Educational differences in macro-level determinants of early exit from paid work: a multilevel analysis of 14 European countries.
ABSTRACT: The aim of this study was to identify macro-level determinants of early work exit and investigate whether the effects of these determinants differ across educational groups. We used data from the Survey on Health, Ageing and Retirement in Europe (SHARE) (2011–2013) and the English Longitudinal Study of Ageing (ELSA) (2010/2011–2012/2013) as well as macro-level data and included 10,584 participants in 14 European countries. We used logistic multilevel analyses to examine educational differences in macro-level determinants of early work exit. Macro-level determinants were: minimum unemployment replacement rates, expenditure on active labour market policies (aimed to help the unemployed find work) and passive labour market policies (unemployment and early retirement benefits), employment protection legislation (costs involved in dismissing individuals), unemployment rates, statutory pension age and implicit tax on continued work. We found low-educated workers to be more at risk of early work exit than higher educated workers. In low-educated men, higher unemployment replacement rates, higher expenditure on passive labour market policies, stricter employment protection legislation and a higher implicit tax on continued work were associated with a higher risk of early work exit, whereas no macro-level factors were associated with early work exit in highly educated men. In women, a higher expenditure on passive labour market policies and a higher implicit tax on continued work were determinants of early work exit, regardless of educational level. To conclude, low-educated men seem to be especially responsive to the effects of pull factors that make early retirement financially more attractive.
Project description:Individuals with lower socioeconomic status are at increased risk of involuntary exit from paid employment. To give sound advice for primary prevention in the workforce, insight is needed into the role of mediating factors between socioeconomic status and labour force participation. Therefore, it is aimed to investigate the influence of health status, lifestyle-related factors and work characteristics on educational differences in exit from paid employment.14,708 Dutch employees participated in a ten-year follow-up study during 1999-2008. At baseline, education, self-perceived health, lifestyle (smoking, alcohol, sports, BMI) and psychosocial (demands, control, rewards) and physical work characteristics were measured by questionnaire. Employment status was ascertained monthly based on tax records. The relation between education, health, lifestyle, work-characteristics and exit from paid employment through disability benefits, unemployment, early retirement and economic inactivity was investigated by competing risks regression analyses. The mediating effects of these factors on educational differences in exit from paid employment were tested using a stepwise approach.Lower educated workers were more likely to exit paid employment through disability benefits (SHR:1.84), unemployment (SHR:1.74), and economic inactivity (SHR:1.53) but not due to early retirement (SHR:0.92). Poor or moderate health, an unhealthy lifestyle, and unfavourable work characteristics were associated with disability benefits and unemployment, and an unhealthy lifestyle with economic inactivity. Educational differences in disability benefits were explained for 40% by health, 31% by lifestyle, and 12% by work characteristics. For economic inactivity and unemployment, up to 14% and 21% of the educational differences could be explained, particularly by lifestyle-related factors.There are educational differences in exit from paid employment, which are partly mediated by health, lifestyle and work characteristics, particularly for disability benefits. Health promotion and improving working conditions seem important measures to maintain a productive workforce, particularly among workers with a low education.
Project description:While robust evidence on associations of stressful work with health exists, less research is available on determinants of stressful work in terms of respondents' characteristics (proximal factors) and in terms of national labour market policies (distal factors). In this article we analyse proximal (childhood circumstances and labour market disadvantage) and distal determinants (national compensation and integration policies) of stressful work in a comprehensive framework.We use data from the third wave of the Survey of Health, Ageing and Retirement in Europe (SHARE), with retrospective information on individual life courses collected among 11181 retired men and women in 13 European countries (2008-2009). To test our hypotheses we estimate multilevel regression models.Results show that stressful work is related to disadvantaged circumstances during childhood. To some extent this association is explained by labour market disadvantage during adulthood. Additionally, well developed labour market integration policies are related to lower overall levels of stressful work at national level.This analysis provides first evidence of important determinants of stressful work, both in terms of pre-employment conditions (childhood circumstances) and in terms of contextual macro-social policies.
Project description:OBJECTIVES:Previous research has shown that poor physical and mental health are important risk factors for early work exit. We examined potential differences in this association in older workers (50+) across educational levels. METHODS:Coordinated analyses were carried out in longitudinal data sets from four European countries: the Netherlands (Longitudinal Aging Study Amsterdam), Denmark (Danish Longitudinal Study of Ageing), England (English Longitudinal Study of Ageing) and Germany (German Ageing Survey). The effect of poor self-rated health (SRH), functional limitations and depression on different types of early work exit (early retirement, economic inactivity, disability and unemployment) was examined using Cox regression analysis. We examined educational differences in these effects by testing interaction terms. RESULTS:Poor physical and mental health were more common among the lower educated. Poor SRH, functional limitations, and depression were all associated with a higher risk of early work exit. These health effects were strongest for the disability exit routes (poor SRH: HRs 5.77 to 8.14; functional limitations: HRs 6.65 to 10.42; depression: HRs 3.30 to 5.56). In the Netherlands (functional limitations) and England (functional limitations and SRH), effects were stronger in the lower educated. CONCLUSIONS:The prevalence of health problems, that is, poor SRH, functional limitations and depression, was higher in the lower educated workers. All three health indicators increase the risk of early work exit. In some countries, health effects on early exit were stronger in the lower educated. Thus, lower educated older workers are an important target group for health policy and intervention.
