Functional characterization of the human tRNA methyltransferases TRMT10A and TRMT10B.
ABSTRACT: The TRM10 family of methyltransferases is responsible for the N1-methylation of purines at position 9 of tRNAs in Archaea and Eukarya. The human genome encodes three TRM10-type enzymes, of which only the mitochondrial TRMT10C was previously characterized in detail, whereas the functional significance of the two presumably nuclear enzymes TRMT10A and TRMT10B remained unexplained. Here we show that TRMT10A is m1G9-specific and methylates a subset of nuclear-encoded tRNAs, whilst TRMT10B is the first m1A9-specific tRNA methyltransferase found in eukaryotes and is responsible for the modification of a single nuclear-encoded tRNA. Furthermore, we show that the lack of G9 methylation causes a decrease in the steady-state levels of the initiator tRNAiMet-CAT and an alteration in its further post-transcriptional modification. Our work finally clarifies the function of TRMT10A and TRMT10B in vivo and provides evidence that the loss of TRMT10A affects the pool of cytosolic tRNAs required for protein synthesis.
Project description:We describe a new syndrome of young onset diabetes, short stature and microcephaly with intellectual disability in a large consanguineous family with three affected children. Linkage analysis and whole exome sequencing were used to identify the causal nonsense mutation, which changed an arginine codon into a stop at position 127 of the tRNA methyltransferase homolog gene TRMT10A (also called RG9MTD2). TRMT10A mRNA and protein were absent in lymphoblasts from the affected siblings. TRMT10A is ubiquitously expressed but enriched in brain and pancreatic islets, consistent with the tissues affected in this syndrome. In situ hybridization studies showed that TRMT10A is expressed in human embryonic and fetal brain. TRMT10A is the mammalian ortholog of S. cerevisiae TRM10, previously shown to catalyze the methylation of guanine 9 (m(1)G9) in several tRNAs. Consistent with this putative function, in silico topology prediction indicated that TRMT10A has predominant nuclear localization, which we experimentally confirmed by immunofluorescence and confocal microscopy. TRMT10A localizes to the nucleolus of ?- and non-?-cells, where tRNA modifications occur. TRMT10A silencing induces rat and human ?-cell apoptosis. Taken together, we propose that TRMT10A deficiency negatively affects ?-cell mass and the pool of neurons in the developing brain. This is the first study describing the impact of TRMT10A deficiency in mammals, highlighting a role in the pathogenesis of microcephaly and early onset diabetes. In light of the recent report that the type 2 diabetes candidate gene CDKAL1 is a tRNA methylthiotransferase, the findings in this family suggest broader relevance of tRNA methyltransferases in the pathogenesis of type 2 diabetes.
Project description:The tRNA m1R9 methyltransferase (Trm10) family is conserved throughout Eukarya and Archaea. Despite the presence of a single Trm10 gene in Archaea and most single-celled eukaryotes, metazoans encode up to three homologs of Trm10. Several disease states correlate with a deficiency in the human homolog TRMT10A, despite the presence of another cytoplasmic enzyme, TRMT10B. Here we investigate these phenomena and demonstrate that human TRMT10A (hTRMT10A) and human TRMT10B (hTRMT10B) are not biochemically redundant. In vitro activity assays with purified hTRMT10A and hTRMT10B reveal a robust activity for hTRMT10B as a tRNAAsp-specific m1A9 methyltransferase and suggest that it is the relevant enzyme responsible for this newly discovered m1A9 modification in humans. Moreover, a comparison of the two cytosolic enzymes with multiple tRNA substrates exposes the enzymes' distinct substrate specificities, and suggests that hTRMT10B exhibits a restricted selectivity hitherto unseen in the Trm10 enzyme family. Single-turnover kinetics and tRNA binding assays highlight further differences between the two enzymes and eliminate overall tRNA affinity as a primary determinant of substrate specificity for either enzyme. These results increase our understanding of the important biology of human tRNA modification systems, which can aid in understanding the molecular basis for diseases in which their aberrant function is increasingly implicated.
