MCTS1 Directly Binds to TWF1 and Synergistically Modulate Cyclin D1 and C-Myc Translation in Luminal A/B Breast Cancer Cells.
ABSTRACT: Purpose:MCTS1 re-initiation and release factor (MCTS1) is a ribosome-binding protein and shows multiple oncogenic properties in multiple cancers. This study aimed to investigate the expression, prognostic significance and transcription profile of MCTS1 in the PAM50 subtypes of breast cancer, as well as proteins with functional interactions with MCTS1 in luminal A/B breast cancer cells. Materials and Methods:Data from The Cancer Genome Atlas (TCGA)-Breast Carcinoma (BRCA) and Gene Expression Omnibus (GEO) and normal breast epithelial tissue data from the Genotype-Tissue Expression (GTEx) project were extracted and integrated for bioinformatic analysis. BT-474 and MCF-7 cells were used for in-vitro studies. Results:MCTS1 expression varied significantly among PAM50 subtypes. Its expression might independently predict unfavorable overall survival (OS) in luminal A and B cases, but not in other subtypes. ENST00000371317.9 is the dominant isoform of MCTS1 transcripts and showed a step increase from normal, adjacent normal to breast cancer tissues. The protein encoded by this isoform directly bound to TWF1 and synergistically modulated cyclin D1 and C-Myc translation in BT-474 and MCF-7 cells. Conclusion:MCTS1 expression might serve as a potential prognostic biomarker of unfavorable OS in luminal A and luminal B cases. The novel direct interaction between MCTS1 and TWF1 might be necessary for the translation of some downstream genes in common in luminal A/B breast cancer cells.
Project description:Cells with high CD44 but low CD24 expression (CD44high/CD24-/low) and high aldehyde dehydrogenase activity (ALDHbr) are widely considered to be drivers of metastasis, therapy resistance and tumor recurrence in breast cancer. However, the role of the CD44high/CD24-/low and ALDHbr phenotypes in identifying tumorigenic cells in breast cancer remains controversial due to the discrepancy in their distribution and tumorigenic potential in intrinsic breast cancer subtypes. In this study, we analyzed the cells expressing these markers in six different breast cancer cell lines representing major breast cancer subtypes (T47D, MCF-7, BT-474, AU-565, Hs578T and MDA-MB-231). CD44high/CD24-/low, ALDHbr and CD44-/low/CD24-/low cell populations were isolated by flow cytometry and analyzed for hallmark stem cell characteristics of differentiation, migration, invasiveness and metastasis using in vitro and in vivo techniques. Our results demonstrate that the CD44-/low/CD24-/low cell population, which is enriched in luminal cell lines (T47D, MCF-7 and BT-474), possesses metastatic and tumorigenic properties. We also show that, contrary to previous claims, the expression of the ALDH1 isoform ALDH1A1 does not affect the tumorigenic potential of cell lines with high ALDH activity (BT-474 and AU-565). Further transcriptomic and clinical studies are needed to determine the potential of these markers as early diagnostic tools and treatment targets.
Project description:This study was designed to investigate the Metformin mode of action in different subtypes of breast cancer using cell and molecular, and systems biology techniques. To that end, several concentrations of Metformin have been used. Besides, five different breast cancer cell lines representing the five breast cancer phenotypes have been employed in this study. These cell lines were BT-474, MCF-7, MDA-MB-231, MDA-MB-468, and SkBr3 as representative for (Luminal B, Luminal A, Claudin-low, Basal-like, and HER2) subtypes respectively. Interestingly, Metformin treatment significantly reduced cancer cell viability and proliferation while inducing cell apoptosis and enhanced cell necrosis of the Basal-like (MDA-MB-468), although, the less sensitive subtype is HER2 (SkBr3).
Project description:PURPOSE:Multi-gene signatures provide biological insight and risk stratification in breast cancer. Intrinsic molecular subtypes defined by mRNA expression of 50 genes (PAM50) are prognostic in hormone-receptor positive postmenopausal breast cancer. Yet, for 25-40% in the PAM50 intermediate risk group, long-term risk remains uncertain. Our study aimed to (i) test the long-term prognostic value of the PAM50 signature in pre- and post-menopausal breast cancer; (ii) investigate if the PAM50 model could be improved by addition of other mRNAs implicated in oncogenesis. METHODS:We used archived FFPE samples from 1723 breast cancer survivors; high quality reads were obtained on 1253 samples. Transcript expression was quantified using a custom codeset with probes for >?100 targets. Cox models assessed gene signatures for breast cancer relapse and survival. RESULTS:Over 15?+ years of follow-up, PAM50 subtypes were (P?<?0.01) associated with breast cancer outcomes after accounting for tumor stage, grade and age at diagnosis. Results did not differ by menopausal status at diagnosis. Women with Luminal B (versus Luminal A) subtype had a >?60% higher hazard. Addition of a 13-gene hypoxia signature improved prognostication with >?40% higher hazard in the highest vs lowest hypoxia tertiles. CONCLUSIONS:PAM50 intrinsic subtypes were independently prognostic for long-term breast cancer survival, irrespective of menopausal status. Addition of hypoxia signatures improved risk prediction. If replicated, incorporating the 13-gene hypoxia signature into the existing PAM50 risk assessment tool, may refine risk stratification and further clarify treatment for breast cancer.
