Hsa-miR-20b-5p and hsa-miR-363-3p Affect Expression of PTEN and BIM Tumor Suppressor Genes and Modulate Survival of T-ALL Cells In Vitro.
ABSTRACT: T-cell acute lymphoblastic leukemia (T-ALL) is an aggressive malignancy arising from T lymphocyte precursors. We have previously shown by miRNA-seq, that miRNAs from the mir-106a-363 cluster are overexpressed in pediatric T-ALL. In silico analysis indicated their potential involvement in the regulation of apoptosis. Here, we aimed to test the hypothesis on the pro-tumorigenic roles of these miRNAs in T-ALL cells in vitro. We demonstrate, for the first time, that hsa-miR-20b-5p and hsa-miR-363-3p from the mir-106a-363 cluster, when upregulated in T-ALL cells in vitro, protect leukemic cells from apoptosis, enhance proliferation, and contribute to growth advantage. We show, using dual luciferase reporter assays, Ago2-RNA immunoprecipitation, RT-qPCR, and Western blots, that the oncogenic effects of these upregulated miRNAs might, at least in part, be mediated by the downregulation of two important tumor suppressor genes, PTEN and BIM, targeted by both miRNAs. Additionally, we demonstrate the cooperative effects of these two miRNAs by simultaneous inhibition of both miRNAs as compared to the inhibition of single miRNAs. We postulate that hsa-miR-20b-5p and hsa-miR-363-3p from the mir-106a-363 cluster might serve as oncomiRs in T-ALL, by contributing to post-transcriptional repression of key tumor suppressors, PTEN and BIM.
Project description:Transfection of human oral squamous carcinoma cells (clone E10) with mimics for unexpressed miR-20b or miR-363-5p, encoded by the miR-106a-363 cluster (miR-20b, miR-106a, miR-363-3p, or miR-363-5p), caused 40-50% decrease in proliferation. Transfection with mimics for miR-18a or miR-92a, encoded by the miR-17-92 cluster (all members being expressed in E10 cells), had no effect on proliferation. In contrast, mimic for the sibling miRNA-19a yielded about 20% inhibition of proliferation. To investigate miRNA involvement profiling of miRNA transcriptomes were carried out using deoxyoligonucleotide microarrays. In transfectants for miR-19a, or miR-20b or miR-363-5p most differentially expressed miRNAs exhibited decreased expression, including some miRNAs encoded in paralogous miR-17-92-or miR-106b-25 cluster. Only in cells transfected with miR-19a mimic significantly increased expression of miR-20b observed-about 50-fold as judged by qRT-PCR. Further studies using qRT-PCR showed that transfection of E10 cells with mimic for miRNAs encoded by miR-17-92 - or miR-106a-363 - or the miR-106b-25 cluster confirmed selective effect on expression on sibling miRNAs. We conclude that high levels of miRNAs encoded by the miR-106a-363 cluster may contribute to inhibition of proliferation by decreasing expression of several sibling miRNAs encoded by miR-17-92 or by the miR-106b-25 cluster. The inhibition of proliferation observed in miR-19a-mimic transfectants is likely caused by the miR-19a-dependent increase in the levels of miR-20b and miR-106a. Bioinformatic analysis of differentially expressed miRNAs from miR-106a, miR-20b and miR-363-5p transfectants, but not miR-92a transfectants, yielded significant associations to "Cellular Growth and Proliferation" and "Cell Cycle." Western blotting results showed that levels of affected proteins to differ between transfectants, suggesting that different anti-proliferative mechanisms may operate in these transfectants.
Project description:Novel noninvasive biomarkers with high sensitivity and specificity for the diagnosis of breast cancer (BC) are urgently needed in clinics. The aim of this study was to explore whether miRNAs from the miR-106a-363 cluster can be detected in the circulation of BC patients and whether these miRNAs can serve as potential diagnostic biomarkers.The expression of 12 miRNAs from the miR-106a-363 cluster was evaluated using qRT-PCR in 400 plasma samples (from 200 BC patients and 200 healthy controls (HCs)) and 406 serum samples (from 204 BC patients and 202 HCs) via a three-phase study. The identified miRNAs were further examined in tissues (32 paired breast tissues), plasma exosomes (from 32 BC patients and 32 HCs), and serum exosomes (from 32 BC patients and 32 HCs).Upregulated levels of four plasma miRNAs (miR-106a-3p, miR-106a-5p, miR-20b-5p, and miR-92a-2-5p) and four serum miRNAs (miR-106a-5p, miR-19b-3p, miR-20b-5p, and miR-92a-3p) were identified and validated in BC. A plasma 4-miRNA panel and a serum 4-miRNA panel were constructed to discriminate BC patients from HCs. The areas under the receiver-operating characteristic curves of the plasma panel were 0.880, 0.902, and 0.858, and those of the serum panel were 0.910, 0.974, and 0.949 for the training, testing, and external validation phases, respectively. Two overlapping miRNAs (miR-106a-5p and miR-20b-5p) were consistently upregulated in BC tissues. Except for the expression of the plasma-derived exosomal miR-20b-5p, the expression patterns of exosomal miRNAs were concordant between plasma and serum, indicating the potential use of exosomal miRNAs as biomarkers.We identified four plasma miRNAs and four serum miRNAs from the miR-106a-363 cluster as promising novel biomarkers for the diagnosis of BC.