Project description:The posttranscriptional modification of messenger RNA (mRNA) and transfer RNA (tRNA) provides an additional layer of regulatory complexity during gene expression. Here, we show that a tRNA methyltransferase, TRMT10A, interacts with an mRNA demethylase FTO (ALKBH9), both in vitro and inside cells. TRMT10A installs N 1-methylguanosine (m1G) in tRNA, and FTO performs demethylation on N 6-methyladenosine (m6A) and N 6,2'-O-dimethyladenosine (m6Am) in mRNA. We show that TRMT10A ablation not only leads to decreased m1G in tRNA but also significantly increases m6A levels in mRNA. Cross-linking and immunoprecipitation, followed by high-throughput sequencing results show that TRMT10A shares a significant overlap of associated mRNAs with FTO, and these mRNAs have accelerated decay rates potentially through the regulation by a specific m6A reader, YTHDF2. Furthermore, transcripts with increased m6A upon TRMT10A ablation contain an overrepresentation of m1G9-containing tRNAs codons read by tRNAGln(TTG), tRNAArg(CCG), and tRNAThr(CGT) These findings collectively reveal the presence of coordinated mRNA and tRNA methylations and demonstrate a mechanism for regulating gene expression through the interactions between mRNA and tRNA modifying enzymes.
Project description:Transfer RNAs (tRNAs) are non-coding RNA molecules essential for protein synthesis. Post-transcriptionally they are heavily modified to improve their function, folding and stability. Intronic polymorphisms in CDKAL1, a tRNA methylthiotransferase, are associated with increased type 2 diabetes risk. Loss-of-function mutations in TRMT10A, a tRNA methyltransferase, are a monogenic cause of early onset diabetes and microcephaly. Here we confirm the role of TRMT10A as a guanosine 9 tRNA methyltransferase, and identify tRNAGln and tRNAiMeth as two of its targets. Using RNA interference and induced pluripotent stem cell-derived pancreatic ?-like cells from healthy controls and TRMT10A-deficient patients we demonstrate that TRMT10A deficiency induces oxidative stress and triggers the intrinsic pathway of apoptosis in ?-cells. We show that tRNA guanosine 9 hypomethylation leads to tRNAGln fragmentation and that 5'-tRNAGln fragments mediate TRMT10A deficiency-induced ?-cell death. This study unmasks tRNA hypomethylation and fragmentation as a hitherto unknown mechanism of pancreatic ?-cell demise relevant to monogenic and polygenic forms of diabetes.
Project description:The post-transcriptional modification of mRNA and tRNA provides an additional layer of regulatory complexity during gene expression. TRMT10A is a tRNA methyltransferase that installs N1-methylguanosine (m1G), while FTO performs demethylation on N6-methyladenosine (m6A) and N6,2'-O-dimethyladenosine (m6Am) in mRNA. We find that this tRNA methyltransferase TRMT10A interacts with mRNA demethylase FTO (ALKBH9), both in vitro and inside cells. Strikingly, depletion of TRMT10A not only led to decreased m1G in tRNA but also significantly increased m6A levels in mRNA. CLIP-seq results showed that TRMT10A shares a significant overlap of associated mRNAs with FTO, and these mRNAs have accelerated decay rates potentially through the regulation by specific m6A reader. Furthermore, transcripts with increased m6A upon TRMT10A ablation contain an overrepresentation of m1G9-containing tRNAs codons read by tRNAGln(TTG), tRNAArg(CCG), and tRNAThr(CGT). These findings collectively reveal the presence of coordinated mRNA and tRNA modifications and demonstrate a mechanism for regulating gene expression through the interactions between mRNA and tRNA modifying enzymes. Overall design: m6A profiling in TRMT10A knockdown and control cells, TRMT10A CLIP-seq and FTO CLIP-seq.
Project description:Transfer RNA (tRNA) methylation is necessary for the proper biological function of tRNA. The N(1) methylation of guanine at Position 9 (m(1)G9) of tRNA, which is widely identified in eukaryotes and archaea, was found to be catalyzed by the Trm10 family of methyltransferases (MTases). Here, we report the first crystal structures of the tRNA MTase spTrm10 from Schizosaccharomyces pombe in the presence and absence of its methyl donor product S-adenosyl-homocysteine (SAH) and its ortholog scTrm10 from Saccharomyces cerevisiae in complex with SAH. Our crystal structures indicated that the MTase domain (the catalytic domain) of the Trm10 family displays a typical SpoU-TrmD (SPOUT) fold. Furthermore, small angle X-ray scattering analysis reveals that Trm10 behaves as a monomer in solution, whereas other members of the SPOUT superfamily all function as homodimers. We also performed tRNA MTase assays and isothermal titration calorimetry experiments to investigate the catalytic mechanism of Trm10 in vitro. In combination with mutational analysis and electrophoretic mobility shift assays, our results provide insights into the substrate tRNA recognition mechanism of Trm10 family MTases.