Project description:<h4>Objective</h4>The aim of the study was to identify specific chemosensitivity drugs for various molecular subtypes of breast tumors in Chinese women, by detecting the expression of drug resistance genes and by using the drug sensitivity test on different molecular subtypes of breast cancers.<h4>Methods</h4>The expression of drug resistance genes including <i>Topo II, GST-</i>?<i>, P-gp, LRP,</i> and <i>CD133</i> were detected with immunohistochemistry in a tissue microarray. Drug sensitivity tests included those for paclitaxel, epirubicin, carboplatin, vinorelbine, and fluorouracil and were conducted on primary cancer tissue cells and cell lines, including the T47D, BT-474, and MDA-MB-231 cells and human breast cancer xenografts in nude mice.<h4>Results</h4>The different drug resistant genes <i>Topo II, GST-</i>?<i>, P-gp,</i> and <i>LRP</i> were differentially expressed among different molecular subtypes of breast cancers (<i>P</i> < 0.05). Positive expression of CD133 was highest in basal-like breast cancer (<i>P</i> < 0.05). Kaplan-Meier survival analysis showed that positive expressions of Topo II and CD133 both correlated with shorter disease-free survival (DFS) (<i>P</i> < 0.05) and overall survival (<i>P</i> < 0.05), and positive expression of LRP correlated only with shorter DFS (<i>P</i> < 0.05). BT-474 showed chemosensitivity to paclitaxel and epirubicin, while MDA-MB-231 showed chemosensitivities to paclitaxel, epirubicin, carboplatin, and fluorouracil (T/C ? 50%). The basal-like and HER2+ breast cancer primary cells showed chemosensitivities to paclitaxel and epirubicin with significant differences compared with luminal breast cancer primary cells (<i>P</i> < 0.05).<h4>Conclusions</h4>The differential expression of drug resistance genes and the differential chemosensitivities of drugs in different molecular subtype of breast cancers suggested that individual treatment should be given for each type of breast cancer.
Project description:Luminal breast cancer represents a therapeutic challenge in terms of aggressive disease and emerging resistance to targeted therapy. (-)-Oleocanthal has demonstrated anticancer activity in multiple human cancers. The goal of this study was to explore the effect of (-)-oleocanthal treatment on growth of luminal breast cancer cells and to examine the effect of combination of (-)-oleocanthal with tamoxifen. Results showed that (-)-oleocanthal inhibited growth of BT-474, MCF-7, and T-47D human breast cancer cells in mitogen-free media with IC50 values of 32.7, 24.07, and 80.93µM, respectively. Similarly, (-)-oleocanthal suppressed growth of BT-474, MCF-7, and T-47D cells in 17?-estradiol-supplemented media with IC50 values of 22.28, 20.77, and 83.91µM, respectively. Combined (-)-oleocanthal and tamoxifen treatments resulted in a synergistic growth inhibition of BT-474, MCF-7, and T-47D cells with combination index values of 0.65, 0.61, and 0.53 for each cell line, respectively. In-silico docking studies indicated high degree of overlapping for the binding of (-)-oleocanthal and 17?-estradiol to estrogen receptors, while (-)-oleocanthal and tamoxifen have distinguished binding modes. Treatment with 5mg/kg or 10mg/kg (-)-oleocanthal resulted in 97% inhibition of tumor growth in orthotopic athymic mice bearing BT-474 tumor xenografts compared to vehicle-treated animals. (-)-Oleocanthal treatment reduced total levels of estrogen receptors in BT-474 cells both in vitro and in vivo. Collectively, (-)-oleocanthal showed a potential beneficial effect in suppressing growth of hormone-dependent breast cancer and improving sensitivity to tamoxifen treatment. These findings provide rational for evaluating the effect of (-)-oleocanthal in combination with endocrine treatments in luminal breast cancer.