Project description:miR-17 family microRNAs (miRNAs) are crucial for embryo development, however, their role in muscle development is still unclear. miR-20a-5p and miR-20b-5p belong to the miR-17 family and are transcribed from the miR-17~92 and miR-106a~363 clusters respectively. In this study, we found that miR-20a-5p and miR-20b-5p promoted myoblast differentiation and repressed myoblast proliferation by directly binding the 3' UTR of E2F transcription factor 1 (E2F1) mRNA. E2F1 is an important transcriptional factor for organism's normal development. Overexpression of E2F1 in myoblasts promoted myoblast proliferation and inhibited myoblast differentiation. Conversely, E2F1 inhibition induced myoblast differentiation and repressed myoblast proliferation. Moreover, E2F1 can bind directly to promoters of the miR-17~92 and miR-106a~363 clusters and activate their transcription, and E2F1 protein expression is correlated with the expression of pri-miR-17~92 and pri-miR-106a~363 during myoblast differentiation. These results suggested an auto-regulatory feedback loop between E2F1 and miR-20a-5p/20b-5p, and indicated that miR-20a-5p, miR-20b-5p and E2F1 are involved in myoblast proliferation and differentiation through the auto-regulation between E2F1 and miR-20a-5p/20b-5p. These findings provide new insight into the mechanism of muscle differentiation, and further shed light on the understanding of muscle development and muscle diseases.
Project description:OBJECTIVE: To identify microRNAs (miRNAs) regulated by anti-?4 integrin monoclonal antibody therapy (natalizumab) in the peripheral blood of patients with relapsing-remitting (RR) multiple sclerosis (MS) and to confirm their role in experimental settings in vivo. METHODS: In a longitudinal study of 17 RR-MS patients, we investigated blood miRNA expression profiles at baseline and after 1 year of natalizumab therapy by microarray technique and quantitative PCR validation. We compared the baseline expression profiles of these patients to those of 18 age- and sex-matched healthy controls. We confirmed the contribution of resulting candidate miRNAs in an animal model of MS, experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis (EAE) induced by adoptive transfer of proteolipid protein (PLP)139-151-activated lymphocytes in SJL/J mice or by active immunization of miR-106a?363-deficient C57BL/6 mice (or wildtype litter mates) with myelin oligodendrocyte glycoprotein (MOG)35-55. RESULTS: Our longitudinal analysis revealed that miR-18a, miR-20b, miR-29a, and miR-103 were upregulated and predominantly expressed by CD4(+) T cells, whereas miR-326 was downregulated upon natalizumab treatment. A comparison of untreated RR-MS patients at baseline with healthy controls revealed that the four natalizumab-upregulated targets were initially downregulated in MS. All confirmed targets showed disease-dependent expression in splenocytes of mice suffering from EAE. Genetic deletion of the miRNA cluster miR-106a?363 (containing natalizumab-regulated miR-20b) resulted in a more severe EAE course and an in vivo upregulation of the miR-20b target genes rorgt, stat3, and vegfa. INTERPRETATION: Our study indicates that natalizumab restores dysregulated miRNA patterns in MS and reveals the contribution of miR-20b in autoimmune demyelination in vivo.
