CF patients with sweat chloride concentrations >70?mEq/L, we even have a pickup rate of 92%. Whereas p.(Phe508del) is the most frequent allele (35% of the positive cases), 3 other mutations c.2988+1Kbdel8.6Kb, c.1393-1G>A, and p.(Gly85Glu) showed frequencies higher than 5% and a total of 9 mutations account for 84% of the mutations. This limited spectrum of CF mutations is in agreement with the homozygous ethnic origin of the Palestinian population. The relative large portion of patients without a mutation is most likely due to clinical misdiagnosis. Our results will be important in the development of an adequate molecular diagnostic test for CF in Palestine.
Project description:Pathogenic variants in the GJB2 gene, encoding connexin 26, are known to be a major cause of hearing impairment (HI). More than 300 allelic variants have been identified in the GJB2 gene. Spectrum and allelic frequencies of the GJB2 gene vary significantly among different ethnic groups worldwide. Until now, the spectrum and frequency of the pathogenic variants in exon 1, exon 2 and the flanking intronic regions of the GJB2 gene have not been described thoroughly in the Sakha Republic (Yakutia), which is located in a subarctic region in Russia. The complete sequencing of the non-coding and coding regions of the GJB2 gene was performed in 393 patients with HI (Yakuts-296, Russians-51, mixed and other ethnicities-46) and in 187 normal hearing individuals of Yakut (n = 107) and Russian (n = 80) populations. In the total sample (n = 580), we revealed 12 allelic variants of the GJB2 gene, 8 of which were recessive pathogenic variants. Ten genotypes with biallelic recessive pathogenic variants in the GJB2 gene (in a homozygous or a compound heterozygous state) were found in 192 out of 393 patients (48.85%). We found that the most frequent GJB2 pathogenic variant in the Yakut patients was c.-23+1G>A (51.82%) and that the second most frequent was c.109G>A (2.37%), followed by c.35delG (1.64%). Pathogenic variants ?.35delG (22.34%), c.-23+1G>A (5.31%), and c.313_326del14 (2.12%) were found to be the most frequent among the Russian patients. The carrier frequencies of the c.-23+1G>A and ?.109G>A pathogenic variants in the Yakut control group were 10.20% and 2.80%, respectively. The carrier frequencies of ?.35delG and c.101T>C were identical (2.5%) in the Russian control group. We found that the contribution of the GJB2 gene pathogenic variants in HI in the population of the Sakha Republic (48.85%) was the highest among all of the previously studied regions of Asia. We suggest that extensive accumulation of the c.-23+1G>A pathogenic variant in the indigenous Yakut population (92.20% of all mutant chromosomes in patients) and an extremely high (10.20%) carrier frequency in the control group may indicate a possible selective advantage for the c.-23+1G>A carriers living in subarctic climate.
Project description:<h4>Introduction</h4>Cystic fibrosis (CF) has been reported before in Saudi Arabia and the Gulf area. It has been found that screening for 10 most common cystic fibrosis transmembrane conductance regulator (CFTR) mutations can detect 80% of positive CFTR cases.<h4>Objectives</h4>To determine the geographic distribution of the most common CFTR variants in 5 regions of Saudi Arabia.<h4>Methodology</h4>A retrospective chart review of all CFTR variants conducted from January 1, 1992 to December 1, 2017.<h4>Results</h4>The ten most common CFTR mutations in the Saudi population were as follows: p.Gly473GlufsX54 (17%), p.Phe508del (12%), p.Ile1234Val (12%), 3120+1G > A (11%), 711+1G > T (9%), p.His139Leu (6%), p.Gln637Hisfs (5%), p.Ser549Arg (3%), p.N1303K (3%), and delExon19-21 (2%) along with other variants 79 (20%). In terms of the highest frequency, the c.2988+1G > A (3120+1G > A) variant was found in the eastern province (7.3%) of Saudi Arabia, the c.1418delG (p.Gly473GlufsX54) variant in the northern province (6.8%), the c.579+1G > T (711+1G > T) variant in the southern province (4.8%), the c.3700A > G (p.Ile1234Val) variant in the central province (4.8%), and c.1521_1523delCTT (p.Phe508del) variant in the western province (4.3%).<h4>Conclusion</h4>The eastern and the northern provinces have the highest prevalence of CF, with the c.2988+1G > A (3120+1G > A) and c.1418delG (p.Gly473GlufsX54) variants showing the highest distribution in the Saudi CF population, which may reflect the effect of consanguinity within the same tribe. Proper family screening and counseling should be emphasized.