Project description:tRNA molecules, which contain the most abundant post-transcriptional modifications, are crucial for proper gene expression and protein biosynthesis. Methylation at N1 of adenosine 58 (A58) is critical for maintaining the stability of initiator methionyl-tRNA (tRNAiMet) in bacterial, archaeal, and eukaryotic tRNAs. However, although research has been conducted in yeast and mammals, it remains unclear how A58 in plant tRNAs is modified and involved in development. In this study, we identify the nucleus-localized complex AtTRM61/AtTRM6 in Arabidopsis as tRNA m1A58 methyltransferase. Deficiency or a lack of either AtTRM61 or AtTRM6 leads to embryo arrest and seed abortion. The tRNA m1A level decreases in conditionally complemented Attrm61/LEC1pro::AtTRM61 plants and this is accompanied by reduced levels of tRNAiMet, indicating the importance of the tRNA m1A modification for tRNAiMet stability. Taken together, our results demonstrate that tRNA m1A58 modification is necessary for tRNAiMet stability and is required for embryo development in Arabidopsis.
Project description:Purine nucleosides on position 9 of eukaryal and archaeal tRNAs are frequently modified in vivo by the post-transcriptional addition of a methyl group on their N1 atom. The methyltransferase Trm10 is responsible for this modification in both these domains of life. While certain Trm10 orthologues specifically methylate either guanosine or adenosine at position 9 of tRNA, others have a dual specificity. Until now structural information about this enzyme family was only available for the catalytic SPOUT domain of Trm10 proteins that show specificity toward guanosine. Here, we present the first crystal structure of a full length Trm10 orthologue specific for adenosine, revealing next to the catalytic SPOUT domain also N- and C-terminal domains. This structure hence provides crucial insights in the tRNA binding mechanism of this unique monomeric family of SPOUT methyltransferases. Moreover, structural comparison of this adenosine-specific Trm10 orthologue with guanosine-specific Trm10 orthologues suggests that the N1 methylation of adenosine relies on additional catalytic residues.
Project description:INTRODUCTION:Loss-of-function mutations in tRNA methyltransferase 10 homologue A (TRMT10A), a tRNA methyltransferase, have recently been described as a monogenic cause of early-onset diabetes with microcephaly, epilepsy and intellectual disability. RESEARCH DESIGN AND METHODS:We report a Chinese young patient who was diagnosed with diabetes mellitus as a result of a TRMT10A mutation. RESULTS:A homozygous mutation c.496-1G>A in TRMT10A was identified using targeted next-generation sequencing and confirmed by PCR/Sanger sequencing. In addition to being diagnosed with diabetes, the patient also has microcephaly and intellectual deficiency. The diabetes was due to marked insulin resistance and responded very well to metformin treatment. CONCLUSION:Our case is the first report in the Asian population. It adds to current knowledge of TRMT10A related with young-onset non-insulin-dependent diabetes and confirms the a single previous report of insulin resistance in this syndrome. Genomic testing should be considered in children with non-insulin-dependent diabetes with intellectual disability and microcephaly. A clear genetic diagnosis is helpful for early detection and treatment addressing insulin resistance.
Project description:Gcd10p and Gcd14p were first identified genetically as repressors of GCN4 mRNA translation in Saccharomyces cerevisiae. Recent findings indicate that Gcd10p and Gcd14p reside in a nuclear complex required for the presence of 1-methyladenosine in tRNAs. Here we show that Gcd14p is an essential protein with predicted binding motifs for S-adenosylmethionine, consistent with a direct function in tRNA methylation. Two different gcd14 mutants exhibit defects in cell growth and accumulate high levels of initiator methionyl-tRNA (tRNAiMet) precursors containing 5' and 3' extensions, suggesting a defect in processing of the primary transcript. Dosage suppressors of gcd10 mutations, encoding tRNAiMet (hcIMT1 to hcIMT4; hc indicates that the gene is carried on a high-copy-number plasmid) or a homologue of human La protein implicated in tRNA 3'-end formation (hcLHP1), also suppressed gcd14 mutations. In fact, the lethality of a GCD14 deletion was suppressed by hcIMT4, indicating that the essential function of Gcd14p is required for biogenesis of tRNAiMet. A mutation in GCD10 or deletion of LHP1 exacerbated the defects in cell growth and expression of mature tRNAiMet in gcd14 mutants, consistent with functional interactions between Gcd14p, Gcd10p, and Lhp1p in vivo. Surprisingly, the amounts of NME1 and RPR1, the RNA components of RNases P and MRP, were substantially lower in gcd14 lhp1::LEU2 double mutants than in the corresponding single mutants, whereas 5S rRNA was present at wild-type levels. Our findings suggest that Gcd14p and Lhp1p cooperate in the maturation of a subset of RNA polymerase III transcripts.