Project description:<h4>Background</h4>Two prostate cancer (PC) classification methods based on transcriptome profiles, a de novo method referred to as the "Prostate Cancer Classification System" (PCS) and a variation of the established PAM50 breast cancer algorithm, were recently proposed. Both studies concluded that most human PC can be assigned to one of three tumor subtypes, two categorized as luminal and one as basal, suggesting the two methods reflect consistency in underlying biology. Despite the similarity, differences and commonalities between the two classification methods have not yet been reported.<h4>Methods</h4>Here, we describe a comparison of the PCS and PAM50 classification systems. PCS and PAM50 signatures consisting of 37 (PCS37) and 50 genes, respectively, were used to categorize 9,947 PC patients into PCS and PAM50 classes. Enrichment of hallmark gene sets and luminal and basal marker gene expression were assessed in the same datasets. Finally, survival analysis was performed to compare PCS and PAM50 subtypes in terms of clinical outcomes.<h4>Results</h4>PCS and PAM50 subtypes show clear differential expression of PCS37 and PAM50 genes. While only three genes are shared in common between the two systems, there is some consensus between three subtype pairs (PCS1 versus Luminal B, PCS2 versus Luminal A, and PCS3 versus Basal) with respect to gene expression, cellular processes, and clinical outcomes. PCS categories displayed better separation of cellular processes and luminal and basal marker gene expression compared to PAM50. Although both PCS1 and Luminal B tumors exhibited the worst clinical outcomes, outcomes between aggressive and less aggressive subtypes were better defined in the PCS system, based on larger hazard ratios observed.<h4>Conclusion</h4>The PCS and PAM50 classification systems are similar in terms of molecular profiles and clinical outcomes. However, the PCS system exhibits greater separation in multiple clinical outcomes and provides better separation of prostate luminal and basal characteristics.
Project description:BACKGROUND: Breast cancer is a heterogeneous disease in terms of transcriptional aberrations; moreover, microarray gene expression profiles had defined 5 molecular subtypes based on certain intrinsic genes. This study aimed to evaluate the prediction consistency of breast cancer molecular subtypes from 3 distinct intrinsic gene sets (Sørlie 500, Hu 306 and PAM50) as well as clinical presentations of each molecualr subtype in Han Chinese population. METHODS: In all, 169 breast cancer samples (44 from Taiwan and 125 from China) of Han Chinese population were gathered, and the gene expression features corresponding to 3 distinct intrinsic gene sets (Sørlie 500, Hu 306 and PAM50) were retrieved for molecular subtype prediction. RESULTS: For Sørlie 500 and Hu 306 intrinsic gene set, mean-centring of genes and distance-weighted discrimination (DWD) remarkably reduced the number of unclassified cases. Regarding pairwise agreement, the highest predictive consistency was found between Hu 306 and PAM50. In all, 150 and 126 samples were assigned into identical subtypes by both Hu 306 and PAM50 genes, under mean-centring and DWD. Luminal B tended to show a higher nuclear grade and have more HER2 over-expression status than luminal A did. No basal-like breast tumours were ER positive, and most HER2-enriched breast tumours showed HER2 over-expression, whereas, only two-thirds of ER negativity/HER2 over-expression tumros were predicted as HER2-enriched molecular subtype. For 44 Taiwanese breast cancers with survival data, a better prognosis of luminal A than luminal B subtype in ER-postive breast cancers and a better prognosis of basal-like than HER2-enriched subtype in ER-negative breast cancers was observed. CONCLUSIONS: We suggest that the intrinsic signature Hu 306 or PAM50 be used for breast cancers in the Han Chinese population during molecular subtyping. For the prognostic value and decision making based on intrinsic subtypes, further prospective study with longer survival data is needed.
Project description:Breast cancer is one of the most aggressive malignant tumors in women. According to the expression differences of estrogen receptor, progesterone receptor, human epidermal growth factor receptor?2 (HER?2) and cell proliferation antigen Ki?67, breast cancer can be divided into four molecular subtypes: Luminal A, Luminal B, HER?2 overexpression and Basal?like. Yes?associated protein (YAP), a downstream effector of the Hippo pathway, is overexpressed in human cancers and is associated with proliferation, apoptosis, migration, invasion and resistance to chemotherapy drugs in breast cancer cells. Verteporfin (VP) is used as a photosensitizer in the treatment of neovascular macular degeneration. VP is also identified as an inhibitor of YAP/TEA domain transcription factor (TEAD) interaction in the absence of light activation. However, detailed structural information about VP and YAP interactions is relatively scarce and VP research targeting YAP in different molecular subtypes of breast cancer cells is also rare. The aims of the present study were to structurally describe the VP binding site in the YAP crystal structure and to verify the non?photoreactive VP effect targeting YAP on the migration of different molecular subtypes of breast cancer cells. The crystal structure of VP and YAP was calculated by AutoDock 4.2 and the result was illustrated using PyMOL. The non?photoactivated VP effect on the migration of Luminal A MCF?7, Luminal B BT?474 and triple?negative breast cancer BT?549 breast cancer cells was evaluated by wound healing and Transwell migration experiments. Results from molecular docking experiments demonstrated that VP could interact through hydrogen bonds and hydrophobic interactions with important YAP residues involved in TEADs binding (Gln82, Val84, Met86 and Arg89). Migration experiments revealed that the non?photoinduced VP could inhibit the migration of different molecular subtypes of breast cancer cells. The results of the present study indicated that VP may be a novel repositioned drug for breast cancer treatment in the future.