Project description:The study analyses whether and to what degree specific routes into retirement affect older people, i.e. the relationship between heterogeneous exit patterns and post-retirement health and wellbeing. We used longitudinal data from two points in time; data related to t0 were collected in 1993, 1994, 1995 and 1996 and data related to t1 were collected in 2002 and 2003 (N = 589). We focused on older people (55+ at t1) who were employed at t0 and retired at t1. We used confirmative factor analysis to identify identical measures of health and wellbeing at both t0 and t1. Hence, we were able to control for pre-retirement health and wellbeing when evaluating the effects of different exit routes. These routes were defined as dependence on incomes from sickness benefit, disability pension, part-time pension, unemployment insurance and active labour market programmes. Our initial structural equation model showed a clear relation between exit routes and post-retirement wellbeing. People who prior to retirement were pushed into social benefit programmes related to health and unemployment were significantly worse off as retirees, especially those with health-related benefits. However, these relationships disappeared once pre-retirement wellbeing was added to the model. Our main conclusion is that post-retirement wellbeing first and foremost is a consequence of accumulation of advantages and disadvantages during the life course. Both labour market exit routes and post-retirement wellbeing can be seen as outcomes of this process. There are no independent effects of the retirement process. Judging from our findings, there is no reason to believe that involvement in social security programmes allowing early retirement on health grounds has any additional negative consequences for health and wellbeing.
Project description:BACKGROUND:Despite the magnitude of youth unemployment there is a lack of studies, which explore the relations between health experiences and labour market position in various contexts. The aim of this paper was to analyse health experiences among young people in NEET (not in education, employment or training) in relation to labour market position from leaving school until early adult life. METHOD:The population consists of everyone (six women, eight men) who became unemployed directly after leaving compulsory school in a town in Northern Sweden. Repeated personal interviews were performed from age 16 until age 33. The interviews were analysed using qualitative content analysis. RESULTS:Health experiences can be viewed as a contextual process, related to the different phases of leaving school, entering the labour market, becoming unemployed and becoming employed. Perceived relief and hope were related to leaving compulsory school, while entering the labour market was related to setbacks and disappointments as well as both health-deteriorating and health-promoting experiences depending on the actual labour market position. Our overarching theme of "Living in the shadow of unemployment - an unhealthy life situation" implies that it is not only the actual situation of being unemployed that is problematic but that the other phases are also coloured by earlier experiences of unemployment . CONCLUSION:A focus on young people's health experiences of transitions from school into the labour market brings a new focus on the importance of macroeconomic influence on social processes and contextualised mechanisms from a life-course perspective.
Project description:The aim of this study was to identify demographic characteristics and occupational determinants of transition from employment to voluntary early retirement pension (ERP). A questionnaire-based survey among 365 employees in Denmark 57-62 years was performed in 2000, with a register-based follow-up 4 years later. Early retirement was associated with increasing age, and lower socioeconomic position. There were weak associations between gender and ERP. Low skill discretion, high conflict in work and two measures of uncomfortable work positions significantly increased the risk of ERP. The study shows that more than half of the eligible population makes use of voluntary ERP, and further indicates a potential for reducing the amount of older employees utilizing this labour market exit option through reducing certain physical and psychosocial exposures in the work environment, independent of age, gender, and socioeconomic position.
Project description:BACKGROUND:A maintained psychological wellbeing is important in order to continue working longer and remain active into older age. However, little is known about impact of different organizational factors, such as downsizing, on the mental health of older workers exiting the labor market. The aim in this study was to investigate trajectories of purchases of psychotropic drugs in relation to labor market exit later in life in a context with and without downsizing. METHOD:People living in Sweden, born 1941-1951, exiting paid work via unemployment, sickness absence/disability pension, or old-age pension were followed from 2005 to 2013 regarding purchases of psychotropic drugs. Individuals employed at a workplace closing down or downsizing with ?18% between two subsequent years were compared to employees exiting from workplaces without downsizing or workplace closure. Generalized estimating equations was applied to derive trajectories of annual prevalence of purchased antidepressants, sedatives and anxiolytics from 4 years before to 4 years after a labour market exit. RESULTS:During the period around the exit, old-age retirees experiencing a downsizing/workplace closure did not decrease their purchases of sedatives (OR 1.01 95% CI 0.95-1.07) while the unexposed decreased their purchases during this period (OR 0.95 95% CI 0.92-0.98). Similar differences concerning sedatives and antidepressants between exposed and unexposed were seen for those exiting via sickness absence or disability pension. Furthermore, a significant difference in purchases of anxiolytics was observed between those exposed to downsizing (OR 1.10 95% CI 0.97-1.24) and the unexposed (OR 0.98 95% CI 0.91-1.06) exiting via old-age retirement during the time before the exit. CONCLUSION:Downsizing or workplace closure, although weakly, was associated with higher prevalence of psychotropic drugs certain years around the labor market exit. The results support the idea that involuntary labor market exit in mature adulthood may negatively affect the development of mental health.