Project description:Cystic fibrosis (CF) is an autosomal recessive inherited life-threatening disorder that causes severe damage to the lungs and the digestive system. In Palestine, mutations in the Cystic Fibrosis Transmembrane Conductance Regulator gene (CFTR) that contributes to the clinical presentation of CF are ill defined. A cohort of thirty three clinically diagnosed CF patients from twenty one different Palestinian families residing in the central and southern part of Palestine were incorporated in this study. Sweat chloride testing was performed using the Sweat Chek Conductivity Analyzer (ELITECH Group, France) to confirm the clinical diagnosis of CF. In addition, nucleic acid from the patients' blood samples was extracted and the CFTR mutation profiles were assessed by direct sequencing of the CFTR 27 exons and the intron-exon boundaries. For patient's DNA samples where no homozygous or two heterozygous CFTR mutations were identified by exon sequencing, DNA samples were tested for deletions or duplications using SALSA MLPA probemix P091-D1 CFTR assay. Sweat chloride testing confirmed the clinical diagnosis of CF in those patients. All patients had NaCl conductivity >60 mmol/l. In addition, nine different CFTR mutations were identified in all 21 different families evaluated. These mutations were c.1393-1G>A, F508del, W1282X, G85E, c.313delA, N1303K, deletion exons 17a-17b-18, deletion exons 17a-17b and Q1100P. c.1393-1G>A was shown to be the most frequent occurring mutation among tested families. We have profiled the underling mutations in the CFTR gene of a cohort of 21 different families affected by CF. Unlike other studies from the Arab countries where F508del was reported to be the most common mutation, in southern/central Palestine, the c.1393-1G>A appeared to be the most common. Further studies are needed per sample size and geographic distribution to account for other possible CFTR genetic alterations and their frequencies. Genotype/phenotype assessments are also recommended and finally carrier frequency should be ascertained.
Project description:BACKGROUND:Cystic fibrosis (CF) is caused by mutations in the cystic fibrosis transmembrane conductance regulator gene (CFTR). There are over 2000 different pathogenic and non-pathogenic variants described in association with a broad clinical heterogeneity. The most common types of mutations in this gene are single nucleotide substitutions or small deletions and insertions. However, large rearrangements, such as large duplications or deletions, are also a possible cause of CF; these variations are rarely tested in routine screenings, and much of them remain unidentified in some populations, especially those with high ethnic heterogeneity. METHODS:The present study utilized the Multiplex Ligation-dependent Probe Amplification (MLPA) technique for the detection of duplications and deletions in 165 CF patients from the Rio de Janeiro State (Brazil), which after extensive mutational screening, still exhibited one or two unidentified CF alleles. RESULTS:Five patients with alterations in MLPA signals were detected. After validation, we identified three copy number variations, one large duplication (CFTRdup2-3) and two large deletions (CFTRdel25-26 and CFTRdel25-27-CTTNBP2). Two detected deletions were not validated. They were false positives caused by a small deletion of 18 base pairs (232del18) and a point mutation (S168L) in the probe binding site. CONCLUSION:Our results highlight the importance of screening for large rearrangements in CF cases with no or only one CFTR mutation defined.
Project description:BACKGROUND:Cystic fibrosis (CF) occurs in populations in Saudi Arabia and the Gulf area. Approximately 2000 known variants have been identified for the CF transmembrane conductance regulator (CTFR) gene. Screening for ten of the most common variants can detect 80% of alleles. OBJECTIVE:Determine the pattern of CFTR variants in the CF population of Saudi Arabia. DESIGN:A retrospective, descriptive. SETTING:Tertiary care center. PATIENTS AND METHODS:We examined the medical records of 396 confirmed CF patients of all age groups that were positive for a CFTR variant from the period of 1 January 1998 to 1 December 2017. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES:Zygosity, morbidity and mortality patterns of different types of CFTR variants. SAMPLE SIZE:312 families that included 396 patients. RESULTS:Of 48 variants identified, 6 were novel, having not been described in the medical literature. A homozygous state was found in 283 families (90.7%) and compound heterozygosity in 23 (7.4%). Six families were heterozygous (1.9%). Median age (interquartile range) was 10.2 months (4.4 months to 5.7 years) at diagnosis and 9.7 (5.4-16.5) years at follow up. Of 396 patients, 378 patients (95.5%) survived and 18 (4.5%) died. The ten most common variants identified in descending frequency were: p.Gly473GlufsX54 in 98 alleles (16%), p.Ile1234Val in 66 alleles (11%), F508del in 64 alleles (11%), 711+1G>T in 62 alleles (10%), 3120+1G>A in 62 alleles (11%), p.His139Leuin 38 alleles (6.4%), p.Gln637Hisfs in 30 alleles (5.2%), p.Ser549Arg in 27 alleles (4.5%), p.Asn1303Lys in 14 alleles (2.3%), delExon19-21in 10 alleles (1.6%). This analysis identified 79.2% of our CFTR variants. CONCLUSION:CFTR mutational patterns in our CF population are characterized by a high allelic heterogeneity. The high prevalence of homozygous variants reflects the high level of consanguinity between parents. LIMITATIONS:Our CFTR screening reflected only about 80% of CF patients in Saudi Arabia. CONFLICT OF INTEREST:None.