Project description:It is well known that microRNAs play a very important role in regulating reprogramming, pluripotency and cell fate decisions. Porcine induced pluripotent stem cells (piPSCs) are now available for studying the pluripotent regulation network in pigs. Two types of piPSCs have been derived from human and mouse embryonic stem cell (ESC) culture conditions: hpiPSCs and mpiPSCs, respectively. The hpiPSCs were morphologically similar to human ESCs, and the mpiPSCs resembled mouse ESCs. However, our current understanding of the role of microRNAs in the development of piPSCs is still very limited. Here, we performed small RNA sequencing to profile the miRNA expression in porcine fibroblasts (pEFs), hpiPSCs and mpiPSCs. There were 22 differential expressed (DE) miRNAs down-regulated in both types of piPSCs compared with pEFs, such as ssc-miR-145-5p and ssc-miR-98. There were 27 DE miRNAs up-regulated in both types of piPSCs compared with pEFs. Among these up-regulated DE miRNAs in piPSCs, ssc-miR-217, ssc-miR-216, ssc-miR-142-5p, ssc-miR-182, ssc-miR-183 and ssc-miR-96-5p have much higher expression levels in mpiPSCs, while ssc-miR-106a, ssc-miR-363, ssc-miR-146b, ssc-miR-195, ssc-miR-497, ssc-miR-935 and ssc-miR-20b highly expressed in hpiPSCs. Quantitative stem-loop RT-PCR was performed to confirm selected DE miRNAs expression levels. The results were consistent with small RNA sequencing. Different expression patterns were observed for key miRNA clusters, such as the miR-17-92 cluster, the let-7 family, the miR-106a-363 cluster and the miR-182-183 cluster, in the mpiPSCs and hpiPSCs. Novel miRNAs were also predicted in this study, including a putative porcine miR-302 cluster: ssc_38503, ssc_38503 and ssc_38501 (which resemble human miR-302a and miR-302b) found in both types of piPSCs. The miR-106a-363 cluster and putative miR-302 cluster increased the reprogramming efficiency of pEFs. The study revealed significant differences in the miRNA signatures of hpiPSCs and mpiPSCs under different pluripotent states that were derived from different culture conditions. These differentially expressed miRNAs may play important roles in pluripotent regulation in pigs, and this information will facilitate the understanding of the mechanism of pluripotency in pigs.
Project description:The oncogenic microRNA 17-92 cluster is involved in the lymphomagenesis of nodal and systemic B cell lymphomas, but has not been studied so far in primary cutaneous B cell lymphomas. We performed the quantitative analysis of miR-17-92 cluster and its paralogs miR-106a-363 and miR-106b-25 in 22 primary cutaneous diffuse large B-cell lymphomas-leg type (PCLBCL-LT) and 22 primary cutaneous follicle center lymphomas (PCFCL). Mir-20a and miR-106a were overexpressed in PCLBCL-LT compared to PCFCL. Multivariate Cox analysis showed that higher miR-20a and miR-20b were associated with poorer disease-free survival and poorer overall survival, independently of histological type. Gene expression profiling showed underexpression of 8 candidate target genes of miR-20a, miR-20b and miR-106a in PCLBCL-LT compared to PCFCL. Among the candidate target genes, PTEN, NCOA3 and CAPRIN2 were confirmed to be underexpressed in PCLBCL-LT using quantitative RT-PCR of laser-microdissected tumor cells. In multivariate Cox analysis, lower PTEN mRNA expression level was associated with poorer disease-free survival, independently of the histological type. Altogether, this molecular and bioinformatics study of patients’ skin biopsy samples showed that the oncogenic miR-17-92 cluster is involved in cutaneous B cell lymphoma progression, and that the down-regulation of its target gene PTEN is associated with poorer disease-free survival. Overall design: 10 skin samples from patients were analyzed. 6 were PCLBCL-leg type and 4 PCFCL.
Project description:The miR-106a~363 cluster encodes 6 miRNAs on the X-chromosome which are abundant in blood cells and overexpressed in a variety of malignancies. The constituent miRNA of miR-106a~363 have functional activities <i>in vitro</i> that are predicted to be both oncogenic and tumor suppressive, yet little is known about their physiological functions <i>in vivo</i>. Mature miR-106a~363 (<i>Mirc2</i>) miRNAs are processed from an intragenic, non-protein encoding gene referred to as Xpcl1 (or <i>Kis2</i>), situated at an X-chromosomal locus frequently targeted by retroviruses in murine lymphomas. The oncogenic potential of miR-106a~363 <i><sup>Xpcl1</sup></i> has not been proven, nor its potential role in T cell development. We show that miR106a~363 levels normally drop at the CD4+/CD8+ double positive (DP) stage of thymocyte development. Forced expression of <i>Xpcl1</i> at this stage impairs thymocyte maturation and induces T-cell lymphomas. Surprisingly, miR-106a~363 <i><sup>Xpcl1</sup></i> also induces p27 transcription via Foxo3/4 transcription factors. As a haploinsufficient tumor suppressor, elevated p27 is expected to inhibit lymphomagenesis. Consistent with this, concurrent p27 <i><sup>Kip1</sup></i> deletion dramatically accelerated lymphomagenesis, indicating that p27 is rate limiting for tumor development by <i>Xpcl1</i>. Whereas down-regulation of miR-106a~363 is important for normal T cell differentiation and for the prevention of lymphomas, eliminating p27 reveals <i>Xpcl1</i>'s full oncogenic potential.