Project description:<h4>Background</h4>Many methodologies have been used in research to identify the "intrinsic" subtypes of breast cancer commonly known as Luminal A, Luminal B, HER2-Enriched (HER2-E) and Basal-like. The PAM50 gene set is often used for gene expression-based subtyping; however, surrogate subtyping using panels of immunohistochemical (IHC) markers are still widely used clinically. Discrepancies between these methods may lead to different treatment decisions.<h4>Methods</h4>We used the PAM50 RT-qPCR assay to expression profile 814 tumors from the GEICAM/9906 phase III clinical trial that enrolled women with locally advanced primary invasive breast cancer. All samples were scored at a single site by IHC for estrogen receptor (ER), progesterone receptor (PR), and Her2/neu (HER2) protein expression. Equivocal HER2 cases were confirmed by chromogenic in situ hybridization (CISH). Single gene scores by IHC/CISH were compared with RT-qPCR continuous gene expression values and "intrinsic" subtype assignment by the PAM50. High, medium, and low expression for ESR1, PGR, ERBB2, and proliferation were selected using quartile cut-points from the continuous RT-qPCR data across the PAM50 subtype assignments.<h4>Results</h4>ESR1, PGR, and ERBB2 gene expression had high agreement with established binary IHC cut-points (area under the curve (AUC) ≥ 0.9). Estrogen receptor positivity by IHC was strongly associated with Luminal (A and B) subtypes (92%), but only 75% of ER negative tumors were classified into the HER2-E and Basal-like subtypes. Luminal A tumors more frequently expressed PR than Luminal B (94% vs 74%) and Luminal A tumors were less likely to have high proliferation (11% vs 77%). Seventy-seven percent (30/39) of ER-/HER2+ tumors by IHC were classified as the HER2-E subtype. Triple negative tumors were mainly comprised of Basal-like (57%) and HER2-E (30%) subtypes. Single gene scoring for ESR1, PGR, and ERBB2 was more prognostic than the corresponding IHC markers as shown in a multivariate analysis.<h4>Conclusions</h4>The standard immunohistochemical panel for breast cancer (ER, PR, and HER2) does not adequately identify the PAM50 gene expression subtypes. Although there is high agreement between biomarker scoring by protein immunohistochemistry and gene expression, the gene expression determinations for ESR1 and ERBB2 status was more prognostic.
Project description:<h4>Background</h4>PAM50 breast cancer intrinsic subtyping adds prognostic information in early breast cancer; however, the role in metastatic disease is unclear. We aimed to identify PAM50 subtypes in primary tumors (PTs) and metastases to outline subtype changes and their prognostic role.<h4>Methods</h4>RNA was isolated from PTs, lymph node metastases (LNMs), and distant metastases (DMs) in metastatic breast cancer patients (<i>n</i> = 140) included in a prospective study (NCT01322893). Gene expression analyses were performed using the Breast Cancer 360 (BC360) assay from Nano-String. The subtype shifts were evaluated using McNemar and symmetry tests, and clinical outcomes were evaluated with log-rank tests and Cox regression.<h4>Results</h4>The PAM50 subtype changed in 25/59 of paired samples between PTs and LNMs (<i>P<sub>symmetry</sub></i> = 0.002), in 31/61 between PTs and DMs (<i>P<sub>symmetry</sub></i> < 0.001), and in 16/38 between LNMs and DMs (<i>P<sub>symmetry</sub></i> = 0.004). Shifts toward subtypes with worse outcomes were the most common. Patients with shifts from the luminal PT to non-luminal DM subtypes had worse progression-free survival compared to patients with a stable subtype (hazard ratio (HR): 2.3; 95% confidence interval (CI): 1.14-4.68, <i>p</i> = 0.02).<h4>Conclusion</h4>Strong evidence of PAM50 subtype shifts toward unfavorable subtypes were seen between PTs and metastatic samples. For patients with a shift in subtype from luminal PT to non-luminal DM, a worse prognosis was noted.