Project description:Cystic fibrosis (CF) is an autosomal recessive disorder characterized by the accumulation of sticky and heavy mucus that can damage several organs. CF shows variable expressivity in affected individuals, but it typically causes respiratory and digestive complications as well as congenital bilateral absence of the vas deferens in males. Individuals with classic CF usually have variants that produce a defective protein from both alleles of the CFTR gene. Individuals with other variants may present with classic, non-classic, or milder forms of CF due to lower levels of functional CFTR protein. This article reports the genetic analysis of a female with features of asthma and mild or non-classic CF. CFTR sequencing demonstrated that she is a carrier for a maternally derived 5T/12TG variant. Deletion/duplication analysis by multiplex ligation-dependent probe amplification (MLPA) showed the presence of an intragenic paternally derived duplication involving exons 7-11 of the CFTR gene. This duplication is predicted to result in the production of a truncated CFTR protein lacking the terminal part of the nucleotide-binding domain 1 (NBD1) and thus is likely to be a non-functioning allele. The combination of this large intragenic duplication and 5T/12TG is the probable cause of the mild or non-classic CF features in this individual.
Project description:Congenital bilateral absence of vas deferens (CBAVD) is the most common CFTR-related disorder (CFTR-RD) that explains about 1-2% of the male infertility cases. Controversial data have been published regarding the involvement of CFTR mutations in infertile men with non-obstructive azoospermia and oligozoospermia. Here, we describe single base extension (SNaPshot) assay for detection of 11 common CFTR mutations: F508del, G542X, N1303K, 621+1G->T, G551D, R553X, R1162X, W1282X, R117H, 2184insA and 1717-1G->A and IVS8polyT variants. The assay was validated on 50 previously genotyped samples and was used to screen a total of 369 infertile men with different impairment of spermatogenesis and 136 fertile controls. Our results show that double heterozygosity of cystic fibrosis (CF) and CFTR-related disorder (CFTR-RD) mutations are found in a high percentage (22.7%) of infertile men with obstructive azoospermia, but not in other studied groups of infertile men. The SNaPshot assay described here is an inexpensive, fast and robust method for primary screening of the most common CFTR mutations both in patients with classical CF and CFTR-RD. It can contribute to better understanding of the role of CFTR mutations in impaired spermatogenesis, ultimately leading to improved management of infertile men.
Project description:BACKGROUND:In this study the authors present an update to the CFTR mutation profile in Hungary, utilizing data from a selected cohort of 45 cystic fibrosis (CF) patients from different regions of the country. METHODS:Depending on the preceding analysis, four different mutation detection methods were used. A commercial assay targeting the most common CF-causing mutations was performed as the first test followed by an allele specific PCR for CFTRdele2,3(21kb), Sanger sequencing and MLPA analysis of the coding region of the CFTR gene. RESULTS:In our recent study 27 different mutations were detected, including 2 novel ones (c.1037_1038insA and c.1394C>T). Besides F508del (c.1521_1523delCTT), the following mutations were found at a frequency of ? 4.0%: W1282X (c.3846G>A), N1303K (c.3909C>G), CFTRdele2,3(21kb) (c.54-5940_273+10250del21kb) and 2184insA (c.2052_2053insA). In addition, four mutations (G542X, Y1092X, 621+1G>T, and 2143delT) were found in more than one allele. CONCLUSIONS:The updated database of Hungarian mutations not only enables to increase the efficiency of the existing diagnostic approach, but also provides a further refined basis for the introduction of the molecular newborn screening (NBS) program in Hungary.