Project description:The Epstein-Barr virus (EBV) is an oncogenic human Herpes virus found in ?15% of diffuse large B-cell lymphoma (DLBCL). EBV encodes miRNAs and induces changes in the cellular miRNA profile of infected cells. MiRNAs are small, non-coding RNAs of ?19-26?nt which suppress protein synthesis by inducing translational arrest or mRNA degradation. Here, we report a comprehensive miRNA-profiling study and show that hsa-miR-424, -223, -199a-3p, -199a-5p, -27b, -378, -26b, -23a, -23b were upregulated and hsa-miR-155, -20b, -221, -151-3p, -222, -29b/c, -106a were downregulated more than 2-fold due to EBV-infection of DLBCL. All known EBV miRNAs with the exception of the BHRF1 cluster as well as EBV-miR-BART15 and -20 were present. A computational analysis indicated potential targets such as c-MYB, LATS2, c-SKI and SIAH1. We show that c-MYB is targeted by miR-155 and miR-424, that the tumor suppressor SIAH1 is targeted by miR-424, and that c-SKI is potentially regulated by miR-155. Downregulation of SIAH1 protein in DLBCL was demonstrated by immunohistochemistry. The inhibition of SIAH1 is in line with the notion that EBV impedes various pro-apoptotic pathways during tumorigenesis. The down-modulation of the oncogenic c-MYB protein, although counter-intuitive, might be explained by its tight regulation in developmental processes.
Project description:OBJECTIVE:Ovarian cancer is one of the most common and lethal cancer types in women. The molecular mechanism of ovarian cancer progression is still unclear. RESULTS:Here, we first reported that expression levels of three genes, GJB2, S100A2 and SPOCK2, were significantly higher in advanced stage than that in early stage of ovarian cancer, and upregulation of them indicated poor prognosis of patients with ovarian cancer. Subsequently, 8, 6 and 20 miRNAs were predicted to target GJB2, S100A2 and SPOCK2, respectively. Among these miRNA-mRNA pairs, hsa-miR-363-3p-SPOCK2 axis was the most potential in suppressing progression of ovarian cancer. Mechanistically, we found that hsa-miR-363-3p-SPOCK2 axis was involved in regulation of actin cytoskeleton. Moreover, 6 pseudogenes and 8 lncRNAs were identified to potentially inhibit hsa-miR-363-3p-SPOCK2 axis in ovarian cancer. CONCLUSIONS:Collectively, we elucidate a regulatory role of pseudogene/lncRNA-hsa-miR-363-3p-SPOCK2 pathway in progression of ovarian cancer, which may provide effective therapeutic approaches and promising prognostic biomarkers for ovarian cancer. MATERIALS AND METHODS:Differentially expressed genes (DEGs) in ovarian cancer were first screened using GSE12470, after which DEGs expression were validated using GEPIA. Kaplan-Meier analysis was employed to assess the prognostic values. Potential miRNAs were predicted by seven target prediction databases, and upstream lncRNAs and pseudogenes of hsa-miR-363-3p were forecasted through miRNet or starBase. UALCAN and starBase were used to obtain the co-expressed genes of SPOCK. Enrichment analysis for these co-expressed genes was performed by Enrichr.
Project description:Mononuclear cytotrophoblasts of the human placenta proliferate rapidly, subsequently fuse, and differentiate to form multinucleated syncytiotrophoblast with induction of aromatase (hCYP19A1) and chorionic gonadotropin (hCG?) expression. Using microarray analysis, we identified members of the miR-17~92 cluster and its paralogs, miR-106a~363 and miR-106b~25, that are significantly downregulated upon syncytiotrophoblast differentiation. Interestingly, miR-19b and miR-106a directly targeted hCYP19A1 expression, while miR-19b also targeted human GCM1 (hGCM1), a transcription factor critical for mouse labyrinthine trophoblast development. Overexpression of these microRNAs (miRNAs) impaired syncytiotrophoblast differentiation. hGCM1 knockdown decreased hCYP19A1 and hCG? expression, substantiating its important role in human trophoblast differentiation. Expression of the c-Myc proto-oncogene was increased in proliferating cytotrophoblasts compared to that in differentiated syncytiotrophoblast. Moreover, c-Myc overexpression upregulated miR-17~92 and inhibited hCYP19A1 and hCG? expression. Binding of endogenous c-Myc to genomic regions upstream of the miR-17~92 and miR-106a~363 clusters in cytotrophoblasts dramatically decreased upon syncytiotrophoblast differentiation. Intriguingly, we observed higher levels of miR-106a and -19b and lower aromatase and hGCM1 expression in placentas from preeclamptic women than in placentas from gestation-matched normotensive women. Our findings reveal that c-Myc-regulated members of the miR-17~92 and miR-106a~363 clusters inhibit trophoblast differentiation by repressing hGCM1 and hCYP19A1 and suggest that aberrant regulation of these miRNAs may contribute to the pathogenesis of preeclampsia.