Project description:OBJECTIVES:Despite the stable incidence of mental disorders in Finland and Europe, mental health-related occupational disability has been increasing. We unveiled the paths to permanent psychiatric disability, recovery, or death, by analysing sequences of labour market participation. METHODS:The RETIRE register database includes information regarding all persons (n?=?42,170) awarded an ICD-10 psychiatric disability pension between 2010 and 2015 in Finland. We identified clusters of typical paths of pre-retirement labour market history. Controlling for major mental disorders, age, and sex, we evaluated factors associated with returning to work (RTW), or death, over a 5-year follow-up period. RESULTS:Only 10.5% of the disabled subjects returned to work within the follow-up. Half of them ended up with a permanent disability pension. Seven distinguishable paths to disability were identified. Subjects in the cluster characterized by steady employment were relatively often females, lost their work ability due to affective disorders, and had the highest rate of returning to work (16.3%). Mortality was highest (9%) among the cluster characterized by long-term unemployment. Distributions of major diagnostic groups, as well as age and sex, differed between clusters. After their adjustment in the analysis of RTW or death, the identified labour market history paths prior to losing work ability remained as important independent prognostic factors for both outcomes. CONCLUSIONS:The complex retirement process involves identifiable clinical and contextual associating factors. Labour market history patterns associate with varying prognoses after psychiatric retirement. Prolonged unemployment appears as a predictor of relatively poor prognoses, whereas employment indicates the opposite.
Project description:The aim of this study was to investigate the association of alcohol consumption and problem drinking on transitions between work, unemployment, sickness absence and social benefits. Participants were 86,417 men and women aged 18-60 years who participated in the Danish National Health Survey in 2010. Information on alcohol consumption (units per week) and problem drinking (CAGE-C score of 4-6) was obtained by questionnaire. The primary outcome was labour market attachment. Information on labour market attachment was obtained from the national administrative registers during a 5-year follow-up period. Using Cox proportional hazards models, we estimated hazard ratios (HR) for transitions between work, unemployment, sickness absence and social benefits. Analyses were adjusted for potential confounders associated with demography, health, and socio-economy. High alcohol consumption and problem drinking was associated with higher probability of unemployment, sickness absence and social benefits among participants employed at baseline compared with participants who consumed 1-6 drinks/week. High alcohol consumption and problem drinking was associated with lower probability of returning to work among participants receiving sickness absence at baseline compared with participants who consumed 1-6 drinks/week and with non-problem drinkers: HRs were 0.75 (0.58-0.98) for 35+ drinks per week and 0.81 (0.65-1.00) for problem drinking (CAGE-C score of 4-6). Similar trends for weekly alcohol consumption and problem drinking were observed among participants who were unemployed at baseline. In summary, problem drinking has adverse consequences for labour market participation and is associated with higher probability of losing a job and a lower chance of becoming employed again.
Project description:<h4>Purpose</h4>This study examines the relationship between need for recovery (NFR) and labour force exit (LFE) among older workers. Different types of LFE (early retirement, work disability and unemployment) are considered, and the role of potential confounding and modifying factors, including the availability of early LFE schemes, is examined. Also, associations between NFR and the intention and ability to prolong one's working life, which are known determinants of LFE, are assessed.<h4>Methods</h4>A subsample of older workers from the Maastricht Cohort Study was examined (n?=?2312). The relationship between NFR and LFE was investigated by means of Cox regression analyses. Logistic regression analyses were performed to investigate cross-sectional associations between NFR and the intention and ability to prolong working life.<h4>Results</h4>Elevated NFR was associated with a higher risk of overall LFE during a 4-year follow-up period (HR 1.39, 95% CI 1.09-1.78), and specifically with a higher risk of leaving the labour force through early retirement and work disability. When early retirement schemes were available, strong and significant associations between NFR and LFE were observed (HR 2.79, 95% CI 1.29-6.02), whereas no significant associations were found when such schemes were unavailable. Older workers with a higher NFR also had earlier retirement intentions and lower self-assessed abilities (both physical and mental) to prolong their working life until the mandatory retirement age.<h4>Conclusions</h4>Because this study shows that NFR is a precursor of LFE among older workers, monitoring NFR is important for timely interventions aimed at reducing NFR to facilitate extended labour participation.